Long Live Pitman's Shorthand banner text

Completely devoted to New Era Shorthand

 

Theory 11 Doubling

Long Live Pitman's Shorthand! Free resources

Read my Blog written in shorthand

 

Search this website.
Results by
Freefind
Advanced

Or use my Search page.

Find that New Era outline on the Shorthand Dictionary page - free PDF downloads

Home   

Recent Additions & Corrections

About

Shorthand Everywhere

Why Learn?

Notes for Beginners

Pen and Paper

Pen & Pencil Reviews

Dictation

How To Practise

Downloads

Blog downloads and reading articles have moved to new website:
www.long-live-pitmans-shorthand-reading.org.uk

Links

Guestmap & Guestbook links page

Feedback Form

You Can Help

Books

Shorthand Books

Shorthand Dictionaries

Theory

Theory Intro

 1   Strokes

 2   Vowels

 3   Forming Outlines

 4   Circles

 5   Loops

 6   Hooks Intro

 7   Hooks R L

 8   Hooks N F V

 9   Shun Hook

10  Halving

11  Doubling

12  Hay Aspirate

13  W Forms

14  L Forms

15  R Forms

16  Imp/Imb

17  Ish

18  Prefixes

19  Suffixes General

20  Suffixes Contracted

Short Forms

SF Intro

SF List 1

SF List 2

SF List 3

SF List 4

Contractions

Contractions Intro

Contractions Main

Contractions Optional

Phrasing

1 Phrasing Intro & Contents list

2 Theory

3 Theory

4 Omission Part words

5 Omission Whole words

6 Miscellaneous

7 Miscellaneous

8 Intersections

Distinguishing Outlines

DO Intro

DO List 1 A-C

DO List 2 D-H

DO List 3 I-P

DO List 4 Q-Y

Vocabulary

Vocab Intro

Numbers

Punctuation

Word Lists

Text Lists from PDFs

 

Yellow Teddy's page


Long Live Pitman's Shorthand! logo web


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PAGE DATE 12 January 2016

Doubling the length of a stroke adds the syllable sound of -ter -der and the voiced -THer, but not the unvoiced -ther. Which sound is added is ascertained by context (both the rest of the outline and its meaning within the text), and vocalisation is used to differentiate where necessary:

  • Straight strokes are doubled in length.

  • Curved strokes are doubled in length and retain the same depth of curve.

  • There are restrictions on when straight strokes can be doubled, to prevent clashing with two of the same stroke in succession.

  • The vowel places are spaced out along the stroke to match the new length.

  • The vowel of the added syllable is never shown.

  • Order of reading is: stroke + final hook + doubling sound + circle S or dot -ing.

  • Occasionally used for -ture.

  • Not used if the syllable is accented or a final vowel follows.

  • Past tenses generally use halving instead.

  • Ing doubled adds -ker -ger; stroke Ar is used to just add -er.

  • Used in phrases to represent: there their other dear.

  • The description of the syllables added refers to the sound, not the longhand spelling.

Quick reference table
Position and vocalisation
Straight strokes
Curved strokes
Ell
Ing
Doubling plus suffix
Two straight strokes
In phrases
When not to use

For doubling of Imp/Imb, see Theory 16 Imp/Imb page

QUICK REFERENCE TABLE

DOUBLED
STROKE
-ter -der -THer (voiced) -er -ker -ger
Straight
With attachments

With attachments

With attachments
- -
Curved - -
Ing - - - Use stroke Ar
Imp/Imb
SEE THEORY 16 IMP/IMB PAGE FOR FULL DETAILS
Use stroke TR, or
omit light P & use M doubled
Only if has N hook - -
Ell
Alone

With attachments

With attachments
- -

Position and vocalisation

The vowel added by the doubling syllable is never shown in the outline, and indeed cannot be shown as there is nowhere to write it. As its vowel is slurred, this is not a problem. Doubling is not used when the vowel is an accented one, full strokes are used, to enable the outline to be vocalised.

Doubled strokes are not quite so straightforward as normal length strokes to place in position:

Downstrokes all go through the line, as their angle is steep and crossing the line cannot be avoided. It is possible to start first position outlines higher up, but this does not really make a lot of difference and should not be relied upon. Occasional extra vocalisation would be a wise precaution.

