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Theory 18 Prefixes

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Theory

Theory Intro

 1   Strokes

 2   Vowels

 3   Forming Outlines

 4   Circles

 5   Loops

 6   Hooks Intro

 7   Hooks R L

 8   Hooks N F V

 9   Shun Hook

10  Halving

11  Doubling

12  Hay Aspirate

13  W Forms

14  L Forms

15  R Forms

16  Imp/Imb

17  Ish

18  Prefixes

19  Suffixes General

20  Suffixes Contracted

Short Forms

SF Intro

SF List 1

SF List 2

SF List 3

SF List 4

Contractions

Contractions Intro

Contractions Main

Contractions Optional

Phrasing

1 Phrasing Intro & Contents list

2 Theory

3 Theory

4 Omission Part words

5 Omission Whole words

6 Miscellaneous

7 Miscellaneous

8 Intersections

Distinguishing Outlines

DO Intro

DO List 1 A-C

DO List 2 D-H

DO List 3 I-P

DO List 4 Q-Y

Vocabulary

Vocab Intro

Numbers

Punctuation

Word Lists

Text Lists from PDFs

 

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PAGE DATE 16 January 2015

An affix is a grammatical addition, attached to one end of a word, in order to expand or change its meaning:

  • At the beginning it is called a prefix

  • At the end it is called a suffix

  • The outlines take their position from the first vowel in the prefix, with the exception of those using con dot, which take their position from the next vowel. Prefixed short forms and contractions mostly retain their original position.

PREFIXES

SUMMARY

1. con- com- cum- cog-

  • Dot at head of stroke, or proximity

  • Some words in full

  • Outline placed according to the vowel after the initial con- com-

  • Initial cum- cog- in full, and outline placed as normal, according to the first vowel sound.

2. accom-

  • Stroke Kay, some joined, some disjoined

3. magna- magne- magni-

  • Disjoined Em

  • In full if the magn- is followed by other vowels

4. in- un-

  • Stroke En

  • Small initial hook for "in-" before SKR STR and upward Hay, if not a negative

5. imm- inn- unn- -ill- irr-

  • M & N: Repeat stroke to distinguish between pairs

  • L & R: Use downward version or repeat the stroke to distinguish between pairs

6. inter- intro-

  • Doubled En

  • inter- may be vocalised, intro- never vocalised

  • Intro is occasionally written En + TR, with vocalisation as normal

7. self- self-con-

  • Small circle in 2nd vowel position

  • Small circle in con dot position

8. trans-

  • Full strokes

  • Sometimes En omitted

9. anti- ante-

  • Halved En

  • En + Tee if clearer

10. super- supra-

  • Always vocalise supra

11. dis-

  • Generally only one S shown for diss-, with three exceptions

12. mis-

  • Disjoin if necessary

  • Circle Ses is used to indicate the double S in miss- for readability

13. for- fore-
  • For- uses hooked FR, reversed if necessary, and first place thin dash vowel

  • Fore- uses Eff and Ar, occasionally FR, and second place thick dash vowel

14. non-
  • En + N hook where it can join, otherwise En + En.

  • En + N hook is sometimes disjoined with short forms and contractions

 

1. CON- COM- CUM- COG-

(a) Dot Initial con/com is represented by a dot written at the head of the stroke:

  • Place it exactly at the head of the stroke, and not slightly to one side or the other where it might be mistaken for a first place vowel sign.

  • The vowel that comes after the con is the one that decides the position of the stroke. As there are so many con/com words, this is an extra aid to recognition.

  • The dot represents the whole of the syllable do not write an extra stroke Em or En just because the longhand has two of that letter.

  • The con dot is not omitted in the way that vowel dots are omitted at will.

Pitman's New Era: compose comparison comparative compatible competition compress
compose comparison comparative compatible competition compress

Pitman's New Era: complain complicated comprehend compute computed computer

complain complicated comprehend compute computed computer

Pitman's New Era: conspire combat combine combination committee contest contrive
conspire combat combine combination committee contest contrive

Pitman's New Era: container commuter control contract contribute continue contemporary

container commuter control contract contribute continue contemporary

Pitman's New Era: conceit Constance constant construe constrain construction constriction
conceit Constance constant construe constrain construction constriction

Pitman's New Era: constitute constituted constitution condemn condition conditional conduit
constitute constituted constitution condemn condition conditional conduit

Pitman's New Era: condense concede consider commodity commodore congeal conjoin conjugation
condense concede consider commodity commodore congeal conjoin conjugation

Pitman's New Era: conjecture connect connection concave concussion concoction
conjecture connect connection concave concussion concoction

Pitman's New Era: commix concur concrete concord conclude conclusion consecutive
commix concur concrete concord conclude conclusion consecutive

Pitman's New Era: conscript congress Congreve congratulate congregate
conscript congress Congreve congratulate congregate

Pitman's New Era: conglomeration confuse confide confirm conflict
conglomeration confuse confide confirm conflict

Pitman's New Era: convey connive convention convenient
convey connive convention convenient

Pitman's New Era: conscious conscientious concession consist consistent comestible
conscious conscientious concession consist consistent comestible

Pitman's New Era: commemorate commemorative commeasurable consume consumer
commemorate commemorative commeasurable consume consumer

Pitman's New Era: common commonsense common-law commoner commune communism
common commonsense common-law commoner commune communism

Pitman's New Era: consign consent consensus consonant commend command commander
consign consent consensus consonant commend command commander

Pitman's New Era: commence comment commentary concentrate concentration console conceal
commence comment commentary concentrate concentration console conceal

Pitman's New Era: conciliation constellation concern conurbation conserve conservative conservation
conciliation constellation concern conurbation conserve conservative conservation

Pitman's New Era: concert consortium consternation consequence consequently conquest
concert consortium consternation consequence consequently conquest

Pitman's New Era: convert converted converse conversation confront affront
convert converted converse conversation
* confront to distinguish from affront

*Although there is no vowel before, these 4 use the left (anticlockwise) version of the hooked stroke VR to allow easier derivatives, but "confront" and "afront" follow the normal rule.

