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Theory 4 – Circles

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Theory

Theory Intro

 1   Strokes

 2   Vowels

 3   Forming Outlines

 4   Circles

 5   Loops

 6   Hooks Intro

 7   Hooks R L

 8   Hooks N F V

 9   Shun Hook

10  Halving

11  Doubling

12  Hay Aspirate

13  W Forms

14  L Forms

15  R Forms

16  Imp/Imb

17  Ish

18  Prefixes

19  Suffixes General

20  Suffixes Contracted

Short Forms

SF Intro

SF List 1

SF List 2

SF List 3

SF List 4

Contractions

Contractions Intro

Contractions Main

Contractions Optional

Phrasing

1 Phrasing Intro & Contents list

2 Theory

3 Theory

4 Omission Part words

5 Omission Whole words

6 Miscellaneous

7 Miscellaneous

8 Intersections

Distinguishing Outlines

DO Intro

DO List 1 A-C

DO List 2 D-H

DO List 3 I-P

DO List 4 Q-Y

Vocabulary

Vocab Intro

Numbers

Punctuation

Word Lists

Text Lists from PDFs

 

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PAGE DATE 23 July 2014

In addition to the strokes, the sounds of S and Z are also represented by circles and loops. This page also describes how to write these sounds when the circles cannot be used. Loops are on separate page but are shown in the quick reference tables below.

Quick Reference Table – Circles and Loops
Quick Reference Table – Circles and Loops with hooks

CIRCLE S
– Anticlockwise to straight strokes
– Inside curves
– Outside an angle
– With hooks
– With R Hook and N Hook to straight strokes
– S versus Z sound
– Why Circle S and Ses include the Z sound

CIRCLE SES
– With hooks
– When not to use
– Vowels
– Adding a third S
– Other uses

CIRCLE SWAY
– With hooks
– When not to use

QUICK REFERENCE TABLES

Name Sound Initially Medially Finally
Circle S Initially=S
Elsewhere=S or Z

 

Z initially uses stroke

 

Use Ess if no other stroke

Pitman's New Era: soap
soap

Pitman's New Era: zeal
zeal

Pitman's New Era: session
session

Pitman's New Era: posing
posing

Pitman's New Era: pose
pose

Circle Ses S-S, S-Z, Z-Z

 

-

 

Pitman's New Era: persist
persist

Pitman's New Era: poses
poses

Circle Sway Sw

 


Use Way if no other stroke, or medially or finally

Pitman's New Era: sweep
sweep

Pitman's New Era: sway
sway

-


 

Pitman's New Era: persuading
persuading

-

 

 

Pitman's New Era: Kingsway
Kingsway

Stee Loop St

 

Use Tee if no other stroke

Pitman's New Era: stop
stop

Pitman's New Era: stay
stay

Please note this outline has been corrected to show circle anticlockwise 23.7.14

Pitman's New Era: testing
testing
Pitman's New Era: post
post
Ster Loop Ster

 


Never initially, use other strokes

-

 

Pitman's New Era: sterling starry
sterling starry

Pitman's New Era: masterpiece
masterpiece
Pitman's New Era: poster
poster

Ses and Sway are mutually exclusive as regards position on the stroke, therefore they will never clash with each other.

Name R hook L hook N hook F/V hook
Circle S Pitman's New Era: spray supper
spray supper

Pitman's New Era: suffer summer
suffer summer

Pitman's New Era: supple splay
supple splay

Pitman's New Era: civil
civil

Pitman's New Era: pens moons
pens moons
Pitman's New Era: paves puffs
paves puffs
Circle Ses -

 

- Pitman's New Era: dances
dances
-
Circle Sway Pitman's New Era: sweeper
sweeper
- - -
Stee Loop Pitman's New Era: stopper
stopper
- Pitman's New Era: danced
danced
-
Ster Loop - - Pitman's New Era: Dunster
Dunster
-

See Theory Vowels page for vowel placement against strokes that have these circles and loops.

