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Theory 15 – R Forms

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Theory

Theory Intro

 1   Strokes

 2   Vowels

 3   Forming Outlines

 4   Circles

 5   Loops

 6   Hooks Intro

 7   Hooks R L

 8   Hooks N F V

 9   Shun Hook

10  Halving

11  Doubling

12  Hay Aspirate

13  W Forms

14  L Forms

15  R Forms

16  Imp/Imb

17  Ish

18  Prefixes

19  Suffixes General

20  Suffixes Contracted

Short Forms

SF Intro

SF List 1

SF List 2

SF List 3

SF List 4

Contractions

Contractions Intro

Contractions Main

Contractions Optional

Phrasing

1 Phrasing Intro & Contents list

2 Theory

3 Theory

4 Omission Part words

5 Omission Whole words

6 Miscellaneous

7 Miscellaneous

8 Intersections

Distinguishing Outlines

DO Intro

DO List 1 A-C

DO List 2 D-H

DO List 3 I-P

DO List 4 Q-Y

Vocabulary

Vocab Intro

Numbers

Punctuation

Word Lists

Text Lists from PDFs

 

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PAGE DATE 16 January 2016

The sound of R is represented in three ways:

  • Stroke Ar

  • Stroke Ray

  • R Hook, described in full on Theory 7 Hooks R L page

  • Neither of the strokes can take an initial hook

  • If there is an R in the longhand, it is nearly always represented in Shorthand – the exceptions are very few

  • Halving and Doubling of the strokes is described in full on those Theory pages.

Stroke Ar
Stroke Ray
Initially
Medially
Finally
After Hay
After W Semicircle
Derivatives
Stroke Rer
Stroke Ard
Prefix Irr-
R not shown

Stroke Ar

  • Has a vowel before

  • Always written downwards

  • Thickened to add ER = Stroke Rer

  • Halved and thickened to add D = Stroke Ard

  • Used for the short forms "your" and "year"

Stroke Ray

  • Has a vowel after

  • Always written upwards at an angle of 30° from the horizontal, so it cannot be confused with Chay when standing alone

  • Used for the short forms "are" and "our/hour"

If the outline has more than one stroke, the R is chosen that makes the best join. If both strokes are equally convenient, then that stroke is chosen which indicates the vowel: Ar=Vowel before, Ray=vowel after, as reflected in the stroke names.

A speedy and facile outline is first priority, vowel indication is a secondary consideration. These two strokes should not be thought solely in terms of vowel indication (although that aspect has to be taught first in instruction books) as this results in a large number of perceived "exceptions" which is untrue and unhelpful. There are probably more words that choose the R stroke for convenience/facility than for vowel indication. "Prefers a vowel before/after" is closer to the actual usage. When creating a new outline, you should try for vowel indication and if the joins do not work well or the outline is going too far up or downwards, then you know it is necessary to use the other R.

Which stroke to use for each outline has already been decided, of course, but your own decision will be required for a word that is not in any shorthand dictionary, as well as hastily writing an (as yet) unknown outline during dictation.

Initially

1. When there is only one stroke in the outline:

Vowel before, use Ar:

Pitman's New Era: or ore air/ere/e'er/Ayre/heir err ear ire Ayers art
or ore air/ere/e'er/Ayre/heir err ear ire Ayers art

Pitman's New Era: order sorter sire sir sear/seer/cere sore
order sorter
* sire sir sear/seer/cere sore   *see "sort" below

Pitman's New Era: swear swore urn earn stern store star steer
swear swore urn earn stern store star steer

Vowel after, use Ray:

Pitman's New Era: rye rise/rice Roy ray rays/raise/race row/roe rows/rose/roes roses
rye rise/rice Roy ray rays/raise/race row/roe rows/rose/roes roses

Pitman's New Era: rouse/rows rue rues/ruse Reece/Rhys raised/raced roast rust roster

rouse/rows rue rues/ruse Reece/Rhys raised/raced roast rust roster

Pitman's New Era: run runs rinses rowan rind rent/rend round rounder
run runs rinses rowan rind rent/rend round rounder

