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Theory 19 Suffixes General

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Theory

Theory Intro

 1   Strokes

 2   Vowels

 3   Forming Outlines

 4   Circles

 5   Loops

 6   Hooks Intro

 7   Hooks R L

 8   Hooks N F V

 9   Shun Hook

10  Halving

11  Doubling

12  Hay Aspirate

13  W Forms

14  L Forms

15  R Forms

16  Imp/Imb

17  Ish

18  Prefixes

19  Suffixes General

20  Suffixes Contracted

Short Forms

SF Intro

SF List 1

SF List 2

SF List 3

SF List 4

Contractions

Contractions Intro

Contractions Main

Contractions Optional

Phrasing

1 Phrasing Intro & Contents list

2 Theory

3 Theory

4 Omission Part words

5 Omission Whole words

6 Miscellaneous

7 Miscellaneous

8 Intersections

Distinguishing Outlines

DO Intro

DO List 1 A-C

DO List 2 D-H

DO List 3 I-P

DO List 4 Q-Y

Vocabulary

Vocab Intro

Numbers

Punctuation

Word Lists

Text Lists from PDFs

 

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PAGE DATE 12 June 2011

An affix is a grammatical addition, attached to one end of a word, in order to expand or change its meaning:

  • At the beginning it is called a prefix.

  • At the end it is called suffix.

The suffixes on this page are written within the basic rules:

  • All the consonants and vowels of the suffix are written in the outline.

  • The suffix is only disjoined when a join is not possible.

  • These suffixes are vocalised as normal, even if disjoined.

SUFFIXES

 

1. -ing -ings -ingly

Stroke Ing where possible, and always medially.

Otherwise dot at end of stroke for -ing, dash for -ings, finally only.

-ingly disjoined if necessary.

2. -ly

Stroke Ell or L Hook or just add dot vowel.

3. -able -ably

Hooked BL.

Strokes Bee + Ell where the hooked BL cannot join.

4. -est -ist

Stee Loop.

Occasionally halved Ess, down or upwards.

5. -ess

Stroke Ess, to denote female version of a noun, where required for differentiation.

Otherwise use Circle S.

Stroke Ess preferred in some names.

6. -ism

Circle S + Em.

-nism has the Circle inside the En curve.

Occasionally Zee + Em.

7. -less

Only disjoined where necessary.

Not vocalised if disjoined.

8. -ness

Add the whole syllable even if the original word already ends in N.

 

"-lessness" is a contracted suffix, see Theory 20 page.


-1. -ing -ings -ingly

  • The default is stroke Ing, used where it can be written clearly. It only represents the sound of NG and so it needs the vowel sign when vocalising the outline. Add Circle S as normal.

  • The second method is a dot at the end point of the stroke, used where stroke Ing would be unclear, awkward or impossible to write. A dash, written at right angles to the end of the stroke, is used for the plural "-ings". It is written with a forwards (not backwards) movement wherever possible. Vertical dashes are written downwards.

  • The dot and dash represent the whole syllable (like the Con Dot does) so they are deemed to include the I vowel. This means that a vowel that comes immediately before the "-ing" is shown plain as normal, and does not become a diphone or triphone.

  • Stroke Ing is preferable to dot Ing. As the dot involves a pen lift and careful positioning, it is slightly slower than using the stroke.

Stroke Ing is used where it makes a good join generally after full-length thick strokes or making a good angle:

Pitman's New Era: buying rubbing assembling adding dying considering
buying rubbing assembling adding dying considering

Pitman's New Era: reading raging changing managing aching keying
reading raging changing managing aching keying

Pitman's New Era: making seeking liking drinking
 

making seeking liking drinking

Pitman's New Era: cutting scattering concreting concluding hiking
cutting scattering concreting concluding hiking

Pitman's New Era: sagging struggling staffing flying floating flattering
sagging struggling staffing flying floating flattering

Pitman's New Era: earthing frothing saying seeing icing assessing
earthing frothing saying seeing icing assessing

Pitman's New Era: easing showing ushering earning concerning discerning
easing showing ushering earning concerning discerning

Pitman's New Era: cashing dashing rushing aiming mowing swimming
cashing dashing rushing aiming mowing swimming

Pitman's New Era: framing hammering knowing noting honouring
framing hammering knowing noting honouring

Pitman's New Era: sunning sauntering ending sending needing
sunning sauntering ending sending needing

Pitman's New Era: laying relying selling letting lettering
laying relying selling letting lettering

Pitman's New Era: feeling ruling sorting breathing waiting heating yachting
feeling ruling sorting breathing waiting heating yachting

Pitman's New Era: penning painting pondering complaining combining binding
penning painting pondering complaining combining binding

Pitman's New Era: training tending tendering dining chaining chanting joining
training tending tendering dining chaining chanting joining

Pitman's New Era: engendering canning counting countering craning
engendering canning counting countering craning