Upstrokes are written at a shallower angle, taking up less vertical space, and they can therefore have the normal three positions. This is easier to achieve because the lowest part of the stroke is at the beginning there is slightly more control over the beginning part of any stroke or outline than at the end.

Horizontal strokes are positioned as normal, i.e. above the line for first position, and on the line for second and third positions.

Where the doubled stroke is not the one that is being put in position (i.e. it is not the first up or down stroke, or the only stroke), it is immaterial where it ends up being written.

Top of page

Straight Strokes

A doubled plain straight stroke looks identical to two of the same stroke in succession (see below), and so doubling is only used when there are other attachments to help with the legibility of the outline. A final circle S can also be added to any of the outlines and is spoken last of all:

(a) Initial Circle S:

Pitman's New Era: spotter spotters sceptre spider speeder spreader splitter splutter
spotter spotters sceptre spider speeder spreader splitter splutter

Pitman's New Era: sector scatter squatter straighter strutter seater sitter
sector scatter squatter straighter strutter
Note: seater sitter

(b) Final hook:

Pitman's New Era: ponder pander punter pointer printer sprinter splinter planter supplanter plunder
ponder pander punter pointer printer sprinter splinter planter supplanter plunder

Pitman's New Era: spender splendour banter binder bender brander blender blunter/blunder
spender splendour banter binder bender brander blender blunter/blunder

Pitman's New Era: taunter tinter/tinder drifter dander chanter chunter gender
taunter tinter/tinder drifter dander chanter chunter gender

Pitman's New Era: canter/candour counter kinder crofter
canter/candour counter kinder crofter

Pitman's New Era: gander grounder grunter grinder grafter squander
gander grounder grunter grinder grafter squander

Pitman's New Era: renter/render surrender rounder rafter winder wonder
renter/render surrender rounder rafter winder wonder

Pitman's New Era: winter wafter yonder hunter hounder
winter wafter yonder hunter hounder

Top of page

(c) Final joined diphthong:

Pitman's New Era: powder/pouter prouder pewter computer touter tutor/Tudor doubter chowder
powder/pouter prouder pewter computer
touter tutor/Tudor doubter* chowder

*Same thickness stroke the whole length do not be tempted to do part thick and part thin, as in "Ted" and "debt".

The plurals use a hooked stroke, as the diphthong is no longer joined:

Pitman's New Era: powders pouters computers tutors Tudors doubters chowders
powders pouters computers tutors Tudors doubters chowders

Pitman's New Era: commuter stout stouter
Note:
commuter stout stouter

(d) Preceding stroke(s):

Pitman's New Era: adapter adopter captor helicopter repeater
adapter adopter captor helicopter repeater

Pitman's New Era: inhibitor inhabiter cohabiter incubator participator liberator exhibitor
inhibitor inhabiter cohabiter incubator participator liberator exhibitor

Pitman's New Era: chapter Jupiter participator exploder institutor astuter astute
chapter Jupiter participator exploder institutor* astuter  Note: astute

*the first T is omitted in this outline = ins(t)itutor

Pitman's New Era: contributor distributor imitator dictator agitator creditor bystander refrigerator
contributor
* distributor* imitator dictator agitator creditor bystander refrigerator

*Because these have more than one stroke, they can remain doubled in the plural even though they no longer have an attached diphthong.

Top of page

Pitman's New Era: rector director recruiter tractor stricter instructor
rector director recruiter tractor stricter instructor

Pitman's New Era: propagator instigator allocator alligator electoral
propagator instigator allocator alligator electoral

Pitman's New Era: ejector projector objector banqueter
ejector projector objector banqueter

Pitman's New Era: nectar indicator protector protractor
nectar indicator protector protractor

Pitman's New Era: extractor adjudicator absconder speculator
extractor adjudicator absconder speculator

Pitman's New Era: incinerator moderator twitter outwitter
incinerator moderator twitter outwitter

Pitman's New Era: embroider illustrator bequeather persuader dissuader
embroider illustrator bequeather persuader dissuader

Pitman's New Era: curator operator respirator macerator accelerator
curator operator respirator macerator accelerator

Top of page

Curved Strokes

Curved strokes are doubled for all the sounds. Unlike straight strokes, no restriction is necessary because a double curved stroke does not resemble two of the same stroke in succession. No thickening is needed for the D sound, as that is represented as part of the doubling:

Pitman's New Era: fatter father fetter/feather fitter feeder fighter after afternoon
fatter father fetter/feather fitter feeder fighter after afternoon

Pitman's New Era: flatter flitter fritter frankfurter softer sifter swifter
flatter flitter fritter frankfurter softer sifter swifter

Pitman's New Era: fender offender finder founder flounder Flanders
fender offender finder founder flounder Flanders

Pitman's New Era: laughter lifter lavender shifter
laughter lifter lavender shifter

Pitman's New Era: voter aviator avoider invader inventor provider provide
voter aviator avoider invader inventor provider
 Note: provide

Pitman's New Era: renovator excavator rotavator elevator abbreviator
renovator excavator rotavator
* elevator abbreviator

*Exaggerate the joining angle slightly the change of thickness helps to show the join.

Pitman's New Era: theatre thunder thither aster Esther Easter oyster sister eastern
theatre thunder thither aster Esther Easter oyster sister  Note: eastern

Pitman's New Era: asunder shutter shatter shooter peashooter sharpshooter
asunder shutter shatter shooter peashooter sharpshooter
*

*After the two downstrokes, Ish written upwards for lineality

Pitman's New Era: negotiator initiator matter mitre/mither meter/metre/meeter
negotiator initiator
matter mitre/mither meter/metre/meeter

Pitman's New Era: mutter/mother smother smoother Smithers smithereens
motor mutter/mother smother smoother but Smithers* smithereens

*Names need to be clearer, as context cannot help, so separate strokes are more helpful.

Pitman's New Era: reminder remainder permitter transmitter barometer
reminder remainder permitter transmitter
* barometer

*N omitted from "trans" (see Theory 18 Prefixes/Trans page)

Top of page

Pitman's New Era: centimetre diameter pedometer kilometre thermometer
centimetre diameter pedometer, kilometre
* thermometer

*accent on first syllable (KIL-a-meeter); if accent on 2nd syllable (ki-LOM-mitter), there would be a first place dash after Ell and a light dot at end.

Pitman's New Era: natter another netter/nether enter/ender neater/needer/neither
natter another netter/nether enter/ender neater/needer/neither

Pitman's New Era: neither/nitre knitter neuter stentor
neither/nitre knitter neuter stentor

Pitman's New Era: sander sender/centre/center/scenter senator cinder saunter Alexander
sander sender/centre/center/scenter senator cinder saunter Alexander

Pitman's New Era: detonator alienator presenter dissenter
detonator alienator presenter dissenter

Pitman's New Era: janitor originator progenitor preventer covenanter
janitor originator progenitor preventer covenanter

Pitman's New Era: northerly generator order ardour border boarder
northerly generator order ardour border boarder

Pitman's New Era: barter charter harder hoarder sorter deserter disorder
 barter charter harder hoarder sorter deserter disorder

Pitman's New Era: porter supporter transporter reporter importer exporter
porter supporter transporter reporter importer exporter

Pitman's New Era: smarter starter warder smart start ward reward rewarder
smarter
starter warder  Note: smart start ward reward rewarder

"inter-" always uses doubled En and takes the short i vowel:

Pitman's New Era: interrupter interceptor international interval interview
interrupter interceptor international interval interview

Pitman's New Era: interfere intermittent intermission interjection interest
interfere intermittent intermission interjection interest
(contraction)

"intro-" only uses doubled En when convenient to join, and the doubled stroke takes no initial vowel:

Pitman's New Era: introduce introduction introjection intromission
introduce introduction
(contraction), introjection intromission

Top of page

Ell

A plain Ell when alone is doubled only for -ter, and the form retained in derivatives:

Pitman's New Era: latter latterly loiter loitering lighter lighterman
latter latterly loiter loitering lighter lighterman

Pitman's New Era: letter letterpress letterbox later
letter letterpress letterbox later

Pitman's New Era: litre looter alter/altar litter litterbug
litre looter alter/altar litter litterbug

Pitman's New Era: ladder leader alder alderman elder elderly
But
ladder leader alder alderman elder elderly

Pitman's New Era: lather leather loather Lowther
But lather leather loather Lowther

Top of page

If the Ell has attachments or preceding strokes, it can be doubled for all the sounds:

Pitman's New Era: slotter slighter/slider slaughter slater slitter/slither slather
slotter slighter/slider slaughter slater slitter/slither slather

Pitman's New Era: salter/psalter/solder swelter halter holder
salter/psalter/solder swelter halter holder

Pitman's New Era: welter/welder Walter wilder wilderness

welter/welder Walter wilder wilderness

Pitman's New Era: lender slender slander cylinder calendar
lender slender slander cylinder calendar

Pitman's New Era: isolator Icelander islander Highlander Hollander
isolator Icelander islander Highlander
* Hollander

*Full-length Hay, not tick H, because it is a derivative of "high"

Pitman's New Era: polluter boulder builder bewilder
polluter boulder builder bewilder

Pitman's New Era: falter defaulter folder filter
falter defaulter folder filter

Pitman's New Era: kilter quilter collator colluder legislator
kilter quilter collator colluder legislator

Pitman's New Era: accumulator simulator smoulder smelter annihilator
accumulator simulator smoulder smelter annihilator

Pitman's New Era: beholder householder shareholder stakeholder
beholder householder shareholder stakeholder

The doubled Ell is normally written upwards; it is only written downwards for ease of joining i.e. after N NS NG to maintain the direction of the curves, and after SK. As there is never a vowel after it, it never changes direction to indicate a following vowel, as the normal length Ell can sometimes do:

Pitman's New Era: penholder ventilator newsletter insulator insulter moneylender
penholder ventilator newsletter insulator insulter moneylender

Pitman's New Era: ringleader scolder helter-skelter, in this letter
ringleader scolder helter-skelter, in this letter

Pitman's New Era: alternative alteration alternator
Note: alternative alteration alternator

Pitman's New Era: literal littoral lateral collateral poulterer
literal littoral lateral collateral poulterer

Top of page

Ing

Doubling Ing adds -ker -ger

Pitman's New Era: strokes inger

The doubled stroke is exactly the same sound as the normal length hooked form, but is only used where the hooked form does not join easily or if it is the only stroke in the outline. There are thus two versions for the same sound:

Pitman's New Era: anger/anchor anchorage inker sinker stinker shrinker
anger/anchor anchorage inker sinker stinker shrinker

Pitman's New Era: rancour/ranker winker longer linger hanker
rancour/ranker winker longer linger hanker

Use hooked form for better join; use hooked form where both would be convenient i.e. after Kay Gay:

Pitman's New Era: pinker banker/Bangor bunker blinker tinker tanker
pinker banker/Bangor bunker blinker tinker tanker

Pitman's New Era: stronger drunker conker/conquer/conger finger thinker
stronger drunker conker/conquer/conger finger thinker

Top of page

ING-ER: to add just -er to Ing, use stroke Ar (there are far fewer of these, which is why doubling Ing adds -ker/-ger and not -er):

Pitman's New Era: singer ringer/wringer banger hanger longer (one who longs)
singer ringer/wringer banger hanger longer
(one who longs)

Doubling + suffix

Any suffixes are spoken after the doubling sound:

Pitman's New Era: ponders pondering meanders meanderings mutterings wanderings
ponders pondering meanders meanderings mutterings wanderings

Pitman's New Era: punters punster
Compare: punters punster

Top of page

Two straight strokes

A doubled straight stroke is the same shape as two of the same stroke in succession. As the latter are less common, always vocalise them.

Pitman's New Era: ponder pippin banter baboon bobbin
ponder pippin banter baboon bobbin

Pitman's New Era: dander deaden condor cocoon
dander deaden condor cocoon

Pitman's New Era: yonder yarn hunter heron render re-run
yonder yarn hunter heron render re-run

Pitman's New Era: marauder mirror writer/rather rare rarer error
marauder mirror writer/rather (short form) rare  Note: rarer error

Note: writer/rather is an exceptional use of doubling. As it is a short form, it is never vocalised, and it sits on the line.