Pitman's New Era: rough rave reef raft rafter ration Russian
rough/ruff rave reef raft rafter ration Russian

Pitman's New Era: sorrow sorry series serious cirrus cerise sari Sarah
sorrow sorry series serious cirrus cerise sari Sarah

Pitman's New Era: starry story/storey soirée serene siren surround
starry story/storey
soirée serene siren surround

Pitman's New Era: serif/ceriph seraph surf serve/serf conserve starve
serif/ceriph seraph surf serve/serf conserve starve

S+RT use Ray to make derivatives easier:

Pitman's New Era: sort sorted concert concertina certain certainty
sort sorted concert concertina certain certainty

Pitman's New Era: consort consortium serrate serrated resort
consort consortium serrate serrated resort

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Word starts with a vowel, and a vowel comes after as well, use Ar. It is helpful to insert the 2nd vowel for these:

Pitman's New Era: arrow array awry aria area airy/eyrie era eerie
arrow array awry aria area airy/eyrie
* era eerie   *eyrie (eagle's nest) has several pronunciations

Pitman's New Era: arise arouse erase iris errs/Erse arrest arrester
arise arouse erase iris errs/Erse arrest arrester

Pitman's New Era: Aran/Arran Erin iron Irene Aryan Orion
Aran/Arran Erin iron
* Irene Aryan Orion

*although the R sound may be slight in some speakers, having the R stroke distinguishes this from "ion"

Pitman's New Era: around errand/errant orient oration aeration erosion
around errand/errant orient oration aeration erosion

The above only applies when there is no initial attachment, i.e. the vowel starts the word, compare arrow and sorrow above.

2. When the R is followed by another stroke:

(a) Always use Ray before these strokes, to get a good join, regardless of vowels:

Pitman's New Era: arty artist artistic aright irate erratic aerate
Tee Dee:
arty artist artistic aright irate erratic aerate*

*the diphone for "aer-" is no longer current usage, but may be found in some older shorthand dictionaries.

Pitman's New Era: arid arrayed erode eradicate erudite Urdu aerodynamics
arid arrayed erode eradicate erudite Urdu aerodynamics
*   *see above note re "aer-"

Pitman's New Era: sortie sorority sardine Sardinia sordid
sortie sorority sardine Sardinia sordid

Pitman's New Era: rot rotten rotting rotate ride red/read reading radio
rot rotten rotting rotate ride red/read reading radio

Pitman's New Era: write/right/rite/Wright wrote/rote writing written righting
write/right/rite/Wright wrote/rote
but writing written are exceptional, to gain speedier outlines for these very common words. Note righting, a different verb (= to put to rights, to set upright)

Pitman's New Era: ratter rider rattle riddle serried sturdy storeyed/storied
ratter rider rattle riddle serried sturdy storeyed/storied

Pitman's New Era: arch urchin search research starch artichoke urge origin
Chay Jay:
arch urchin search research starch artichoke urge origin

Pitman's New Era: serge surge surgeon sturgeon sargeant storage steerage
serge surge surgeon sturgeon sargeant storage steerage

Pitman's New Era: roach rich richer ratchet ridge region register Roger
roach rich richer ratchet ridge region register Roger

Pitman's New Era: earth earthed Erith arithmetic orthography orthopaedic
Ith Thee:
earth earthed Erith arithmetic orthography orthopaedic

Pitman's New Era: earthen swarthy wrath Rathbone wreath wreathe writhe
earthen swarthy wrath Rathbone wreath wreathe writhe

Pitman's New Era: oracle article articulate argol argle-bargle
KL GL:
oracle article articulate argol argle-bargle

Pitman's New Era: circle circulate circulation reclaim wriggle raglan
circle circulate circulation reclaim wriggle raglan