  • Only Circle Ses can be vocalised, the others cannot. Other than Circle Ses, it is the stroke that is vocalised.

  • There are no thick versions of circle or loops.

  • They must be written in the correct circular motion i.e. anti-clockwise (left motion) or clockwise (right motion), according to the rules below.

  • They are read first and last in the outline, or that section of the outline, with the stroke and its various vowels, hooks, halving, etc coming in the middle.

  • If the word starts or ends with a vowel, strokes must be used instead.

  • May be added to short forms and contractions.

  • May form part of phrases.

  • Ensure to close the circle or loop so that it does not look like a hook.

  • Ensure to take the circles right round so they do not look like loops. When used medially, circles will not always be exactly circular, they will take on distortions,  see adjustment and chisel below as examples of this. When this occurs, do not mistake them for loops – medial loops are always followed by a sharp change of direction, see masterpiece in table above, something circles never do.

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CIRCLE S

A vowel may come between the Circle S and the stroke (e.g. sap, pass), or the two may be run together (e.g. spa, apse). The outline gives no indication of this, unless vocalised. In this respect the Circle S differs from the R and L hooks which generally represent a compound consonant e.g. PL and PR.

Circle S is written:

  • Anticlockwise to straight strokes
  • Inside curves
  • Outside an angle

Anti-clockwise to straight strokes:

Pitman's New Era: sap spa apse pass sub bus abs sit stay eats teas
sap spa apse pass sub bus abs sit stay eats teas

Pitman's New Era: sad ads days such choose itches sage juice
sad ads days such choose sage juice

Pitman's New Era: sack sky axe case sag guess eggs hose ways yes
sack sky axe case sag guess eggs hose (=upward Hay) ways yes

Between two similar straight strokes, still anti-clockwise, the same as you would write it if the first stroke was the only one:

Pitman's New Era: decide disdain tacit testy precept exact cask bespoke Busby
decide disdain tacit testy precept exact cask bespoke Busby

Inside curves:

Pitman's New Era: safe face sphere save voice Seth thaws seethe this
safe face sphere save voice Seth thaws seethe this

Pitman's New Era: size cease sash shows sign snow nice inns
size cease sash shows sign snow nice inns

Pitman's New Era: same maze aims smile simile songs sir ears
same maze aims smile simile songs sir ears

Pitman's New Era: passer passive possess basin bosom design flotsam
passer passive possess basin bosom design flotsam

Pitman's New Era: cousin chasm chosen adjacent adjustment reason resume
cousin chasm chosen adjacent adjustment reason resume

Between two curves that have the same motion, follow that motion:

Pitman's New Era: evasive fasten lissom listen unsafe muscle nicely noiseless
evasive fasten lissom listen unsafe muscle nicely noiseless

If the curves have opposite motions, the circle generally goes clockwise, often (but not always) resulting in the circle being outside the angle:

Pitman's New Era: mason massive season unsolved arising
mason massive season unsolved arising

Pitman's New Era: facile facility vacillate vacillated insulate insulated
facile but facility, vacillate but vacillated, insulate but insulated

What you should NOT do with Circle S is make a sudden change of direction; this somewhat awkward joining is used very sparingly, being reserved for indicating:

  • An R Hook on a following straight stroke, where the hook cannot be shown in any other way; however, after P and B the R hook is omitted for convenience (if it were shown, it would look too much like a Stee loop):
    Pitman's New Era: describe discretion disagree discourage prescribe subscribe
    describe discretion disagree discourage    R omitted in: prescribe subscribe
     
  • Stroke Hay medially, in order to differentiate between Hay and Circle S:
    Pitman's New Era: anyhow any such upheld passer-by
    anyhow, any such, upheld passer-by

Between M-N and N-M, in derivative words, the circle should remain with its original curve:

Pitma n's New Era: miss missing seemly unseemly mince mincemeat
miss missing, seemly unseemly, mince mincemeat

Pitman's New Era: some noisome noise noise-maker
some noisome (=annoy+some), noise noise-maker

Outside an angle:

Pitman's New Era: passage beseech basic task dosage tassel chisel respond
passage beseech basic task dosage tassel chisel respond

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With hooks

Where the circle and hook would individually be written on the same side of the stroke, when you wish to show both, the circle must be written INSIDE the hook. Theoretically, circle is extra small and the hook remains its normal size; in practice the hook generally needs to be ever so slightly larger to avoid ink blobbing, and the circle can be flattened into a tiny loop (it is not a Stee loop which are never used inside hooks). Do not let your small hooks grow in size and get confused with the larger hooks (Shun, and L Hook on curves).

Pitman's New Era: supple splay settle saddle satchel sickle safflower soufflι civil
L Hook: supple splay settle saddle satchel sickle safflower soufflι civil

Pitman's New Era: suffer sever summer mains signer nines fines vines
R & N Hooks to curves: suffer sever summer mains signer nines fines vines

Pitman's New Era: puff puffs cuff cuffs tough toughs
F/V Hook: puff puffs cuff cuffs tough toughs

Pitman's New Era: square squash squeal squeeze consequence
Kway (Gway): square squash squeal squeeze consequence
(Gway could take Circle S but no examples found)


Way: use Circle S with Way for those words when Circle Sway is not possible:
Pitman's New Era:
way sway persuade
but swerve swayed

Wel: does not take Circle S, instead discard the hook and use Sway Circle on stroke Ell:

Pitman's New Era: well swell
well swell

Whay Whel Yay: do not take an initial Circle S

Where there is a vowel between a final F/V and S, this is generally a plural of an outline that is already written with full strokes:

Pitman's New Era: cave caves cavy cavies buff buff, bevy bevies
cave caves, cavy cavies, buff buffs, bevy bevies
Pitman's New Era: tiff tiffs toffee toffees Dave Dave's Davey Davey's
tiff tiffs, toffee toffees, Dave Dave's, Davey Davey's

A medial Circle S does not indicate a hook purely by its direction, because the direction of the circle is used only for convenience. In many cases a medial hook can be shown as well, with the circle following the motion of the hook:

Pitman's New Era: bicycle express listener display miscreant unschooled inscrutable
bicycle express listener display miscreant unschooled inscrutable

Small Shun Hook: Circle S, and Circle S following N hook, can both be followed by the small shun hook

Pitman's New Era: composition compensation decision condensation transition
composition compensation decision condensation transition

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With R Hook and N Hook to straight strokes:

On a straight stroke, the R or N Hook is closed up to make a circle. Both are thus indicated, because that is not the usual side/direction for an initial or final circle:

Pitman's New Era: R: spay spray sub sobriety stay stray sky screw
R: spay spray, sub sobriety, stay stray, sky screw

Pitman's New Era: N: pays pains toes tones choose chance Joe's John's
N: pays pains, toes tones, choose chance, Joe's John's

Pitman's New Era: gaze guess gains, rays rains, ways wanes, yes yens
N: guess gains, rays rains, ways wanes, yes yens

Medial circles Between two straight strokes the hook should be shown, the circle following the direction of the hook. Medial circles use the direction that is most convenient, so the direction cannot be reversed to indicate any hooks, unlike at the beginning and ends of strokes (apart from the necessity to choose the direction for legibility, it would also not be clear whether the plain circle, if so used, meant an N Hook on the first stroke, or an R Hook on the second stroke):

Pitman's New Era: prosper destroy district excursion corkscrew
prosper destroy district excursion corkscrew

If there is a vowel after the N sound, use stroke En so that it can be vocalised. The presence of the stroke N lets you know there is a vowel, so vocalisation is normally unnecessary:

Pitman's New Era: bones bonus tens tennis chines Chinese mines minus
bones bonus, tens tennis, chines Chinese, mines minus

The combination S-CH-R is not found standing alone in any English word, therefore this outline is used for the stroke downward Hay. Should such a combination appear in a new word or name, it would be have to be written with stroke Ar after the S-CH, or stroke Ess plus Cher if the word began with a vowel. However, this sequence of sounds can be written in the middle of a word, providing the S is shown inside the hook, thus avoiding clashing with the downward Hay:

Pitman's New Era: beseech beseecher Abraham
beseech beseecher Abraham

Circle S can be added to final Stee and Ster loops and Circle SES:

Pitman's New Era: posts posters exercises
posts posters exercises

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Read first and last

In case of difficulty, mentally remove the circle and then read the outline correctly, before mentally adding the S back in:

Pitman's New Era: pray spray, upper supper, play splay apple supply pint pints dove doves roof roofs
pray spray, upper supper, play splay, apple supply, pint pints, dove doves, roof roofs

Pitman's New Era: fund funds amount amounts nine nines inner sooner ever sever
fund funds, amount amounts, nine nines, inner sooner, ever sever

Dot "con-" dot "-ing" and dash "-ings" are read first and last, if present:

Pitman's New Era: strict constrict strain constrain some consume dance dancing rinsing rinsings
strict constrict, strain constrain, some consume, dance dancing, rinsing rinsings

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When not to use

Use the stroke Ess or Zee when:

(a) there is an initial vowel before the S, or a final vowel after it.  The stroke can then be vocalised, although its presence lets you know there is a vowel involved:

Pitman's New Era: sack ask mess messy seed acid sense essence
sack ask, mess messy, seed acid, sense essence

Pitman's New Era: boss bossy noise noisy haze hazy slate isolate
boss bossy, noise noisy, haze hazy, slate isolate

 

(b) the S is the only consonant sound in the word (because you need somewhere to put the vowel); retain the stroke in derivatives:

Pitman's New Era: ice sigh sighing sighs/size sea sea-level sleeve sea-kale sickle
ice sigh sighing sighs/size, sea sea-level but sleeve, sea-kale but sickle

(c) the vowel between the S sound and the stroke is a triphone, and in other places to distinguish from plurals:

Pitman's New Era: signs science virtues virtuous heirs heiress Jews Jewess dangers dangerous
signs science, virtues virtuous, heirs heiress, Jews Jewess, dangers dangerous

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S versus Z sound

Initially, the sound is S; medially and finally the sound can be S or Z:

Pitman's New Era: seep piece-peas same mace-maze
seep piece/peas same mace/maze

Final NS and NZ sound after a curve are differentiated by using:

  • Hook N for NZ – generally a plural, but not always
  • Stroke En for NS – generally a word that can be used as a verb, and therefore needs to have easy derivatives

Pitman's New  Era: fen fens fence fences fenced fencing fencer
NZ: fen fens   NS: fence – fences fenced fencing fencer

Pitman's New  Era: vine vines evince evinces evinced evincing evincible
NZ: vine vines   NS: evince – evinces evinced evincing evincible

Pitman's New  Era: mean means mince minces minced mincing mincer
NZ: mean means   NS: mince – minces minced mincing mincer

Pitman's New  Era: nine nines announce announces announced announcing announcer
NZ: nine nines    NS: announce – announces announced announcing announcer

Pitman's New Era: line lines lance lances lanced lancing lancet
NZ: line lines   NS: lance - lances lanced lancing lancer lancet

Pitman's New Era: lens lenses
Note: lens lenses As lens is singular, despite its Z sound, stroke N and Circle Ses have to be used for the plural, and there is no such word as "lences" for the plural to clash with.