A longhand com or con may be pronounced "cum" or "cun", but this cannot be indicated in the outline:

Pitman's New Era: comfort comfortable compass company constable compassion companion constabulary
comfort comfortable compass company constable
but compassion companion constabulary are pronounced with short O

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(b) Proximity (=nearness, juxtaposition) Medial con/com is shown by writing the strokes before and after it close together, instead of using a dot. This is exactly the same as disjoining, but for a different reason:

  • Proximity: writing the parts near to each other in order to signify con/com/cum/cog. The second part of the outline is generally level with or slightly tucked under the first part. With some stroke combinations (chiefly after Pee Bee Tee Dee) it may be possible to also indicate the vowel of the second part by writing that in position as well, but not at the expense of keeping the two close together.

  • Disjoining: writing the parts of an outline near to each other because (a) they cannot be joined satisfactorily, or (b) detaching a portion of the outline to signify another suffix, e.g. "-mental" "-ality" "-lessness". Its name reflects the fact that the parts would be joined if they could, or were joined to start with.

When using proximity, the outlines take their position from the first vowel of the word, as normal.

In the following, the initial prefix is the first up or downstroke, so that is the one that takes its rightful position in regard to the line:

Pitman's New Era: decompose decompression decontaminate discontinue discomfort
decompose decompression decontaminate discontinue discomfort

Pitman's New Era: disconnect disconcerting ill-concealed ill-conceived ill-considered malcontent

disconnect disconcerting ill-concealed ill-conceived ill-considered malcontent

Pitman's New Era: overconfident overcompensate preconceive preconception precondition
overconfident overcompensate preconceive preconception precondition

Pitman's New Era: recompense recommend recommendation reconcile reconnoitre recondite
recompense recommend
recommendation reconcile reconnoitre recondite

Pitman's New Era: recombine recondition reconsider reconstruct recommit reconnect recommence
recombine recondition
reconsider reconstruct recommit reconnect recommence

Pitman's New Era: subconscious subcommittee subcontract subcontinent
subconscious subcommittee
subcontract subcontinent

Pitman's New Era: well-conducted well-constructed well-connected well-concealed
well-conducted well-constructed well-connected well-concealed

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In the following, the initial prefix is a horizontal stroke. The first up or downstroke comes somewhere after the con-, so that is the stroke that is written in position in regard to the line. The position of the whole outline is still decided by the first vowel sound of the word, not the vowel that follows that particular up or downstroke (see asterisked examples below):

Pitman's New Era: incompetent incomplete  incomparable incompatible incombustible
incompetent incomplete  incomparable
incompatible incombustible

Pitman's New Era: inconspicuous incontinent inconsistent inconclusive incongruous incongruously
inconspicuous incontinent inconsistent
inconclusive incongruous incongruously

Pitman's New Era: incommunicable inconsequential inconceivable encompass

incommunicable* inconsequential* inconceivable encompass

*With these two, the first up or downstroke is the very last one, but the outline is still placed according to the first vowel.

Pitman's New Era: excommunicate uncompromising uncomplaining uncompleted uncomplicated
excommunicate uncompromising
uncomplaining uncompleted uncomplicated

Pitman's New Era: uncommitted unconditionally unconnected unconscious uncommon unconcerned
uncommitted unconditionally unconnected unconscious uncommon unconcerned

Pitman's New Era: misconceive misconstrue misconduct semi-conductor semi-conscious semi-complete
misconceive
misconstrue misconduct semi-conductor semi-conscious semi-complete

Pitman's New Era: non-committal non-compliance non-combatant non-conductor
non-committal non-compliance
non-combatant non-conductor

Pitman's New Era: non-content non-consent non-conformist
non-content non-consent
non-conformist*   *Optional contraction

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These contractions omit the con:

Pitman's New Era: contentment inconsiderate inconvenient/inconveniently/inconvenience constitutional constitutional/constitutionally
contentment
* inconsiderate inconvenient/inconveniently/inconvenience constitutional constitutional/constitutionally**

*The N is also omitted  **Optional contraction

Proximity within a phrase can replace an initial con dot if the outline can be written close to the one preceding. Unlike the "medial con" words listed above, the con- word in such phrases must retain its correct position in regard to the ruled line. The words should form a natural phrase, otherwise legibility will be reduced:

Pitman's New Era: I am confident, they will consume, your complaint, sign the contract
I am confident, they will consume, your complaint, sign the contract

Pitman's New Era: their control, full container, unfair comparison, very comfortable
their control, full container, unfair comparison, very comfortable

Pitman's New Era: we shall consider, we shall commence, we shall continue
we shall consider, we shall commence, we shall continue

In some advanced phrases, the con can be omitted altogether and the remainder of the outline joined, providing the phrase is a common/obvious one:

Pitman's New Era: we have concluded, satisfactory conclusion, I am concerned, for your consideration
we have concluded, satisfactory
* conclusion, I am concerned, for your consideration

*Contraction

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Proximity is useful in these words for the word "come":

Pitman's New Era: income tax, becoming welcoming incoming oncoming overcoming home-coming
income tax, becoming welcoming incoming oncoming overcoming home-coming

Pitman's New Era: come coming income become welcome overcome
The originals use short forms:
come coming income become welcome overcome

Pitman's New Era: locum-tenens locum locomotion locomotive
locum-tenens but locum locomotion locomotive*   *Optional contraction

Proximity is not appropriate after punctuation marks, vowel-sign short forms (a, the, why, how, beyond, you, with, when, what, would) or single downward dashes (of, all, to, too, on, owe/ought, but) but is sufficiently clear after upward dashes (and, should, upward tick the):

Pitman's New Era: and contain, should continue, on the company, on the condition
and contain, should continue, on the company, on the condition

The idea is that the short forms not mistaken for vocalisation of the following outline. Sometimes the con- word cannot be placed clearly in the combination and is better written with the con dot:

Pitman's New Era: should commend, and command, on the committee, beyond the control
Clear combination: should commend, and command, on the committee, beyond the control

Pitman's New Era: should command, and commend, on the connection, beyond control, would complete
Needs dot:
should command, and commend, on the connection, beyond control, would complete

When a vowel-sign short forms is part of a phrase, then proximity can be used because the con- word is being written near a stroke rather than just a floating dot or dash:

Pitman's New Era: for the conditions, in the committee, for all consumers, if you would consider
for the conditions, in the committee, for all consumers, if you would consider

Compare:

Pitman's New Era: The conditions ...  The committee ...  All consumers would consider

The conditions ...  The committee ...  All consumers would consider

If you decide to leave a larger-than-usual space between outlines in order to signify your future punctuation in the transcript, then clearly proximity is not possible. It would not be appropriate anyway because it should only be used for words that run on easily (as per normal phrasing rules) and not where there is a natural gap or pause.