Pitman's New Era: request requite Iroquois Uruguay
Kway Gway:
request requite Iroquois Uruguay*   *2 pronunciations

Pitman's New Era: Irwin Darwin doorway Irawadi caraway rewind
Way:
Irwin Darwin doorway Irawadi caraway rewind

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(b) Always use Ar before Em Imp/Imb to get a good join, regardless of vowels:

Pitman's New Era: army aroma Arum Aramaic airman ermine
army aroma Arum Aramaic airman ermine

Pitman's New Era: Ormsby ormolu orometry armed armadillo
Ormsby ormolu orometry armed armadillo

Pitman's New Era: storm swarm surmise sermon ceremony Sturminster
storm swarm surmise sermon ceremony Sturminster

Pitman's New Era: ram rime/rhyme roam/Rome rum rim ream room
ram rime/rhyme roam/Rome rum rim ream room

Pitman's New Era: remote remit remain remind reminder Raymond Ryman
remote remit remain remind reminder Raymond Ryman

Pitman's New Era: remove remedy remade Ramsgate Romney rheumatism
remove remedy remade Ramsgate Romney rheumatism

Pitman's New Era: ramble rumble ramp romp rumba rhombus reimpose
ramble rumble ramp romp rumba rhombus reimpose

A circle or hook shows up the join, and therefore Ray can be used before the Em for vowel indication:

Pitman's New Era: rosemary resume raceme rhizome wearisome worrisome
rosemary resume raceme rhizome wearisome worrisome

Pitman's New Era: rhenium ransom random referendum
rhenium ransom random referendum

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(c) Both Ar and Ray join well before the remainder of the strokes, so vowel indication is possible:

Pitman's New Era: eruption arpeggio Orpington orb arbour Arabella urban
Pee Bee:
eruption arpeggio Orpington orb arbour Arabella urban

Pitman's New Era: rap/wrap rapid report Rupert rob Robert rub rib
rap/wrap rapid report Rupert rob Robert rub rib

Pitman's New Era: rebate rebut rabbit wrapper rubber ripple replace rubble
rebate rebut rabbit wrapper rubber ripple replace rubble

Pitman's New Era: ark/arc arctic erect organ organic argon argue
Kay Gay:
ark/arc arctic erect organ organic argon argue

Pitman's New Era: Eric irksome ericaceous oryx aurochs
Eric irksome ericaceous oryx aurochs

Pitman's New Era: rock rug rocker record rigger regard
rock rug rocker record rigger regard

Pitman's New Era: orfe orphan orifice Orford arrive arrival artful
Eff Vee:
orfe orphan orifice Orford arrive arrival artful

Pitman's New Era: refuse raffia roughen review rougher river reflect
refuse raffia roughen review rougher river reflect

Pitman's New Era: artifice artificial artifact
artifice artificial
artifact (also spelled artefact) to avoid an invisible junction between a halved Ar and the Eff.

Pitman's New Era: heiress Orissa arioso racy racist raciest rosy/Rosie
Ess Zee:
heiress Orissa arioso racy racist raciest rosy/Rosie

Pitman's New Era: Irish sourish rash rasher rush rouge
Sh Zh:
Irish sourish rash rasher rush rouge

Pitman's New Era:
Ell:
early oral/aural aerial Ursula surly sorrel cerulean

Pitman's New Era: sterile sterilisation sterling starling starlight swirl
sterile sterilisation sterling starling starlight swirl

Pitman's New Era: rile rail roll/role reel real really royal result
rile rail roll/role reel real really royal result

Pitman's New Era: surreal surrealism serial/cereal serialise
surreal surrealism serial/cereal serialise
= derivatives of real series ceres which all use Ray, compare with sorrel above

Pitman's New Era: Ernie earner sterner arena ornate aeronaut Arnold
En Ing:
Ernie earner sterner arena ornate aeronaut Arnold

Pitman's New Era: irony arsenal runny Ronnie rennet risen Ronald
irony arsenal runny Ronnie rennet risen Ronald