Pitman's New Era: reclining grinning grounding fanning finding
reclining grinning grounding fanning finding

Pitman's New Era: refunding convening inventing preventing
refunding convening inventing preventing

Pitman's New Era: thinning meaning minding meandering
thinning meaning minding meandering

Pitman's New Era: testing contrasting dusting suggesting everlasting registering
testing contrasting dusting suggesting everlasting registering

Pitman's New Era: captioning petitioning partitioning conditioning auditioning
captioning petitioning partitioning conditioning auditioning

Pitman's New Era: auctioning sectioning vacationing motioning
auctioning sectioning vacationing motioning

Add Circle S:

Pitman's New Era: paintings readings findings lettings endings meanings
paintings readings findings lettings endings meanings

Top of page

Dot Ing is used:

(a) after Pee Tee Chay and downward Hay, to avoid changing from thin to thick without a clear angle. Dot Ing is deemed to include the I vowel of the suffix:

Pitman's New Era: paying stopping supplying splitting spraying plotting completing
paying stopping supplying splitting spraying plotting completing

Pitman's New Era: sweeping sleeping repeating hoping shopping shipping
sweeping sleeping repeating hoping shopping shipping

Pitman's New Era: mapping napping/knapping dropping equipping developing
mapping napping/knapping dropping equipping developing

Pitman's New Era: eating tying treating uttering tutoring staying stowing stating
eating tying
* treating uttering tutoring staying* stowing* stating

*Only the plain vowel sign is needed, and not a diphone.

Pitman's New Era: batting blotting bottling pottering getting jetting
batting blotting bottling pottering getting jetting

Pitman's New Era: existing insisting hesitating frustrating fretting reinstating
existing insisting hesitating frustrating fretting reinstating

Pitman's New Era: itching chewing chatting stitching patching pitching despatching fetching
itching chewing
*see note above chatting stitching patching pitching despatching fetching
Pitman's New Era: attaching stretching catching clutching sketching scratching matching
attaching stretching catching clutching sketching scratching matching

Pitman's New Era: leaching unlatching watching searching twitching hieing hoeing hewing
leaching unlatching watching searching twitching hieing
* hoeing* hewing* *see note above

In compound words where the outlines are joined together, dot Ing is never used medially and is replaced by stroke Ing:

Pitman's New Era: watering watering-place watering-pot dripping dripping-pan
watering watering-place watering-pot dripping dripping-pan

Pitman's New Era:
sleeping sleeping-sickness grappling grappling-iron

Pitman's New Era:
eating eating-house whipping whipping-cream whipping-post

If the compound word is written with two outlines, then the dot can remain, as it is still at the end of its own part of the outline:

Pitman's New Era: potting-shed sleeping-draught staying-power battering-ram
potting-shed sleeping-draught staying-power battering-ram

If there is a Circle S before the -ing, then Pee Tee and Chay can use stroke Ing, as the circle does the same job as a sharp angle, providing a clear transition between the two strokes:

Pitman's New Era: posing placing teasing choosing purchasing traipsing tripping
posing placing teasing choosing purchasing traipsing
compare tripping

Top of page

(b) Dot Ing is used after Ar and reversed FR VR FL VL, to avoid an insufficient angle and a change of curve direction within the outline:

Pitman's New Era: airing pouring/poring tiring storing wearing hearing freeing fretting
airing pouring/poring
* tiring storing wearing hearing freeing** fretting

*you pour a drink, you pore over a book     **No diphone, see asterisked note above

Pitman's New Era: covering hovering grovelling riffling ravelling
covering hovering grovelling riffling ravelling

(c) Halving a stroke means that it can no longer take the stroke Ing and so has to use the dot instead, in order to avoid joining strokes of unequal lengths without a sharp angle:

Pitman's New Era: buying bedding braying breeding blowing bleeding
buying bedding braying breeding blowing bleeding

Pitman's New Era: aiding doubting drying dreading jawing jading feeling fielding
aiding doubting drying dreading jawing jading feeling fielding

Pitman's New Era: mooing meeting madding motoring roaming remitting
mooing meeting madding motoring roaming remitting

Pitman's New Era: perming permitting promoting prompting plumbing plummeting
perming permitting promoting prompting plumbing plummeting

(d) Dot Ing is used where stroke Ing cannot be written well or at all:

After Stee and Ster loops:

Pitman's New Era: posting boasting costing gusting fasting investing frosting
posting boasting costing gusting fasting investing frosting

Pitman's New Era: thirsting assisting listing misting resting wasting hosting
thirsting assisting listing misting resting wasting hosting

Pitman's New Era: plastering blistering clustering sequestering fostering flustering
plastering blistering clustering sequestering fostering flustering

Pitman's New Era: mastering administering westering rostering bolstering upholstering
mastering administering westering rostering bolstering upholstering