As shorthand speed is helped by having reasonably compact notes rather than sprawling ones, it is important that only the clearest proximity phrases are used. When in doubt, retain the dot for the con- word rather than risk a hesitation or unclear notes.

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(c) Cum and cog are only abbreviated when medial:

Pitman's New Era: circumference circumvent circumnavigate circumcise circumcision
circumference circumvent circumnavigate circumcise circumcision

Pitman's New Era: circumspect circumscribe decumbent encumber encumbrance incumbent
circumspect circumscribe decumbent encumber
encumbrance incumbent

Pitman's New Era: recognise recognition unrecognisable recumbence superincumbent
recognise recognition unrecognisable recumbence superincumbent

Pitman's New Era: precognition incognito
precognition incognito

Pitman's New Era: circumstance circumstantial
These contractions omit the whole prefix: circumstance circumstantial

Cum and cog at the beginning of a word are always shown with full strokes, therefore it is irrelevant whether they are grammatically a prefix or not:

Pitman's New Era: cumbent cumber cumbersome Cumbrian
cumbent cumber cumbersome Cumbrian

Pitman's New Era: cummerbund cumquat cummin/cumin Cummings comings
cummerbund cumquat cummin/cumin Cummings comings
*    *Short form

Pitman's New Era: cumulus cumulative cognize
cumulus cumulative cognize

Pitman's New Era: cognate cognition cognitive cognomen
cognate cognition cognitive cognomen

The following words may occasionally be encountered with silent G. The shorthand dictionary (1974) prefers the silent G versions, but in modern dictionaries they have the hard G sound:

Pronounced CON:

Pitman's New Era:
cognoscible cognizant incognizant

Suggested outlines for when pronounced COG - just add in a stroke Gay:

Pitman's New Era: cognoscible cognizant incognizant
cognoscible cognizant incognizant
*   *Avoiding proximity, in order to keep the set of words alike

Whichever outline is used, the spelling in your transcript will be the same. Alternatives are given here because the shorthand dictionary does not reflect current pronunciation.

Pitman's New Era: cognoscente cognac
These follow Italian/French pronunciation:
cognoscente cognac

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(d) "Concom-" Write the first syllable in full and use proximity to represent the second one:

Pitman's New Era: concomitant concomitance co-conspirator
concomitant concomitance
also co-conspirator

(e) Some con- and com- words are clearer written in full, even though it is a grammatical prefix:

Pitman's New Era: commissar commissary commissariat commiserate
commissar commissary commissariat commiserate

Pitman's New Era: commissioner subcommissioner commissionaire commove
commissioner subcommissioner commissionaire commove

Pitman's New Era: commotion commission decommission non-commissioned
commotion commission decommission non-commissioned

Pitman's New Era: commorancy connascent connate connatural
commorancy connascent connate connatural

Pitman's New Era: connoisseur consul consular consulate
connoisseur consul consular consulate

Pitman's New Era: reconnaissance connumeration numeration
reconnaissance
connumeration to distinguish from numeration

Pitman's New Era: commerce commercial/commercially
commerce commercial/commercially
*   *Contraction

Pitman's New Era: connote connotation commutation
connote connotation
to distinguish from commutation

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(f) Where the con- or com- is not a prefix write it in full:

Pitman's New Era: comb coma comma Como comose
comb coma comma Como comose

Pitman's New Era: comely incomer newcomer comeback
comely incomer
* newcomer comeback**

*Using short form "in" hence the En is unvocalised   **Using short form "come"

Pitman's New Era: comedown comedian comedy comic comical
comedown comedian comedy comic comical

Pitman's New Era: comfrey comet comate/co-mate comity
comfrey comet comate/co-mate comity
*

*=courtesy/civility, with accent on first syllable, not to be confused with "committee"

Pitman's New Era: comp Compton con conned conning-tower
comp
* Compton con conned conning-tower

*Popular abbreviation for various words beginning thus

Pitman's New Era: cone coney condor conic conical
cone coney condor conic conical

Pitman's New Era: conoid coniform conifer conine
conoid coniform conifer conine

Pitman's New Era: conch/conk conchate Congo Congolese
conch/conk conchate Congo Congolese

Pitman's New Era: conation conative conatus Connie Connaught
conation conative conatus Connie Connaught

Pitman's New Era: Congleton conger/conker/conquer conqueror unconquerable
Congleton conger/conker/conquer conqueror unconquerable

Pitman's New Era: Connecticut Connor/Conner Connell Conrad Conway
Connecticut Connor/Conner Connell Conrad Conway

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2. ACCOM-

Use Kay joined or disjoined:

  • The prefix is deemed to include the O vowel after the M in accommodate etc.

  • The prefix is joined only for "accommodation" and "accomplish" as those outlines are distinctive enough not to be mistaken for other words.