Pitman's New Era: range syringe surname serenade ring rank
range syringe surname serenade ring rank

S+R+downstroke use Ray for better joins, whether or not a vowel follows the R:

Pitman's New Era: syrup stirrup surplus serpent sorbet Surbiton
syrup stirrup surplus serpent sorbet Surbiton

Pitman's New Era: cerebral surface survey service starvation
cerebral surface survey service starvation

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Medially

1. Ray joins better in most combinations. It is faster to write than Ar and, because there are more downstrokes than upstrokes in Pitman's Shorthand, using Ray keeps a large number of outlines from descending too far. The choice will often be more dependent on its join with the next stroke:

Pitman's New Era: party dirty tardy pardon burden parch birch torch
party dirty tardy pardon burden parch birch torch

Pitman's New Era: march larch lurch merge emerge margin
march larch lurch merge emerge margin

Pitman's New Era: purge spurge barge dirge charge surcharge
purge spurge barge dirge charge surcharge

Pitman's New Era: park spark sparkle Parker bark
park spark sparkle Parker bark

Pitman's New Era: barker Perth birth dearth girth
barker Perth birth dearth girth

Pitman's New Era: smartest smirk marble garble gherkin
smartest smirk marble garble gherkin

Pitman's New Era: Martha marsh bargain corny
Martha marsh bargain corny

Pitman's New Era: mark marker America embark empiric
mark marker America embark empiric

Pitman's New Era: purpose barb barbarous barbecue rhubarb
purpose barb barbarous barbecue rhubarb

Pitman's New Era: disturb absorb parade borrowed deride carried
disturb suburban absorb parade borrowed deride carried

Pitman's New Era: married narrowed parity charity sincerity hilarity
married narrowed parity charity sincerity hilarity

Pitman's New Era: porridge barrage garage garage x2 marriage enrage
porridge barrage garage garage
(2 pronunciations) marriage enrage

Pitman's New Era: territory tyranny Pyrenées garrison guerilla
territory tyranny Pyrenées garrison guerilla

Pitman's New Era: foreknown foreseen forth/fourth foreclose forefinger
foreknown foreseen forth/fourth foreclose forefinger

Pitman's New Era: boorish cherish garish moorish avaricious ferocious
boorish cherish garish moorish avaricious ferocious

Pitman's New Era: ferocity spherical/sphericle ferried zircon Zurich
ferocity spherical/sphericle
* ferried zircon Zurich**

*sphericle, noun = little sphere, spherule   **anglicised pronunciation

Pitman's New Era: authority thoroughly Thor Thora thoracic southerly
authority thoroughly Thor Thora thoracic southerly

Pitman's New Era: plural spiral viral secretarial ministerial memorial
plural spiral viral secretarial ministerial memorial

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2. If the vowel calls for Ar, it is used where it joins well, mainly before horizontal or upstrokes:

Pitman's New Era: barely bearskin Brierley terseness tiresome tireless
barely bearskin Brierley terseness tiresome tireless

Pitman's New Era: sparsely scarcely securely doorman determine
sparsely scarcely securely doorman determine

Pitman's New Era: similarly requirement diurnal angular binocular
similarly requirement diurnal angular binocular

Ar is sometimes used before a right (clockwise) curve to gain a more flowing outline, despite a vowel following it:

Pitman's New Era: quarrel squirrel flourish
quarrel squirrel flourish

Pitman's New Era: aneurism neural neuralgia neurotic neurosis
aneurism neural neuralgia but neurotic neurosis

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3. Use Ar before Em, Imp/Imb for a good join, the same as you would initially, without regard to vowel indication:

Pitman's New Era: alarm aquarium quorum squirm
alarm aquarium quorum squirm

Pitman's New Era: harm harem hermetic carman Carmen
harm harem hermetic carman Carmen

Pitman's New Era: drawing-room ante-room entire inter unremitting
drawing-room ante-room entire inter unremitting