More examples of NS verses NZ:

Pitman's New  Era: thins thence shines conscience salines silence Essene essence
thins thence, shines conscience, salines silence

Pitman's New  Era: Pauline's opulence vines Venice Essenes essence
Pauline's opulence, vines Venice, Essenes essence

Those with a linguistic interest may notice that words like mince/mints are pronounced identically, but perceived differently. "Mints" is halved to indicate the T, as the T sound is part of the original word; the T sound in "mince" is the first part of the S sound (if you removed it the word would sound like "minz"):

Pitman's New  Era: mint mints mince fent fents fence silent silents silence
mint mints mince, fent fents fence, silent silents silence

Pitman's New Era: comment comments commence dent dents dense
comment comments commence, dent dents dense

Pitman's New Era: assistant assistants assistance chant chants chance
assistant assistants assistance, chant chants chance

This is a timely reminder that (a) shorthand dictation must be undertaken intelligently, and the meaning followed while writing, and (b) Pitman's Shorthand is not designed to be entirely phonetic, it only needs to indicate which word was spoken.

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Why Circle S and Ses include the Z sound

The S sound can change into the Z sound in plurals and genitives, but when it does, it is not changing the word into a different word. The circle is used to represent both in order to preserve the general shape of the outline and to allow its consistent use for plurals and genitives:

house (noun) = "hous"

houses (plural) = "houziz"

house (verb), hows (plural noun) = "houz"

house's (genitive) = "housiz"

Consistent and easy outlines are achieved, but at the expense of some words such as mace/maze peace/peas where the S and Z sounds signify different words. The longhand has solved the problem, in only using the letter Z and sometimes letter C, to show othe difference. The shorthand has partly solved this problem in a similar manner, with the aim of writing words briefly and reliably, rather than strictly phonetically. Shorthand does not always preserve the basic outline when forming derivatives, but as plurals and genitives cover so many words, the advantages of allowing Circles S to do duty for both S and Z sounds outweigh the disadvantages.

Suggestion for advanced writers: if you have constant trouble in your line of work with certain pairs of outlines, you can choose to use stroke Zee finally for Z-words (as long as you are aware this it is not an official outline) but you may wish to indicate that there is no following vowel, by using a short vertical line parallel to the stroke, or some other mark of your choosing. Such idiosyncracies should be strictly limited by necessity, and given very careful consideration before adoption. As always, keep a note of your departure from the normal rules. You cannot adopt any such method if you wish to teach shorthand!

An initial Z sound has to use the stroke, even though no vowel comes before it:

Pitman's New Era: zeal zebra zenith zero zest zinc zip zone zoologist
zeal zebra zenith zero zest zinc zip zone zoologist

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CIRCLE SES

This is a large circle, used in middle or at the end of an outline, placed in the same way as Circle S, to represent:

Pitman's New Era: basis necessary necessity insist thesis
S-S: basis necessary necessity insist thesis

Pitman's New Era: bases paces busses faces voices losses masses
S-Z: bases paces busses faces voices losses masses taxes fixes

Pitman's New Era: possessive exhaust exist resist
Z-S: possessive exhaust exist resist

Pitman's New Era: opposes dazes fuses cruises muses mazes noses raises/razes
Z-Z:
opposes dazes fuses cruises muses mazes noses raises/razes

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When not to use

S-S sound at the beginning: Circle Ses is never used at the beginning of an outline, as that place is taken by Circle Sway. Two initial S sounds should be shown with the full stroke Ess followed by Circle S. This makes an easier outline and logical derivatives, as the formation of an angle is avoided, its place being taken by the circle.