Pitman's New Era: accommodate accommodative accommodator accommodated unaccommodating accommodation
accommodate accommodative accommodator accommodated unaccommodating accommodation

Pitman's New Era: accompany unaccompanied accomplice accomplish unaccomplished
accompany unaccompanied accomplice accomplish unaccomplished

Pitman's New Era: accumbent accumbency accumulate acumen
accumbent accumbency
Not a prefix: accumulate acumen

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3. MAGNA- MAGNE- MAGNI-

A disjoined Em represents these syllables, with a short a/e/i vowel. Both vowels of the prefix are deemed to be included in the Em and are therefore not written:

Pitman's New Era: magnify magnification magnifical magnificat magnificent
magnify magnification magnifical magnificat magnificent

Pitman's New Era: magnanimous magnanimity magniloquence magnalium
magnanimous magnanimity magniloquence magnalium

Pitman's New Era: Magna Carta magnitude magnetite magnetise magnetiser
Magna Carta magnitude magnetite magnetise magnetiser

Pitman's New Era: magnetisation magnetometer magnetometric magneton magnetron
magnetisation magnetometer magnetometric magneton magnetron

Pitman's New Era: magnetic/magnetically/magnetism magnetics magnetisms
magnetic/magnetically/magnetism (Contraction) magnetics* magnetisms*

*Suggested outlines for the plurals. As they are both nouns, adding Circle S to the short form would be ambiguous.

Pitman's New Era: magnet
magnet If the prefix were used, this would involve a penlift, resulting in a slower outline for this short word.

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"Magnetism" etc in compound words: the contraction should not be joined, as that would not be clear. If the Em can be joined to the stroke before it, then use it for the "magne-" prefix. If it cannot be joined, then a disjoined contraction would be sufficiently clear:

Pitman's New Era: demagnetise unmagnetised remagnetised diamagnetic diamagnetism
demagnetise unmagnetised remagnetised diamagnetic diamagnetism

Pitman's New Era: hydromagnetism antimagnetic aeromagnetism
hydromagnetism* antimagnetic* aeromagnetism*

Pitman's New Era: electromagnetic thermomagnetism geomagnetism
electromagnetic thermomagnetism* geomagnetism*

*Suggested outlines, not in dictionary. Writing in full as shown is preferable to using the contraction, in order to avoid ambiguities about the endings, see asterisked note on "magnetics" above.

Pitman's New Era: ferromagnetism ferrimagnetism nonmagnetic
ferromagnetism ferrimagnetism nonmagnetic These cannot join the Em, therefore the contraction is used.

If the magn- ends with any vowel other than the short ones shown above, it is written using full strokes, and these are not prefixes anyway:

Pitman's New Era: magnum magnate magnolia
magnum magnate magnolia

Pitman's New Era: magnesium magnesian magnesia magnesic
magnesium magnesian magnesia magnesic

An exception to the above rule is "magneto". The length of the E varies between the derivatives and it makes sense to keep the whole set the same as the other "magnet" words above:

Pitman's New Era: magneto magneto-electric magneto-electricity magnetopause magnetosphere magnetostatic
magneto magneto-electric magneto-electricity magnetopause magnetosphere magnetostatic

Pitman's New Era: static electric electricity
Note: static electric* electricity*   *Contractions

The prefixes magna- etc are derived from Latin magnus = great. The "magnet" words are derived from Magnesia, a region in Greece where magnetic rocks were first discovered in ancient history.

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4. IN- UN-

(a) Stroke En according to normal rules:

Pitman's New Era: inspire inseparable inbuilt intake intractable
inspire inseparable inbuilt intake intractable

Pitman's New Era: insist indecent injustice ingress infuse infringe
insist indecent injustice ingress infuse infringe

Pitman's New Era: invent inverse invalid inimitable insure inquire
invent inverse invalid inimitable insure inquire

Pitman's New Era: inestimable inexpensive inequality unopposed untie unattached
inestimable inexpensive
* inequality** unopposed untie unattached

*Using contraction  **Using short form "equal" therefore that part is on the line

Pitman's New Era: untrue undo undecided unclean unguarded unhook
untrue undo
* undecided unclean unguarded unhook  *Does not use short form "do"

Pitman's New Era: unhygienic unholy unhealthy unloved
unhygienic unholy unhealthy unloved

Pitman's New Era: unethical unlocked unlikely unoccupied unrealistic unearned
unethical unlocked unlikely unoccupied unrealistic
* unearned

*Note the I dot goes at the end of the stee loop and not squeezed in below where the Kay starts.

Pitman's New Era: unsuccessful unfaithful uninspiring unimportant unimproved uninfluenced
unsuccessful unfaithful uninspiring unimportant unimproved*

*Short form is not used for this word, as it would be too similar to "unimportant"

Pitman's New Era: influenced uninfluenced uninfluential
influenced uninfluenced* uninfluential (Contraction)

*This is shown incorrectly in the 1974 dictionary written on the line, but correct, as here, in the 1950's dictionary.

Pitman's New Era: intend intent intention intense integral integrate
These use halving:
intend intent intention intense integral integrate

Pitman's New Era: intellect intoxicate intangible integument
intellect intoxicate intangible integument

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(b) Use small initial hook before the strokes STR SKR and upward Hay, where the in- is not a negative:

Pitman's New Era: instruct instructor instruction instrument inscribe/inscribed inscription inscriber inscroll
instruct instructor instruction
* instrument inscribe/inscribed* inscription* inscriber inscroll  *Contractions

Pitman's New Era: inhale inhaler inhalant inherent inherit inheritance inheritor
inhale inhaler inhalant inherent inherit inheritance inheritor

Pitman's New Era: inhabit inhabitant inhibit inhibition
inhabit inhabitant inhibit inhibition

If it is a negative, the small hook is not distinctive enough when written at speed, considering the word has the opposite meaning, so full stroke En is used to keep it very clear which is meant:

Pitman's New Era: inscrutable inhospitable
inscrutable
inhospitable

The small hook is not used for any of the following:

(a) Not before downward Hay:

Pitman's New Era: inhume inhuman inhumane inhumanity
inhume inhuman inhumane inhumanity

(b) Not for un- en-:

Pitman's New Era: unscrew unscrewed unscrupulous unscripted
unscrew unscrewed unscrupulous unscripted*

Pitman's New Era: unscriptural unscramble unscratched unscrutinized
unscriptural** unscramble unscratched unscrutinized

**This also has an optional contraction

Pitman's New Era: unstrung sunstroke sunscreen unscreened on-screen
unstrung sunstroke sunscreen
* unscreened* on-screen*

Pitman's New Era: enscroll enhance enhearten
enscroll
* enhance enhearten  *All these are suggested outlines, not in dictionary

(c) Not used medially for unin- or disin-:

Pitman's New Era: uninhabited uninhabitable uninhibited
uninhabited uninhabitable uninhibited

Pitman's New Era: uninstructed uninherited disinherited
uninstructed uninherited
* disinherited*

*Suggested outlines, not in dictionary

(d) Not used with ST or SK:

Pitman's New Era: install instil instant inscape insculp
install instil instant inscape insculp

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5. IMM- INN- UNN- ILL- IRR-

Most such words come in pairs with related or opposite meanings, and the initial vowel is the only difference between their shapes, although they may occupy different positions in relation to the line. As the outlines need to remain unvocalised for speed purposes and their position may not always be clearly written, repeating or changing the stroke is the most reliable way to ensure the difference is always obvious. This is not done to reflect the longhand spelling or to suggest that the consonant is sounded twice, but merely to produce a distinctive pair:

(a) imm- inn- unn- Repeat the stroke:

Pitman's New Era: immaterial immature immaturity immeasurable
immaterial immature immaturity immeasurable

Pitman's New Era: immedicable immitigable immethodical immaculate
immedicable immitigable immethodical immaculate*   *Pair: "maculate" = to spot

Pitman's New Era: immemorable immemorial immensurable
immemorable immemorial immensurable

 

Pitman's New Era: immingle immiscible immigrate emigrate
immingle immiscible
immigrate compare emigrate

Pitman's New Era: immodest immobile immerge emerge
immodest immobile immerge
compare emerge

Pitman's New Era: immoderate immortal immoral immorality
immoderate
immortal immoral immorality

Pitman's New Era: immutable immix immission
immutable immix immission

Pitman's New Era: innumerable innavigable innocuous noxious
innumerable innavigable innocuous
to distinguish from noxious which is very similar

Pitman's New Era: innutritious innominate innervate enervate
innutritious innominate innervate
compare enervate

 

Pitman's New Era: unnecessary unneeded unnoticed unnatural
unnecessary unneeded unnoticed unnatural

Pitman's New Era: unknown unknowing unnegotiable unnerving
unknown unknowing unnegotiable unnerving

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(b) ill- Change to downward Ell:

Pitman's New Era: limited illimited limitable illimitable
limited illimited limitable illimitable

If that is not possible, repeat the stroke:

Pitman's New Era: illegal illegible illegitimate illicit
illegal illegible illegitimate illicit

Pitman's New Era: illiterate illogical illiberal
illiterate illogical illiberal

See Theory 14 L Forms/Negatives for fuller explanation and many more examples.

Not paired: words that are not part of a pair do not need the stroke repeated or changed:

Pitman's New Era: immense immensely immerse immersion
immense immensely immerse immersion

Pitman's New Era: immune immunity imminent immolate immure
immune immunity imminent immolate immure

Pitman's New Era: inn inner innards innocent innovate innuendo
inn inner innards innocent innovate innuendo

Pitman's New Era: illusion illusory illustration illustrious
illusion illusory illustration illustrious

Pitman's New Era: ill illness ill-favoured ill-judged ill-informed ill-mannered
ill illness ill-favoured ill-judged ill-informed
* ill-mannered   *Using contraction

Exceptions: although not paired, repeating the stroke is clearer for these:

Pitman's New Era: immediate immediately immediacy innate uninnate
immediate
* immediately* immediacy innate uninnate   *Contractions

Pitman's New Era: unnumbered
unnumbered
Only one stroke En, as the "num-" part is represented by the short form.

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(c) irr- Change Ray to Ar, as you would normally do when a vowel precedes the R sound:

Pitman's New Era: relevant irrelevant
relevant irrelevant

If that is not possible or convenient, add an Ar before the Ray. Note that the first vowel is written before the Ar, and the following vowel is written after the Ray:

Pitman's New Era: radiate irradiate
radiate irradiate

If the outline already uses Ar, then add another Ar to the beginning. Again, the vowel signs sit outside the two Ar strokes:

Pitman's New Era: remediable irremediable
remediable irremediable

The following outlines look similar, using both Ar and Ray:

Pitman's New Era: air-raid air-rifle arrowroot orrery arrearage arrears
air-raid air-rifle arrowroot orrery arrearage (arrears)

See R Forms page/Prefix Irr for fuller explanation and many more examples.

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6. INTER- INTRO-

(a) Inter always uses doubled Em and can be vocalised, as per normal doubling rules:

Pitman's New Era: interpret interplay interfere interferometer
interpret interplay interfere interferometer

Pitman's New Era: interpolate interview intervene interval
interpolate interview intervene interval

Pitman's New Era: interchangeable interweave intertwine intwine entwine
interchangeable interweave intertwine compare intwine entwine

 

Pitman's New Era: intercept intersect intercede intercessor
intercept intersect intercede intercessor

Pitman's New Era: interlace interlock interlink interlingual
interlace interlock interlink interlingual

Pitman's New Era: interlining interlunar interlinear lunar linear
interlining interlunar interlinear
Note: lunar linear

Pitman's New Era: international interzonal interbreed intersperse
international interzonal interbreed intersperse

Pitman's New Era: intercity interact interdependence interrelationship
intercity interact interdependence interrelationship

Pitman's New Era: interregnum interrogate interrupt
These do not repeat the R in the next syllable:
interregnum interrogate interrupt

Disjoin a following Em (lack of angle between strokes of different lengths) or upward Ell (to avoid an awkward join):

Pitman's New Era: intermittent intermarry intermix
intermittent intermarry intermix

Pitman's New Era: intermediate intermediary intermingle
intermediate intermediary intermingle

Pitman's New Era: intermural intermezzo
intermural intermezzo

Pitman's New Era: interleave interloper interlude
interleave interloper interlude

Pitman's New Era: intercommunicate intercom interim
intercommunicate intercom
Note: interim has separate strokes, as the central vowel is somewhat slurred, and the alternative would be disjoining.

Pitman's New Era: interior inter internal intern internee interminable interest
Note:
interior inter* internal intern internee interminable interest**

* = bury, accent on 2nd syllable     **Contraction

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(b) Intro uses either doubling or full strokes, whichever is convenient to join:

  • Doubled Em with no dot I vocalisation. This is an exceptional use of doubling because there is no vowel between the T and R. It therefore counts as a special unvocalised prefix, like magna-.