Pitman's New Era: barium delirium curium sanatorium/sanitorium
barium delirium curium sanatorium
(also spelled sanitorium)

Pitman's New Era: emporium honorarium vivarium Miriam
emporium honorarium vivarium Miriam

Pitman's New Era: formal formula formation firearm pharmacy
formal formula formation firearm pharmacy

Ray before Em is unavoidable in a few outlines:

Pitman's New Era: theorem thorium rosarium
theorem thorium rosarium

Pitman's New Era: sensorium insurmountable surmountable
sensorium insurmountable
* surmountable

*Such a long outline is not typical of the system. A non-standard suggested contraction could be to disjoin or intersect stroke En with "surmountable" and write in 3rd position.

Also allowed in these compound words, to maintain readability:

Pitman's New Era: countryman ferryman juryman jury-mast
countryman ferryman juryman jury-mast

Pitman's New Era: nurseryman Merriman artilleryman rearmouse/reremouse
nurseryman Merriman artilleryman rearmouse/reremouse (=bat)

The following are not in the shorthand dictionary, and are suggestions based on the examples above:

Pitman's New Era: cavalryman infantryman pantryman
cavalryman infantryman pantryman

Pitman's New Era: cameraman quarryman laundryman salaryman
cameraman quarryman laundryman salaryman

A non-standard suggested alternative for "cameraman", for those likely to use it frequently, might be to use M with R hook i.e. ca-mra-man

The vowel sign should always be inserted for the plural "-men" and all plurals that are formed only by a change of vowel.

See Theory 10 Halving/Ray for halved Ray = part port fort etc

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4. Before Kay Gay vowel indication is often possible:

Pitman's New Era: fork ferric forego farrago
fork ferric forego farrago

Pitman's New Era: cork Carrick cargo Garrick
cork Carrick cargo Garrick
Pitman's New Era: clerk cleric lark lyric
clerk cleric lark lyric

Pitman's New Era: Sark cirque sarcasm circus circuit stark
Sark cirque sarcasm circus circuit stark

Pitman's New Era: Syriac Syracuse sirocco stearic resurrect insurrection
Syriac Syracuse sirocco stearic resurrect insurrection

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5. R Hook for brevity

Some outlines use R Hook, despite the intervening vowel, to gain an even briefer outline and/or avoid awkward joins. This is only done when the possibility of clashes is absent or minimal:

Pitman's New Era: paragraph parallel perimeter perplex permit
paragraph parallel perimeter perplex permit

Pitman's New Era: barometer herbarium bacterium thermal term
barometer herbarium bacterium thermal term

Pitman's New Era: kerchief kernel/colonel garter garden garbage target
kerchief kernel/colonel
* garter garden garbage target

* "colonel" is the only word whose outline has an R despite its absence in the longhand – solely to indicate pronunciation

Pitman's New Era: course cursor curve curl curtain curt court
course cursor curve curl curtain curt court

Pitman's New Era: curtain garment merger murmur journal jeopardy
curtain garment merger murmur journal jeopardy

Pitman's New Era: fervent verse shirk shark sharp derogatory
fervent verse shirk shark sharp derogatory
*

*Outline is in 2nd position, to accord with the first vowel of the word, not the first vowel shown in the outline

Such outlines need particular attention to learn because many of them could be written reasonably (but longer) within the main rules, and some might otherwise be very awkward or straggling outlines. Keeping them in your vocabulary notebook whenever they are encountered is helpful, so they can be practised further.