Pitman's New Era: sauce sauces cease ceases ceasing sighs/size sizes sizing sizeable scissors secede
sauce sauces, cease ceases ceasing, sighs/size sizes sizing sizeable, scissors secede

Do not follow longhand: Do not be misled by words like those below, which do not contain the sounds of s-vowel-s, they merely appear at first glance to do so in longhand; they are in fact Circle S followed by Shun Hook:

Pitman's New Era: decision incision possession accession cessation secession
decision possession accession incision cessation secession

Differentiation: Where the SeS or SeZ (with short E) is part of the basic word (e.g. not a plural or a verb S-ending) or if a diphthong or diphone is involved, Circle S plus stroke Ess is generally preferred; this is because there is such a large number of this type of word that a regular means of differentiation is needed between them and plurals of shorter words. The derivatives will generally keep the stroke Ess, but Circle Ses is sometimes used where it is more convenient e.g. to avoid an awkward joining or to shorten the outline. This is an example of speed/ease of writing being more important that having "tidy" rules:

Pitman's New Era: poses poses possess possesses possessed possessing possessive possessor
poses poses but possess possesses possessed possessing possessive possessor

Pitman's New Era: axe axes access accesses accessed accessing excess excessive
axe axes but access accesses accessed accessing, excess excessive

Pitman's New Era: boss bosses/boss's abcess abcesses obsess obsesses obsessive
boss bosses/boss's but abscess abscesses, obsess obsesses obsessive

Pitman's New Era: raise raises recess recesses recessive
raise raises, recess recesses recessed recession recessive

Pitman's New Era: gas gases gaseous gaseous
gas gases but  gaseous (this word is sometimes pronounced "gayshus")

Exceptions have been made for the following very common words for the sake of convenience. The outlines are distinctive with Circle Ses, and therefore they do not need to use the stroke S:

Pitman's New Era: exercise exercising success successful emphasise emphasised
exercise exercising, success successful, emphasise emphasised

Pitman's New Era: sixes sexes exorcise
Note: sixes and sexes might need vocalising; exorcise is distinguished by the use of stroke Zee

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Basic words with vowel other than short E can use the Circle Ses:

Pitman's New Era: crisis analysis hypothesis
crisis analysis hypothesis

Words like those above form their plural by a change of vowel. It would be good practice to omit the singular vowel, and always insert the plural one:

Pitman's New Era: crises hypotheses
crises hypotheses

Some of these types of words have identical plurals and verb endings in longhand, although pronounced differently, so vocalising the Circle Ses may be helpful:

Pitman's New Era: NOUN diagnosis diagnoses VERB diagnose diagnoses
Noun:
diagnosis diagnoses Verb: diagnose diagnoses

Pitman's New Era: NOUN analysis analyses VERB analyse analyses
Noun: analysis
analyses Verb: analyse analyses

If the accent falls in different places, you can indicate this by adding a small cross next to the vowel. This method is useful for many pairs of words where the nouns and verbs have different syllables accented. As the words are generally spelled identically, this merely aids comprehension of the text as you read your shorthand back, especially important if reading back in situ, with all eyes on you. My personal suggestion is to replace the vowel – the position of the cross lets you know what the vowel might be, and other vowels should not be necessary. You should ensure that the cross does not look like a diphthong or diphone:

Pitman's New Era: NOUN analyses VERB analyses
Plural noun analyses Verb analyses

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With hooks

Circle Ses can be combined with N hook to straight strokes, in the same way as Circle S:

Pitman's New Era: bounces dances expenses experiences
bounces dances expenses experiences

It cannot be combined with F/V hooks, or any hooks on curved strokes.

When written medially it is impractical for it to be followed by a hooked stroke.

Vowels

See Theory Vowels page for how to vocalise Circle Ses. In brief, the short vowel sound as in "pen" is not indicated in Circle Ses, as it is the most common, but any other vowel between the S-S may be written inside the circle.

Adding a third S

Circle S can be added onto the big Circle Ses by continuing the motion, writing the small circle on the other side of the stroke:

Pitman's New Era: emphasises successes exercises censuses
emphasises successes exercises censuses

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Other uses

The large circle can represent two circles:

  • In a few compound words it can represent two S's that belong to separate parts of the compound, even though only one S is sounded, to make the outline more readable (this has nothing to with the "ses" in the longhand):

  • Pitman's New Era: house-sparrow house-surgeon flaxseed

    house-surgeon house-sparrow flaxseed

  • In a few words with diss- and miss- to provide distinction or improve readability – see Theory 18 Prefixes/Dis and Mis

  • Circle S followed by the stroke Hay circle, see Theory 12 Hay/Large medial circle page.