  • Stroke En + TR with both vowels, where necessary to obtain a good join.


Pitman's New Era: introvert introversion introit introrse
introvert introversion introit introrse

Pitman's New Era: introspection introduce introductory introduction
introspection introduce
introductory introduction*   *Contraction

Note these pairs:

Pitman's New Era: intermit intromit intermission intromission
intermit intromit intermission intromission

Pitman's New Era: intercession introcession
intercession introcession

Pitman's New Era: interject interjection introject introjection
*
interject interjection introject introjection

*Lack of the dot vowel sign is the only difference with these 2 pairs. As vowels are normally omitted, more distinction is needed. A non-theory suggestion would be to add the dash vowel sign for long "O" before the Jay for the intro- words (thus keeping the dictionary outlines) or using En + TR instead of doubled En (resulting in a non-dictionary outline). The latter may be faster as there are no pen lifts to slow down.

Using doubling for both inter and intro relies on the fact that, apart from the two pairs above, they are mutually exclusive, thus avoiding clashes. As new words arise with these prefixes, consistently using En + TR for "intro-" would be the most reliable way of ensuring that clashes never occur this is not quite so fast as a doubled stroke, but reliability is more important.

Intra always uses En + TR:

Pitman's New Era: intramural intravenous intramuscular
intramural intravenous intramuscular

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7. SELF-   SELF-CON-

(a) Self used as a prefix is shown by a circle in 2nd place against the stroke:

  • Write the circle first, then the strokes of the outline, so that you are writing in the same order as the syllables are spoken, and to avoid any backward movement of the pen.

  • With normal words, the outline is written in 2nd position, to accord with the vowel in "self", but short forms and contractions retain their original position.

  • The self circle is never omitted.

  • Not used medially or finally for the word "self".

Pitman's New Era: self-defence self-evident self-reliant self-esteem self-imposed self-seeker
self-defence self-evident self-reliant self-esteem self-imposed self-seeker

Pitman's New Era: self-service self-determination self-explanatory self-help self-same
self-service self-determination self-explanatory self-help self-same

Do not be tempted write the outline in 1st or 3rd position just because of the vowel in the main part of the outline:

Pitman's New Era: self-righteous self-accusation self-satisfied self-sacrifice self-taught self-propelled
self-righteous self-accusation self-satisfied self-sacrifice self-taught self-propelled

Pitman's New Era: self-pity self-discipline self-willed self-hood self-invited
self-pity self-discipline self-willed self-hood self-invited

Keep a short form or contraction in its rightful position. Most contractions are in 2nd position anyway:

Pitman's New Era: self-important/importance self-neglect self-improvement self-build self-schooled
self-important/importance self-neglect self-improvement self-build self-schooled

Pitman's New Era: self-instruction self-satisfaction self-subjection self-respect self-valuation
self-instruction self-satisfaction self-subjection self-respect self-valuation

Pitman's New Era: self-sufficient self-interest self-governing self-advertisement
self-sufficient self-interest self-governing self-advertisement

In a fully vocalised outline, if the 2nd place on the stroke is occupied by a vowel sign, then place the circle just outside the vowel sign. Most of the time you will not be vocalising outlines and can place the circle right next to the stroke:

Pitman's New Era: self-opinionated self-employed self-sown
self-opinionated self-employed self-sown

If you have already completed the outline, and then decide you need to go back and insert the 2nd place vowel, placing it outside the self circle will still be readable, even though it is not the perfect textbook version.

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(b) Self-con  Write circle at the head of the stroke, to replace the con dot. The outline remains in 2nd position, as "self" still provides the first vowel of the word:

Pitman's New Era: self-control self-contained self-condemnation self-confident self-conscious self-congratulation self-complacent
self-control self-contained self-condemnation self-confident self-conscious self-congratulation self-complacent

(c) When the "self" is not a prefix, or is alone or in the middle or end of a continuous outline, it should be written in full; some are short forms:

Pitman's New Era: self selves hers herself one's/once oneself
self selves hers herself one's/once oneself
*   *Contraction, as it omits the N

Pitman's New Era: selfish/selfishness unselfish/unselfishness unselfconscious selfless do-it-yourselfer
selfish/selfishness
* unselfish/unselfishness* unselfconscious selfless do-it-yourselfer

*Contractions

Pitman's New Era: non-self non-self-governing non-self-regarding
non-self non-self-governing non-self-regarding
hyphenated outlines allow the second part to also be written in its own position, and to use the self-circle.

Pitman's New Era: our ours ourself ourselves, your yours yourself yourselves
our ours ourself ourselves, your yours yourself yourselves

Pitman's New Era: myself thyself itself himself themselves hisself theirself theirselves
myself thyself itself himself themselves hisself
* theirself* theirselves*

*Met with in vernacular or lax speech only but grammatically incorrect in academic terms a desire to make them match the possessive in my/her/yourself etc, coupled with easier pronunciation. See http://www.thefreedictionary.com/hisself for a discussion of this usage. Correction of the speaker's word-formation may not be appropriate in some circumstances.

The Circle S at the end of some of the short forms above is only expressing the S sound, and is not being used as a joined "self circle".

An outline using the self circle prefix should not be phrased with the word before it. Going back to insert a circle would cause more delay and interruption to smooth flow of writing than is gained by phrasing.

The circle is not used to represent the lone word "self" in phrases.

The self circle cannot clash with intervening dot vowels against hooked strokes, as all of these are in first position. The rules are that a second place intervening dot vowel is never shown:

Pitman's New Era: self-praise person perspex parallel paragraph palpable
self-praise person perspex parallel paragraph palpable

If you need to emphasise just the word "self" then write it in full so that you can put a wavy line under it:

Pitman's New Era: He said self service, not health service!

He said self service, not health service!