After some instances of N Hook, V Hook or Shun where Ing is not easy or possible to join:

Pitman's New Era: raining surrendering reserving learning turning rafting winning wanting
raining surrendering reserving learning turning rafting winning wanting

Pitman's New Era: wandering weaving yawning yearning leaning landing laundering
wandering weaving yawning yearning leaning landing laundering

Pitman's New Era: shining shunning shunting enshrining freshening harshening
shining shunning shunting enshrining freshening harshening

Pitman's New Era: caving craving archiving crafting grieving engraving grafting
caving craving archiving crafting grieving engraving grafting


Pitman's New Era: cautioning occasioning apportioning rationing stationing
cautioning occasioning apportioning rationing stationing

Pitman's New Era: fashioning envisioning functioning malfunctioning sanctioning
fashioning envisioning functioning malfunctioning sanctioning

Pitman's New Era: positioning propositioning requisitioning
positioning propositioning requisitioning

After straight strokes with the NS circle:

Pitman's New Era: pouncing prancing dispensing recompensing bouncing bronzing tensing entrancing
pouncing prancing dispensing recompensing bouncing bronzing tensing entrancing

Pitman's New Era: distancing instancing dancing condensing chancing glancing ensconcing sequencing
distancing instancing dancing condensing chancing glancing ensconcing sequencing

Pitman's New Era: referencing conferencing experiencing rinsing wincing enhancing
referencing conferencing experiencing rinsing wincing enhancing

After LD and Ard:

Pitman's New Era: balding scalding scolding gilding folding scaffolding
balding scalding scolding gilding folding scaffolding

Pitman's New Era: yielding heralding moulding upholding beholding withholding
yielding heralding moulding upholding beholding withholding

Pitman's New Era: hoarding herding warding birding boarding fording affording
hoarding herding warding birding boarding fording affording

Pitman's New Era: cording/chording carding discarding stewarding retarding
cording/chording carding discarding stewarding retarding

Dot Ing is not used if the "ing" is not a suffix:

Pitman's New Era: ping spring ting string shopping spraying teeing straying
ping spring ting string compare shopping spraying teeing straying

In names, stroke Ing is often used in preference to Dot Ing, as long as a minimal angle can be achieved:

Pitman's New Era: Kettering Hutchings Harding Tooting Tring Ching
Kettering Hutchings Harding Tooting Tring Ching

Pitman's New Era: catering etchings herding tooting uttering itching
Compare
catering etchings herding tooting uttering itching

But the following use the dot/dash:

Pitman's New Era: Epping Wapping Yalding Spalding Fielding Hastings
Epping Wapping Yalding Spalding Fielding Hastings

Top of page

Dash Ings is used for the plural of those outlines that already use Dot Ing:

Pitman's New Era: plottings trappings cravings itchings leanings landings rantings
plottings trappings cravings itchings leanings landings rantings

Pitman's New Era: windings postings blusterings listings hustings meetings mutterings
windings postings blusterings listings hustings meetings mutterings

This cannot clash with an intervening third place vowel, which is struck through the end of the stroke:

Pitman's New Era: whirlpool ripplings couplings samplings
whirlpool
compare ripplings couplings samplings

The original outline is generally not altered to accommodate one or other of the "ing" suffixes, it will just use whichever suffix method is best suited:

Pitman's New Era: cleansing cleaning summonsing summoning
cleansing cleaning summonsing summoning

"cleansing" "summonsing" and similar words do not expand the hook into a stroke En to permit joining a stroke Ing, but they retain their form and use the dot. This is because there is a choice of methods, unlike when forming other derivatives and attachments e.g. glancingly.

An outline may change to permit the joining of -ingly (as well as some of the other prefixes) because there is no choice of method to represent that particular suffix, see below.

The following outlines change the direction of Ell in order to achieve similar motion of the curves, under the rules for using stroke Ell (similar motion and vowel indication) and not because of the "ing" suffix:

Pitman's New Era: lose/loose losing/loosing lease leasing ail ailing oil oiling
lose/loose
* losing/loosing, lease leasing, ail ailing but oil oiling to retain the joined diphthong

*lose (Z sound) = to suffer loss or defeat;  loose (S zound) = untighten, slack

The following use proximity, under the "con/com" rules, as a quick way of representing the word "come" and produces a more distinctive outline than if Dot Ing were used:

Pitman's New Era: becoming welcoming incoming overcoming
becoming welcoming incoming overcoming

Top of page

-ing after short forms and contractions

(a) Short forms mostly follow the above rules, and only the stroke Ing is vocalised:

Pitman's New Era: speaking spiriting peopling surprising balancing trading wording
speaking spiriting peopling surprising balancing trading wording

Pitman's New Era: chairing cheering having pleasuring wishing schooling
chairing cheering having pleasuring wishing schooling

Pitman's New Era: calling equalling caring going guarding
calling equalling caring going* guarding *See asterisked note below