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CIRCLE SWAY

This is a large circle, used at the beginning of an outline, placed and read in the same way as Circle S, to represent the sound of SW.

  • Never used medially or finally.

  • No vowel comes before the "SW-" and not vowel comes between the S and the W.

  • Never vocalised, as there is no vowel to show. The vowel that follows it is placed against the stroke.

  • The name "Sway" is for convenience – any vowel may come after it.

Pitman's New Era: sweep swab sweat swayed/suede Swedish switch swag
sweep swab sweat swayed/suede Swedish switch swag

Pitman's New Era: swivel swath swathe Swiss Swaziland swish swim swamp swan swing
swivel swath swathe Swiss Swaziland swish swim swamp swan swing

Pitman's New Era: swear swirl swarm swarthy swerve swerved
swear swirl swarm swarthy swerve swerved
*

*special outline, see Distinguishing Outlines List4

It can be placed on a halved or doubled stroke:

Pitman's New Era: swept sweated swathed swooned swelter
swept sweated swathed swooned swelter

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With hooks:

Circle Sway can be combined with R hook to straight strokes, just like Circle S:

Pitman's New Era: sweeper swabber sweater switcher swagger
sweeper swabber sweater switcher swagger

It is not combined with any other hooks.

When used with stroke Ell, the initial hook that would normally form "Wel" becomes redundant:

Pitman's New Era: ell well swell low wallow swallow
ell well swell, low wallow swallow

It never combines with the hook on stroke Yay or Way. If such a word arose, it would probably best to start the outline with Circle S on Way, followed by the appropriate strokes or diphone. Someone who is swayed might be a swayee? If you lived in the town of Swaye, maybe you could be travelling Swaye-wards? People do make up words and the shorthand writer has to write them, whether they are in the dictionary or not.

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When not to use:

Use Circle S on stroke Way:

(a) if the SW is the only consonant in the outline, retaining it in derivatives:

Pitman's New Era: sway sways swayer swaying swayed swayback
sway sways swayer swaying
but swayed/suθde for convenience, swayback

(b) In the middle of a word or outline:

Pitman's New Era: dissuade persuade persuasion persuasive suasion suasive
dissuade persuade persuasion persuasive
(suasion and suasive retain this form)

In a derivative, the SW may end up in the middle:

Pitman's New Era: sweetened unsweetened swerving unswerving
sweetened but unsweetened, swerving but unswerving

(e) before stroke Hay:

Pitman's New Era: Swahili
Swahili

In some words the S and W, although together, are parts of separate words:

Pitman's New Era: crosswise passway password glassware ware
crosswise passway password
(word=short form) glassware (but ware/wear)

If a vowel comes before the SW, use stroke Ess and medial semicircle W:

Pitman's New Era: assuage a-swirl aswarm Aswan
assuage a-swirl aswarm
* Aswan*

(*these two not in shorthand dictionary)

Use Circle S and medial semicircle W where it is not convenient to use stroke Way:

Pitman's New Era: Homeswell Harmsworth
Homeswell Harmsworth

Do not be misled by longhand spelling:

Pitman's New Era: sward sword
sward
has the W sound but sword does not.

Do not be tempted, in a confused moment, to use Circle Sway for these types of words where the sound is SKW:

Pitman's New Era: square squash squiggle
square squash squiggle

Face shorthand learning square on, squash the problems and master the squiggles!

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"Whatever is true, whatever is noble, whatever is right, whatever is pure, whatever is lovely, whatever is admirable – if anything is excellent or praiseworthy – think about such things." (Philippians 4:8)

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