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8. TRANS-

(a) Written in full:

Pitman's New Era: transaction transatlantic transatlantic transcend  transceiver transducer

transaction transatlantic transatlantic* transcend  transceiver transducer

*Optional contraction

Pitman's New Era: transferee transfuse transfix transfiguration transistor
transferee transfuse transfix transfiguration transistor

Pitman's New Era: transit transient translucent transition transform transform/transformed
transit transient translucent transition
transform transform/transformed*

*Optional contraction

(b) The En is omitted before certain strokes to achieve briefer outlines. As the N is lightly sounded, it can be omitted and the outlines remain readable:

Before Pee and Em:

Pitman's New Era: transpose transpire transport transparent transplant transpacific
transpose transpire transport transparent transplant transpacific

Pitman's New Era: transmit transmitter transmission transmute transmogrify transoceanic
transmit transmitter transmission transmute transmogrify transoceanic

Pitman's New Era: transhume transmigration transnational transept transom
transhume transmigration
also transnational but transept transom

Pitman's New Era: transfer transference transgress transverse
To allow hooks:
transfer transference transgress but transverse to distinguish from "transfers"

Pitman's New Era: transcribe transcript transcription
Stroke En and R hook both omitted in these:
transcribe transcript transcription

Before Ell:

Pitman's New Era: translate translation translator retranslate transliterate transalpine
translate translation translator retranslate transliterate transalpine

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9. ANTI- ANTE-

These are pronounced the same.

  • anti = against, opposite

  • ante = before

(a) Generally halved En:

Pitman's New Era: antibiotic antibody anti-aircraft Antichrist anticlimax
antibiotic antibody anti-aircraft Antichrist anticlimax

Pitman's New Era: anti-clockwise antedate antidote antigen antitoxin antipathy
anti-clockwise antedate antidote antigen antitoxin antipathy

Pitman's New Era: antenatal antipodes antechamber anteroom antediluvian
antenatal antipodes antechamber anteroom antediluvian

Use full strokes to enable joins, or to obtain clearer outlines:

Pitman's New Era: ante meridiem, antemeridian antimundane
ante meridiem
* antemeridian antimundane

*Latin = before midday = a.m.; post meridiem = after midday = p.m.

Pitman's New Era: antecedent antecessor anticipate anticyclone antihistamine
antecedent antecessor anticipate anticyclone antihistamine

Pitmamn's New Era: antisocial antirrhinum antithesis anti-semitic antimacassar
antisocial antirrhinum antithesis anti-semitic antimacassar

Pitman's New Era: antique antiquated antelope antenna anteater antimony
Not prefixes:
antique antiquated antelope antenna anteater antimony

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10. SUPER- SUPRA-

The older pronunciation is the diphthong "syoo", but the plain vowel "soo" seems to be more prevalent. I am keeping to the latter in these pages as being the more up-to-date and quicker to write, although you are unlikely to need to insert that vowel sign:

Pitman's New Era: super super
super super

Pitman's New Era: superabundance superannuate superannuation supernatural supernumerary
superabundance superannuate superannuation supernatural supernumerary

Pitman's New Era: supercharger supercilious superficial superfluous superman superhuman
supercharger supercilious superficial superfluous superman superhuman

Pitman's New Era: superimpose superlative supermarket supernova supersede
superimpose superlative supermarket supernova supersede

Pitman's New Era: supersonic superstition superstitious superstructure supervene
supersonic superstition superstitious superstructure supervene

Pitman's New Era: supervise supervisor super-cooled super-tanker super-duper
supervise supervisor super-cooled super-tanker super-duper

Supra Always insert the second vowel:

Pitman's New Era: supranational supralunar supramundane supra-orbital
supranational supralunar supramundane supra-orbital

Pitman's New Era: superb superior supernal
Note these not prefixes:
superb superior supernal

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11. DIS-

Stroke as normal:

Pitman's New Era: disappear dispute display disprove disapprove distant district
disappear dispute display disprove disapprove distant district

Pitman's New Era: disjoin discover discovery discoverer discount disclose disguise
disjoin discover discovery discoverer discount disclose disguise

Pitman's New Era: disqualify disfigure dismay disintegrate dishonour disallow dislike
disqualify disfigure dismay disintegrate dishonour disallow dislike

Pitman's New Era: discourse disagree disgrace disgruntled discriminate discreet/discrete
discourse disagree disgrace disgruntled discriminate discreet/discrete
*

*discreet = prudent, cautious; discrete = separate

Contractions:

Pitman's New Era: disinterested disrespect disorganise/disorganised disorganisation displeasure disproportion
disinterested disrespect disorganise/disorganised disorganisation displeasure disproportion

With "diss-", as only one S is pronounced, only one S needs to be shown in the outline.

Pitman's New Era: dissatisfied dissection disseminate dissent dissident dissolve
dissatisfied dissection disseminate dissent dissident dissolve

Pitman's New Era: dissipate dissuade dissever dissemble dissociate dissociation disassociate
dissipate dissuade dissever dissemble dissociate
dissociation disassociate**

*A less common version of dissociate

The following 3 outlines (and their derivatives) use the Ses circle for the two S's purely to provide distinguishing outlines (see Distinguishing Outlines List 2/disseize & disserve):

Pitman's New Era: disseize disserve disservice
disseize disserve disservice

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12. MIS-

Stroke as normal, but disjoined if necessary:

Pitman's New Era: misprint mistrust mistreat misdeed mistake misquote
misprint mistrust mistreat misdeed mistake
* misquote   *omits the T

Pitman's New Era: miscreant misuse mis-shapen misread mislead mishear
miscreant misuse mis-shapen misread
* mislead mishear   *past tense, rhyming with "reed"

Pitman's New Era: misplace miscalculate misfit misfire
misplace miscalculate misfit misfire

Disjoining also signifies a medial "con", but no clashes occur. If a clash arose, a non-theory suggestion would be to either insert the con dot, or make the "mis-" disjoin by using the shorthand hyphen sign, so that any suggestion of "con" is excluded.)