Pitman's New Era: nearing influencing owning handing
nearing influencing owning handing

Short forms do not use stroke Ing where the outline does not contain the consonants that immediately precede the "ing" sound, even though stroke Ing might join well. The examples below fall into this category, and they take Dot Ing instead. The purpose is to preserve the readability of the outline and avoid ambiguity if stroke Ing were used in these cases, one might try to read the Ing immediately after the consonant stroke before it, which would lead to errors in reading back e.g. "aching" instead of "coming, and nonsense words like "misging" "inscring" "thang":
Pitman's New Era: coming comings giving misgivings inscribing thanking thinking
coming comings giving misgivings inscribing thanking thinking

Pitman's New Era: subjecting remembering numbering doctoring delivering remarking
subjecting remembering
* numbering* doctoring delivering remarking

*These two use the dot for clarity, rather than absence of preceding consonants in the outline.

Pitman's New Era: going giving

Note especially the pair: going* giving

*As the short form "go" is deemed to include the O vowel, only the I dot is needed against the stroke Ing, when vocalising

With the outlines for "pleasuring" and "influencing", the consonants written are those immediately before the ing, therefore adding stroke Ing presents no problems. The opposite is the case with "giving" where the V is not shown in the outline, and if you just added a stroke Ing, you might read it as some other word or think that you have written "going" out of position.

These short forms already represent the "ing" syllable:

Pitman's New Era: building according during owing
building according during owing

(b) Contractions mostly use Dot Ing, for the same reason as with short forms above, i.e. to keep them looking like contractions (the following is not a complete list):

Pitman's New Era: acknowledging advertising amalgamating arbitrating cross-examining discharging
acknowledging advertising amalgamating arbitrating cross-examining discharging

Pitman's New Era: informing interesting organising publishing representing
informing interesting organising publishing representing

Stroke Ing is only used where the contraction ends in its own stroke Ing or a Circle S:

Pitman's New Era: distinguishing extinguishing relinquishing
distinguishing extinguishing relinquishing

Pitman's New Era: familiarising characterising, notwithstanding
familiarising characterising,
notwithstanding already includes the "ing" syllable.

Top of page

-ingly

This is always represented by strokes Ing + Ell, as Dot Ing is never used medially:

Pitman's New Era: longingly strikingly fleetingly knowing showingly
longingly strikingly fleetingly knowing showingly

Pitman's New Era: feelingly ponderingly sorrowingly lovingly troublingly
feelingly ponderingly sorrowingly lovingly troublingly

The original outline may change to avoid having to disjoin the suffix (this is different from the above rule where outlines do not change to accommodate an "-ing" suffix):

Pitman's New Era: sparing sparingly staring staringly boring boringly
sparing sparingly staring staringly boring boringly

Pitman's New Era: boasting boastingly glancing glancingly
boasting boastingly glancing glancingly

Pitman's New Era: wondering wonderingly lasting lastingly according accordingly
wondering wonderingly lasting
lastingly
* according** but accordingly   **Short form

*This particular joining of Ing is tolerated, as it is better than a disjoin

Disjoined in other outlines that use Dot Ing:

Pitman's New Era: hesitatingly frustratingly frettingly splutteringly
hesitatingly frustratingly frettingly splutteringly

Pitman's New Era: grovellingly doubtingly fetchingly unerringly
grovellingly doubtingly fetchingly
but note unerringly

Top of page

2. -ly

Up or downward Ell, as per normal Ell rules (see Theory 14 L forms page):

Pitman's New Era: happily rapidly badly truly sadly loudly richly
happily rapidly badly truly sadly loudly richly

Pitman's New Era: hugely strangely likely keenly secondly consequently
hugely strangely likely keenly secondly consequently

Pitman's New Era: goodly grandly stubbornly roundly safely lovely
goodly grandly stubbornly roundly safely lovely

Pitman's New Era: earthly monthly seemly madly promptly
earthly monthly seemly madly promptly

Pitman's New Era: fairly freely slowly lately politely wetly hotly
fairly freely slowly lately politely wetly hotly

Pitman's New Era: icily easily visually rarely thoroughly
icily easily visually rarely thoroughly

Pitman's New Era: only commonly nearly nicely honestly nightly soundly
only commonly nearly nicely honestly nightly soundly

Pitman's New Era: immensely falsely strongly completely fitly vividly chiefly
immensely falsely strongly completely fitly vividly chiefly

Top of page

An N Hook may change to stroke En to enable the Ell to be joined:

Pitman's New Era: open openly plain plainly prince princely
open openly plain plainly prince princely

Pitman's New Era: tense tensely dense densely sudden suddenly
tense tensely dense densely sudden suddenly

Pitman's New Era: man manly woman womanly attentively
man manly woman womanly attentively