Top of page

In Phrases

Doubling can be used in phrases for "there their other dear". Generally all short forms consisting of a full stroke can be doubled to add these words. In normal outlines, this use of the doubling principle should be more cautiously applied and is safest when restricted to the most common phrases:

Pitman's New Era: we have been there, I think there is, I am sure there is, making their way
we have been there, I think there is, I am sure there is, making their way

Pitman's New Era: some other way, my dear sirs, in other words, any other, no other
some other way, my dear sirs, in other words
but any other, no* other

*In phrases, always insert the vowel in "no" and leave "any" unvocalised

Pitman's New Era: in order, in order that, in order to
in order, in order that
 Note also the contracted phrase: in order to

Pitman's New Era: further farther, if their/there, for their/there

Pairs: further farther, if their/there, for their/there

Pitman's New Era: typewriter therefore interrogator
typewriter
(the outline breaks the syllable unnaturally, but convenience is greater)
therefore (this is a unique use of doubling) interrogator

Top of page

When not to use

No attachments: If a straight stroke has none of the required attachments, then a hooked stroke must be used for the sounds:

Pitman's New Era: potter potters pottering padder batter bather bother tatter tether dither
potter potters pottering padder batter bather bother tatter tether dither

Pitman's New Era: chatter Cheddar jotter jitter judder cater cotter cuter
chatter Cheddar jotter jitter judder cater cotter cuter

Pitman's New Era: gutter gather quitter rotter reader water wetter hotter
gutter gather quitter rotter reader water wetter hotter

The presence of an initial hook on a straight stroke is insufficient on its own to allow doubling:

Pitman's New Era: plotter pleader broader breather blather trotter trader
plotter pleader broader breather blather trotter trader

Pitman's New Era: whetter quitter Crowther crater greeter grater great greater
whetter quitter Crowther crater greeter grater
(Note: great greater short forms)

Some outlines/syllables that are not doubled can do so if they form the end of a longer word, i.e. they are preceded by other strokes, which helps with legibility:

Pitman's New Era: Peter repeater butter rebutter bitter arbiter
Peter repeater butter rebutter bitter arbiter

Pitman's New Era: biter backbiter cutter hedgecutter stonecutter
biter backbiter cutter hedgecutter stonecutter

Pitman's New Era: daughter granddaughter brother stepbrother
daughter granddaughter brother stepbrother

Pitman's New Era: leather washleather cheater windcheater gather ingather
leather washleather cheater windcheater gather ingather

Pitman's New Era: sunbather chatterbox
sunbather is clearer with separate strokes; no doubling for chatterbox because the doubled stroke would not be preceded by other strokes.

The initial circle at the beginning of Hay does not count as an attachment as it is an integral part of the stroke:

Pitman's New Era: hatter heater hooter header heather
hatter heater hooter header heather

Top of page

Unvoiced -ther: never uses doubling:

Pitman's New Era: anther panther Luther Arthur Merthyr
anther panther Luther Arthur Merthyr
*

*One of the few outlines that does not have any writable vowel marks, as they are incorporated into the -ER syllable of the hooks

Unequal length with no clear join: Strokes of unequal length must have a clear angle of join, otherwise use hooked strokes or disjoin:

Pitman's New Era: factor lector navigator monitor intermittent
factor lector navigator monitor intermittent

Pitman's New Era: interim larder shelter shoulder shielder
interim larder shelter shoulder shielder

Top of page

Accented syllable: Do not use when the syllable has an accented vowel the full strokes are needed in order to have somewhere to write the vowel sign:

 

Pitman's New Era: enter/ender entire inter endure, aster austere, matter mature
enter/ender entire inter endure aster austere matter mature

Pitman's New Era: neither/nitre nitric, commander commandeer, colander volunteer
neither/nitre nitric commander commandeer colander volunteer

Pitman's New Era: latterly laterally, litter liturgy, fritter fraternal
latterly laterally litter liturgy fritter fraternal

Pitman's New Era: promoter premature, natural internal, inventor vendor
promoter premature natural internal inventor vendor

Top of page

Exceptions

Pitman's New Era: natural central eccentric interpret tartaric
natural central eccentric interpret tartaric

Pitman's New Era: cylindrical cylindriform
cylindrical
(to match cylinder) cylindriform

Top of page

Triphones: do not use when preceded by a triphone that has long last vowel seeing the full separate strokes let you know that there are three vowels involved (this principle is also used in halving and with Shun Hook, for the same reason):

Pitman's New Era: extenuator punctuator insinuator proprietor appropriator
extenuator punctuator insinuator
compare proprietor* appropriator*

*vocalise both, due to similarity

If the third vowel is short as in "proprietor" doubling can be used as the last vowel of such a triphone is slurred or hardly sounded, there are in effect only two main vowels.