Pitman's New Era: misconceive misconception miscompute misconduct misconjecture misconstrue
misconceive misconception miscompute misconduct misconjecture misconstrue

Pitman's New Era: misinform/misinformed misinformation misfortune
Contractions: misinform/misinformed misinformation misfortune

For "miss-" (i.e. prefix mis + s) the Circle Ses is used to improve readability, and does not suggest that the two S's are pronounced separately. In such words the S sound is immediately followed by a consonant, and without the double S (both longhand and shorthand), one would tend to read the second part as beginning with that consonant e.g. mis+pend instead of mis+spend. This is the same reason why the longhand hyphen is there, to make it easier to read:

Pitman's New Era: mis-spell mis-spend/mis-spent mis-state mis-stated  mis-statement mis-cite

mis-spell mis-spend/mis-spent mis-state mis-stated  mis-statement mis-cite

The above does not apply to other miss- words that are not prefixes, such as "missing, mission."

Note that diss- words do not need to use the large circle as above, because the prefix is always followed by a vowel.

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13. FOR- FORE-

  • For- means away, off, out, extremely, wrongly, and gives a negative or prohibitive meaning.

  • Fore- means before, in front of, preceding, and refers to position in place, time or rank.

  • The outlines use different vowels for these two prefixes, with the advantage of providing additional distinction for these sets of outlines. Modern dictionaries seem not to differentiate the pronunciations of these 2 prefixes.

  • Knowing the meanings of the prefixes is a great help in getting the spellings correct, although some of the words below may be encountered with variant spellings e.g. forfend is sometimes met with as "forefend". If you know what the words mean, keeping to the correct prefix for each meaning should keep your spelling of them on track and avoid the confusing variants that sometimes find their way into print.

(a) For- always uses a hooked FR, which may be reversed to make a good join. The vowel is a first place light dash:


Pitman's New Era: forbid forbear forfend forsake forsooth
forbid forbear forfend forsake forsooth

Pitman's New Era: forward forswear forspent forgive forget
forward
* forswear forspent forgive forget   *Unlike the others, this one does mean "fore/in front"

These two have full strokes, to attain more flowing outlines:

Pitman's New Era: forlorn forfeit
forlorn
*  forfeit**

*More flowing outline than if the hooked FR were used   **Possibly avoiding similarity to forfend

(b) Fore- mostly uses full strokes Eff plus Ar or Ray; occasionally the hooked stroke FR to gain a good join. Never uses the reversed FR. The vowel is a 2nd place heavy dash:

Pitman's New Era: fore foremost foreman forewoman
fore foremost foreman forewoman

Pitman's New Era: foreleg foreordain forefront forecourt foreground
foreleg foreordain forefront forecourt foreground

Pitman's New Era: foreshore forecast forearm pinafore aforementioned
foreshore forecast forearm pinafore aforementioned

Pitman's New Era: aforesaid forehand aforehand aforetime aforethought
aforesaid forehand* aforehand* aforetime aforethought   *These use Ar and Ray to distinguish

Pitman's New Era: forebear forebode forefather forefinger
forebear forebode forefather forefinger

Pitman's New Era: foreknow foreknown forename foreshadow
foreknow foreknown forename foreshadow

Pitman's New Era: foreclose foredate forehead
foreclose foredate
Note also: forehead pronounced "forrid"

Hooked FR for good join:

Pitman's New Era: forestall foretell foresheet foreshorten
forestall foretell foresheet foreshorten

Pitman's New Era: forewind forewarn forewarned before beforehand
forewind forewarn forewarned before beforehand*    *Optional alternative

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Some for/fore pairs:

Pitman's New Era: forgo forego, foregone conclusion, forwent forewent
forgo
(=do without/give up) forego (= precede/go before) foregone conclusion, forwent forewent

Pitman's New Era: forjudge forejudge
forjudge forejudge

"forjudge" = deprive by a judgement, expel from court, a legal term; "forejudge" = prejudge, judge beforehand. If you need to differentiate, then it is worthwhile learning both outlines. The version "forejudge" is probably the one most likely to be met in normal non-legal speech.

Pitman's New Era: forgather foregather
forgather foregather
both mean "come together, assemble." The shorthand dictionary provides outlines for both versions, but the first version is the one that matches the derivation and meaning. Presumably the two ways of writing of "gather" provide additional differentiation.

Most of the "for-" words have the accent on the second syllable, so the hooked form is more appropriate. With "fore-" most are accented on the first syllable, making full strokes more appropriate. This helps to show where the accent lies, and so improves legibility, as well as providing additional distinction between the above pairs.

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14. NON-

Written as per normal theory En + N Hook when it can be joined (but occasionally disjoined), otherwise strokes En + En:

Pitman's New Era: non-acceptance non-cumulative non-existence non-existent
non-acceptance non-cumulative non-existence non-existent

Pitman's New Era: non-residence non-resident non-resistance non-linear
non-residence non-resident non-resistance non-linear

Pitman's New Era: non-appearance* non-payment nonplussed non-feasance
non-appearance* non-payment nonplussed non-feasance

*Note how the first vowel of "appearance" is written to the En stroke, similarly with other outlines below

Pitman's New Era: non-specific nonstop non-starter non-binding
non-specific non-stop non-starter non-binding

Pitman's New Era: non-attendance nondescript non-addictive non-effective
non-attendance nondescript non-addictive non-effective

Pitman's New Era: nonchalance non-essential nonsequitur
nonchalance non-essential non-sequitur

Pitman's New Era: nonsense nonentity non-intervention
nonsense nonentity non-intervention

Pitman's New Era: non-smoker non-working non-alcoholic
non-smoker non-working non-alcoholic

Pitman's New Era: non-observance non-obedience
non-observance* non-obedience   *Disjoined, rather than En + En as in "non-obedience", possibly to avoid an overlong outline.

Short forms or contractions remain in their correct position:

Pitman's New Era: non-performance non-delivery non-production non-productive
non-performance non-delivery non-production non-productive

Pitman's New Era: efficient/efficientlyefficiency non-efficient/ly/cy inefficient/ly/cy
efficient/efficientlyefficiency non-efficient/ly/cy* inefficient/ly/cy

*An exception, as it does not remain on the line; it is not clear why this is so, as a prefix should not affect the position of a contraction. Best vocalised to avoid any possible clash with the phrases "in inefficient" or "in any efficient".

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