Pitman's New Era: human humanly humane humanely
human humanly
* humane humanely*

*need the second vowel inserting, as both outlines now occupy 3rd position

Disjoin if necessary, using upward Ell. When disjoined, the Ell represents the whole suffix including the vowel, so no dot vowel is necessary:

Pitman's New Era: finely evenly vainly heavenly slovenly
finely evenly vainly heavenly
* slovenly*    *Distinguishing pair

Pitman's New Era: sternly tenderly compliantly flippantly blindly
sternly tenderly compliantly flippantly blindly

Pitman's New Era: competently constantly instantly distantly confidently prudently
competently constantly instantly distantly confidently prudently

Pitman's New Era: obediently persistently reluctantly vehemently
obediently persistently reluctantly vehemently

Pitman's New Era: faintly fondly friendly fervently
faintly fondly friendly fervently

Pitman's New Era: jointly urgently diligently negligently
jointly urgently diligently negligently

Pitman's New Era: gentle gently genteel genteelly
But gentle gently genteel genteelly

Use L Hook where convenient:

Pitman's New Era: deeply cheaply meekly biweekly weekly
deeply cheaply
meekly biweekly (weekly)

Pitman's New Era: blankly frankly thickly bleakly
blankly frankly thickly bleakly

Pitman's New Era: briefly bravely impressively positively creatively roughly gruffly
briefly bravely impressively positively creatively roughly gruffly

Pitman's New Era: darkly briskly quickly likely sleekly
But darkly briskly quickly likely sleekly

If there is already an L Hooked stroke, just add the vowel sign:

Pitman's New Era: ably possibly tickly incredibly enjoyably irritably unavoidably
ably possibly tickly incredibly enjoyably irritably unavoidably

Pitman's New Era: locally politically critically medically nominally originally
locally politically critically medically nominally originally

Pitman's New Era: hopefully pitifully powerfully fearfully beautifully delightfully doubtfully
hopefully pitifully powerfully fearfully beautifully delightfully doubtfully

Where the root word already ends in a stroke Ell, there are several ways of representing -ly: changing to upward Ell, or just adding the dot vowel, and a few outlines add an additional upward Ell see L Forms/3. Vowel Indication/(b) Finally for further explanation and examples.

Contractions with "-ly" Most contractions have the "-ly included in the set of words that the basic outline represents, although a disjoined unvocalised Ell could be added as well if it was felt necessary for clarity:

Pitman's New Era: especial/especially financial/financially efficient/efficiently/efficiency
Already included:
especial/especially financial/financially efficient/efficiently/efficiency

Be aware that some speakers omit the "-ly" in more lax speech e.g. "He worked very efficient." If it is not appropriate to correct the grammar, you should use the wavy underline as a reminder for when you are transcribing.

Add stroke Ell to these contractions:

Pitman's New Era: regularly irregularly peculiarly arbitrarily characteristically
regularly* irregularly* peculiarly* arbitrarily characteristically

*The dictionary gives no dot vowel after the Ell for these three, but all others take the dot.

Pitman's New Era: immediately objectively identically defective defectively
immediately objectively, identically
just adds the dot, defective but defectively in full

A disjoined Ell written to any contraction or short form would be perfectly readable, to prevent hesitation when writing at speed, with the intention of consulting the dictionary or textbook later on.

Contractions are dealt with full in the Contractions section.

Top of page

3. -able -ably

Generally hooked BL. An Ar may change to Ray to reflect the vowel that comes after, as well as to prevent the outline descending too far. Add the dot vowel for "-ably":

Pitman's New Era: adore adorable adorably bearable admirable operable
adore adorable adorably bearable admirable operable

Pitman's New Era: tolerable acceptable inimitable recyclable despicable
tolerable acceptable inimitable recyclable
* despicable   *suggested outline, not in dictionary.

Pitman's New Era: flammable manageable changeable honourable reliable
flammable manageable changeable honourable reliable

Pitman's New Era: disagreeable valuable voluble amiable measurable
disagreeable valuable voluble amiable measurable

Pitman's New Era: presentable preventable negotiable appreciable pitiable
presentable preventable negotiable appreciable pitiable

Pitman's New Era: insatiable unsociable justifiable certifiable identifiable
insatiable unsociable justifiable certifiable identifiable

Pitman's New Era: unconscionable sanctionable sanction friable enviable
unconscionable sanctionable (sanction) friable enviable

Pitman's New Era: predictably preferably undeniably amicable
predictably preferably undeniably amicably

Pitman's New Era: curable incurable securable procurable
These exceptions keep the Ar: curable incurable securable procurable. This may possibly be to prevent a clash e.g. carriable.