Top of page

Final vowel: Do not use when a final vowel follows full strokes are needed to provide somewhere to write the vowel, and in some cases lets you know the vowel is there, even if it is not being written in:

Pitman's New Era: boundary pantry carpentry country secondary quandary
boundary pantry carpentry country secondary quandary

Pitman's New Era: wintry inventory infantry watery entry sentry
wintry inventory infantry watery entry sentry

Pitman's New Era: pleasantry sundry pageantry gentry paltry poultry Protheroe
pleasantry sundry pageantry gentry paltry poultry Protheroe

Pitman's New Era: psaltery flattery directory feathery angry hungry
psaltery flattery directory feathery angry hungry

Top of page

Past tenses: for -erd endings, mostly found in past tenses, use halving:

Pitman's New Era: pondered plundered splintered tendered cantered slandered
pondered plundered splintered tendered cantered slandered

Pitman's New Era: spattered spluttered powdered tutored lettered littered faltered filtered
spattered spluttered powdered tutored lettered littered faltered filtered

Pitman's New Era: flattered frittered sweltered soldered smouldered bewildered
flattered frittered sweltered soldered smouldered bewildered

Pitman's New Era: scattered shattered shuttered mattered motored metered
scattered shattered shuttered mattered motored metered

Pitman's New Era: nattered neutered entered centred/centered sauntered engendered thundered
nattered neutered entered centred/centered sauntered engendered thundered

Pitman's New Era: chartered ordered bordered disordered
chartered ordered bordered disordered

Pitman's New Era: rendered raftered wandered wondered wintered hindered foundered floundered
rendered raftered wandered wondered wintered hindered foundered floundered
*

*"floundered" is difficult to write neatly when vocalised with the diphthong, due to congestion of the marks, therefore keep the diphthong sign very small.

Pitman's New Era: mothered smothered fathered feathered slithered
mothered smothered fathered feathered slithered

Pitman's New Era: anchored/angered tankard tinkered drunkard conquered fingered hankered hungered
anchored/angered tankard tinkered drunkard conquered fingered hankered hungered

Top of page

Suffix -ture: Generally not used for -ture:

Pitman's New Era: culture lecture literature capture denture tincture
culture lecture literature capture denture tincture

Pitman's New Era: puncture miniature furniture furnish
puncture miniature furniture
(to match furnish)

Top of page

Exceptions:

Pitman's New Era: picture structure infrastructure conjecture rupture debenture
picture structure infrastructure conjecture rupture debenture

Pitman's New Era: nature signature nurture adventure venture
nature signature nurture adventure venture

Pitman's New Era: future feature material immaterial armature
future feature material immaterial* armature

*Stroke Em repeated for a negative, this will be covered in a future Prefixes/Suffixes page

Some pairs of -tor/-ture words need distinguishing:

Pitman's New Era: captor capture raptor rapture creator creature
captor capture raptor rapture creator creature

Pitman's New Era: sculptor sculpture stricter stricture horticultor horticulture
sculptor sculpture stricter stricture horticultor horticulture

No R sound: If there is no R sound in the syllable, doubling is not appropriate. An R sound is always represented in Pitman's Shorthand, despite the fact that many variations of English do not pronounce it clearly or at all.

Pitman's New Era: Hilda Kilda Florida Inga
Hilda Kilda Florida Inga

Top of page

 

 
 

"Whatever is true, whatever is noble, whatever is right, whatever is pure, whatever is lovely, whatever is admirable if anything is excellent or praiseworthy think about such things." (Philippians 4:8)

Charlie's Fight - save this baby's life - https://www.facebook.com/Charliegardsfight

Guestbook     Guestmap     Feedback Form page

All original material, images and downloads on this website, on the shorthand reading website and on the Blogger sites is copyright Beryl L Pratt and is provided for personal non-commercial study use only, and may not be republished in any form, or reposted online, either in full or part. If you wish to share the content, please do so by a link to the appropriate page of the website.

Free Web Counter from www.statcounter.com
Free GuestMap, Guestbook & Feedback Forms www.bravenet.com

Use the space on your 404 page to help find missing people by embedding info from notfound.org     See my 404 page