Full strokes Bee + Ell, if the hooked BL cannot be joined. Add the dot vowel for "-ably":

Pitman's New Era: countable accountable unaccountable lamentable
countable accountable unaccountable lamentable

Pitman's New Era: rent rentable actionable impressionable
rent rentable actionable impressionable

Pitman's New Era: fashionable fissionable adjustable detestable
fashionable fissionable adjustable detestable

Pitman's New Era: contestable contrastable surmountable insurmountable mountable
contestable contrastable surmountable
but insurmountable mountable

Pitman's New Era: unmentionable remarkable/remarkably probable/probably/probability
unmentionable remarkable/remarkably
* but probable/probably/probability* already includes the suffix   *Contractions

After short forms:

Pitman's New Era: believable buildable deliverable  giveable/givable speakable unspeakable
believable buildable deliverable
but giveable/givable speakable unspeakable

Top of page

4. -est -ist

(a) Stee Loop wherever possible:

Pitman's New Era: bare barest tightest saddest blackest biggest safest iciest
bare barest tightest saddest blackest biggest safest iciest

Pitman's New Era: rashest merriest airiest warmest soonest lowest
rashest merriest airiest warmest soonest lowest

Pitman's New Era: fewest pianist violinist behaviourist specialist economist
fewest pianist violinist behaviourist specialist economist

Pitman's New Era: largest greatest nearest very veriest
Add to short forms: largest greatest
* nearest but very veriest   *Alternative short form

(a) Halved Ess:

Where Stee Loop cannot be written, use a halved Ess. In a few instances this has to be written upwards and is the only instance of a stroke being written directly upwards. This is no problem, as, being half size, it is similar to writing the upward-travelling part of a Ses circle or Shun Hook. In some sets of words, the endings -er -est -ish can look very similar if not carefully written:

Pitman's New Era: abolitionist contortionist demolitionist exclusionist exhibitionist
abolitionist contortionist demolitionist exclusionist
* exhibitionist

*The halved Ess is the first up/downstroke and so that is the one resting on the line, despite being last stroke of the outline.

Pitman's New Era: receptionist perfectionist reconstructionist illusionist positivist
receptionist perfectionist reconstructionist illusionist positivist

Pitman's New Era: conservationist preservationist revisionist creationist
conservationist preservationist revisionist creationist

Pitman's New Era: impressionist expressionist expansionist nutritionist
impressionist expressionist expansionist nutritionist

Pitman's New Era: plainest earnest sternest toughest kindest grandest hardest shortest
plainest earnest sternest toughest kindest grandest hardest shortest
*   *Using short form

"Highest" is a derivative of "high" so keeps the downward Hay:

Pitman's New Era: high highest heist newest next
high highest
compare heist, newest to distinguish from next*   *Short form

The suffix "-sist -sest" is written as follows wherever possible:

Pitman's New Era: pharmacist publicist biblicist romanticist aerodynamicist
pharmacist publicist biblicist romanticist aerodynamicist

Pitman's New Era: choicer choicest closest closish crossest grossest coarsest
choicer choicest closest closish
* crossest grossest coarsest

*Consider inserting vowel before Ish

Pitman's New Era: fiercest hoarser hoarsest horsy horsiest loosest wisest
fiercest hoarser hoarsest horsy horsiest loosest wisest

Pitman's New Era: scarcer scarcest false falsest consist consistent
scarcer scarcest false falsest consist consistent

Pitman's New Era: spice spicier spicy spiciest raciest
spice spicier spicy spiciest raciest

Pitman's New Era: sauce sauced saucer saucier sauciest saucy
sauce sauced saucer saucier sauciest saucy

In the above, the Circle S provides a clear, fast and easy transition between the strokes. The examples below using Ess and Stee Loop make forming derivatives easier:

Pitman's New Era: classicist racist empiricist exorcist historicist
classicist
* racist** empiricist exorcist* historicist *See derivatives below

**Suggested outline, not in dictionary, but based on the other examples in this line

Pitman's New Era: physicist phoneticist geneticist lyricist fantasist romancist
physicist phoneticist geneticist lyricist fantasist romancist

Pitman's New Era: dense densest nicer nicest incest incestuous
dense densest nicer nicest incest
but incestuous

See also Theory 4 Circles/Ses for words like "exist insist accessed processed" where it is not a suffix.

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5. -ess

This suffix denotes the female version of a noun.

In the following, stroke Ess is used (rather than Circle S) so that it does not look like a plural of the root word, and also makes it clear that there is an extra syllable:

Pitman's New Era: heirs heiress heiresses manageress countess Jewess
heirs heiress heiresses manageress countess Jewess

Pitman's New Era: princess deaconess vicaress prophetess murderess archeress
princess deaconess vicaress prophetess murderess archeress

The following examples have a clear difference between the plural and the female versions, so do not need to use the stroke Ess:

Pitman's New Era: stewards stewardess shepherds shepherdess authors authoress
stewards stewardess shepherds shepherdess authors authoress

Pitman's New Era: barons baroness emperors empress lions lioness
barons baroness
* emperors empress lions lioness   *Compare with barrenness

Pitman's New Era: governors governess mayors mayoress adulterers adulteress
governors* governess** mayors mayoress adulterers adulteress

*Using contraction   **In full with R Hook on the Vee, not using contraction

Pitman's New Era: hunters huntress hosts hostess caterers cateress
hunters huntress hosts hostess caterers cateress

Pitman's New Era: priests priestess sculptors sculptress tempters temptress
priests priestess sculptors sculptress tempters temptress

Pitman's New Era: enchanters enchantress giants giantess seducers seductress
enchanters enchantress giants giantess seducers seductress

Pitman's New Era: masters mistress seamsters seamstress songsters songstress
masters mistress seamsters seamstress songsters songstress

Pitman's New Era: abbots abbess dukes duchess
abbots abbess dukes duchess

A few outlines have the same outline for both the plural and the female version, after a hooked stroke and where there is no extra syllable added. In these you should consider inserting the last vowel:

Pitman's New Era: actress benefactress tigress waitress
actress benefactress tigress waitress

Pitman's New Era: actors benefactors tigers waiters
actors benefactors tigers waiters

I have avoided calling the root words the "male" version as they are commonly used to cover either or both, as many of the "-ess" variants are falling out of use or becoming more narrowed in their meaning.

A few other words use stroke Ess to give clearer outlines:

Pitman's New Era: Mrs/missis/missus Misses Moses Jesus Jews
Mrs/missis/missus to distinguish from Misses, Moses, Jesus compare Jews

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6. -ism

Circle S + Em wherever it can join:

Pitman's New Era: escapism tropism cubism snobbism malapropism
escapism tropism cubism snobbism malapropism

Pitman's New Era: absenteeism truism altruism autism conservatism
absenteeism truism altruism autism conservatism

Pitman's New Era: egotism faddism hybridism neologism
egotism faddism hybridism neologism

Pitman's New Era: catechism monarchism anarchism
catechism monarchism anarchism

Pitman's New Era: emotionalism idealism realism capitalism
emotionalism idealism realism capitalism

Pitman's New Era: surrealism pluralism materialism nationalism
surrealism pluralism materialism nationalism

Pitman's New Era: vandalism optimism euphemism extremism
vandalism optimism euphemism extremism

Pitman's New Era: legalism heroism naturism barbarism
legalism heroism naturism barbarism

Pitman's New Era: secularism cynicism classicism exorcism
secularism cynicism classicism racism
* exorcism   *Suggested outline, not in dictionary

Pitman's New Era: criticism scepticism solecism ostracism
criticism scepticism solecism ostracism

Pitman's New Era: witticism narcissism stoicism
witticism narcissism stoicism

Pitman's New Era: dogmatism schematism patriotism favouritism
dogmatism schematism patriotism favouritism   These cannot show the I vowel of -ism as there is nowhere for it to go, due to the halving.

The following have to make an awkward change of curve direction, something avoided wherever possible. The circle is written in the direction it would take if the two strokes were straight ones i.e. outside the angle that they would make. Do not write a circle going back on itself, another ungainly movement which is restricted to a few instances of Hay (Theory 12 page) within an outline, and slightly less awkwardly in words like disagree (Theory 18 page) to indicate an R Hook:

Pitman's New Era: pacifism alcoholism colonialism racialism aphorism
pacifism alcoholism colonialism racialism aphorism

Where Circle S + Em is not convenient or possible, strokes Zee + Em are used (generally after hooks):

Pitman's New Era: mechanism organism paganism modernism humanism
mechanism organism paganism modernism humanism

Pitman's New Era: determinism sectarianism Wesleyanism authoritarianism
determinism sectarianism Wesleyanism authoritarianism

Pitman's New Era: impressionism perfectionism divisionism revolutionism
impressionism perfectionism divisionism revolutionism

Pitman's New Era: ransom lonesome
Compare the above with ransom lonesome
* where the S is written inside the N Hook,  there being no vowel after the N. This formation is not used for "-nism".

*More examples on Theory N F V Hooks page

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En + S + Em The Circle S is written inside the En:

Pitman's New Era: anachronism communism chauvinism
anachronism communism chauvinism

Pitman's New Era: galvanism journalism religionism
galvanism journalism
* religionism   *Alternative contraction

Pitman's New Era: Puritanism creationism creation
Puritanism creationism (creation)

Compare the above with compound words, where the Circle S is written inside the curve it belongs to, thus reflecting where the syllable breaks:

Pitman's New Era: non-smoker unsmiling unseam unseemly
 

N-SM: non-smoker unsmiling unseam unseemly

Pitman's New Era: unsymptomatic unsympathetic noisome handsome
unsymptomatic unsympathetic
* noisome** handsome

*Retains first position of the contraction   **noy/annoy+some, not derived from "noise"

Pitman's New Era: unsmart unsummoned pianissimo
unsmart unsummoned pianissimo

Pitman's New Era: Norseman newsman newsmonger nursemaid
NS-M:
Norseman newsman newsmonger nursemaid

Pitman's New Era: misname misnomer enormousness venomousness
MS-N: misname misnomer enormousness venomousness

-ism can be added to a contraction:

Pitman's New Era: commercialism reformism republicanism subjectivism
commercialism reformism republicanism
* subjectivism   *Choice of contractions

Pitman's New Era: magnetism enthusiasm
magnetism enthusiasm need no suffix.

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7. -less

Ell + Circle S, as per normal rules:

Pitman's New Era: priceless hopeless regardless rainless countless groundless
priceless hopeless regardless rainless countless groundless

Pitman's New Era: landless relentless talentless childless wordless
landless relentless talentless childless
* wordless*   *Using short forms

Pitman's New Era: stainless senseless scentless soundless
stainless senseless scentless soundless

Disjoin if necessary, in which case it might be prudent to insert the E vowel, to prevent it looking like "-lessness" (on Theory 20 Suffixes Contracted page) which is always disjoined and never vocalised:

Pitman's New Era: friendless frontless ambitionless motionless
friendless frontless ambitionless
but motionless

The outline may change from hook or loop to full strokes, to enable the Ell to be joined:

Pitman's New Era: painless brainless moonless roofless waveless
painless brainless moonless roofless waveless

Pitman's New Era: pointless dauntless boundless mindless
pointless dauntless boundless mindless

If the original outline uses Stee Loop, it may omit the lightly sounded T to enable the Ell to be joined:

Pitman's New Era: restless rustless trustless listless costless causeless
restless rustless trustless listless
but costless to distinguish from causeless

Add the whole suffix, even if the outline already ends in a stroke Ell pronunciation generally reflects the two L sounds:

Pitman's New Era: soulless skill-less nail-less vowel-less
*soulless skill-less nail-less vowel-less

*See also L Forms/3. Vowel Indication/(b) Finally for further explanation and examples.

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8. -ness

En + Circle S, as per normal theory:

Pitman's New Era: happiness business rightness richness rigidness
happiness business rightness richness rigidness

Pitman's New Era: slowness willingness wilderness tenderness
slowness willingness wilderness tenderness

Pitman's New Era: airiness laziness weariness looseness loose
airiness laziness weariness looseness (loose)

Pitman's New Era: shortness coldness dearness togetherness
Add to short forms and contractions:
shortness coldness dearness togetherness

Add the whole suffix even if there is already a stroke En or N Hook at the end of the original word:

Pitman's New Era: openness plainness rottenness cleanness suddenness
openness plainness rottenness cleanness suddenness

Pitman's New Era: outspokenness thinness sternness evenness meanness
outspokenness thinness sternness evenness meanness

Pitman's New Era: barrenness stubbornness foreignness modernness
barrenness stubbornness foreignness modernness

Pitman's New Era: roundness goldenness alienness frozenness brazenness
roundness goldenness
* alienness frozenness brazenness   *Using short form

Pitman's New Era: wantonness commonness uncommonness uncertainness
wantonness commonness uncommonness uncertainness

Pitman's New Era: Guinness McGuinness
In the names Guinness McGuinness it is not a suffix, so only one stroke En is needed

The final hook or loop may need to change to full stroke to allow the En to be joined:

Pitman's New Era: lean leanness sullenness sereneness slenderness
lean leanness sullenness sereneness
but slenderness to retain the doubling

Pitman's New Era: moist moistness august augustness fast fastness vastness
moist moistness august augustness fast fastness vastness

Disjoin if necessary (lack of angle, generally after halved stroke):

Pitman's New Era: aptness ineptness corruptness abruptness completeness badness
aptness ineptness corruptness abruptness completeness badness

Pitman's New Era: tightness straightness indebtedness deadness promptness tiredness largeness
tightness straightness indebtedness deadness promptness tiredness largeness
*

*Using short form

There is no special suffix for -liness, just add "-ness" to the existing outline:

Pitman's New Era: brotherliness chilliness cleanliness costliness
brotherliness chilliness cleanliness costliness

Pitman's New Era: cowardliness disorderliness earliness surliness
cowardliness disorderliness earliness surliness

Pitman's New Era: wholeness oiliness silliness steeliness lowliness loneliness
wholeness oiliness silliness steeliness lowliness loneliness

Pitman's New Era: liveliness manliness womanliness neighbourliness
liveliness manliness womanliness neighbourliness

Pitman's New Era: unsightliness timeliness unseemliness worldliness
unsightliness timeliness unseemliness worldliness

Sometimes the -ly is disjoined out of necessity, making it look like a special disjoined suffix, which it is not:

Pitman's New Era: friendliness gentlemanliness heavenliness slovenliness
friendliness gentlemanliness heavenliness
but slovenliness*   *See asterisked note above

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