More examples in Theory 2 Vowels/Intervening Vowels and Theory 7 Hooks R L/Vocalisation

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Finally

1. Vowel indication is straightforward in short words:

Pitman's New Era: pair/pear parry prayer prairie bear/bare Barry
pair/pear parry prayer prairie bear/bare Barry

Pitman's New Era: tear/tare tarry dare dairy drawer dreary
tear/tare tarry dare dairy drawer dreary

Pitman's New Era: car carry cure Curie gear Gary
car carry cure Curie gear Gary

Pitman's New Era: glare glory chore cherry jar Jerry/Gerry
glare glory chore cherry jar Jerry/Gerry

Pitman's New Era: choir/quire query enquire enquiry
choir/quire query enquire enquiry

Pitman's New Era: fire fiery fore/four forest fur furry
fire fiery fore/four forest fur furry
(See "furrier" below)

Pitman's New Era: flower flowery veer vary severe sovereign
flower flowery veer vary severe sovereign
*   *middle vowel is not pronounced Pitman's New Era: lore lorry seller celery popular popularise
lore lorry seller celery popular popularise

Pitman's New Era: eye-sore ossuary shore sherry assure assurance
eye-sore ossuary shore sherry assure assurance

Pitman's New Era: czar azure Azores zero Ezra Israel x2
czar azure Azores zero Ezra Israel
(2 pronunciations)

Pitman's New Era: mare Mary mire miry smear summary
mare Mary mire miry smear summary

Pitman's New Era: timer Tamara customer customary
timer Tamara customer customary

Pitman's New Era: miser misery snare narrow laser lacerate
miser misery snare narrow laser lacerate

Pitman's New Era: scare scary solitaire solitary
scare scary solitaire solitary

Pitman's New Era: singer ringer/wringer bringer hanger
singer ringer/wringer bringer hanger

Pitman's New Era: pillar crawler dealer dollar solar
pillar crawler dealer dollar solar

Pitman's New Era: error arrear airier eerier aurora orrery Ararat
error arrear airier eerier aurora orrery Ararat

Pitman's New Era: utterer stutterer caterer secretary, et cetera
utterer stutterer caterer secretary, et cetera
*   *Latin = "and the rest" not spelled "ect"

Pitman's New Era: freer frier/fryer/friar thrower throatier gatherer
freer frier/fryer/friar thrower throatier gatherer

Pitman's New Era: cleverer hoverer manoeuvrer/maneuvrer (manoeuverer/maneuverer)
cleverer hoverer manoeuvrer/maneuvrer
(also spelled manoeuverer/maneuverer)

Words with Hook R can also change to Ray when there is a following vowel:

Pitman's New Era: recover recovery discover discovery prosper prosperous
recover recovery discover discovery prosper prosperous

Pitman's New Era: factor factory victor victory
factor factory
victor victory

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3. After 2 downstrokes use Ray to keep the outline from descending too far:

Pitman's New Era: prepare despair disappear aspire stapler taxpayer
prepare despair disappear aspire stapler taxpayer

Pitman's New Era: ratepayer horse-power proposer trespasser Shakespeare
ratepayer horse-power proposer trespasser Shakespeare
(occasionally Shakespere)

Pitman's New Era: babbler troubler butler splutterer totterer chatterer
babbler troubler butler splutterer totterer chatterer

Pitman's New Era: hairdresser discoverer ditherer tax-gatherer treasurer
hairdresser discoverer ditherer tax-gatherer treasurer

Pitman's New Era: bookstore downstairs upstairs endorser
bookstore downstairs upstairs endorser

Pitman's New Era: brigadier bugbear blusterer pesterer plasterer fosterer
brigadier bugbear blusterer pesterer plasterer
Note: fosterer to avoid awkward join

After Eff and Vee, Ar gives a more facile outline, which outweighs having 3 downstrokes:

Pitman's New Era: pacifier testifier defier decipherer justifier
pacifier testifier defier decipherer justifier

Pitman's New Era: exemplifier baffler trifler muffler shuffler shoveller
exemplifier baffler trifler muffler shuffler shoveller

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2. After KR or GR Ray is preferable, for a clear join. If Ar were used, the outline would quickly deteriorate into an indeterminate curve:

Pitman's New Era: crier greyer/grayer grower disagreer staggerer swaggerer
crier greyer/grayer grower disagreer staggerer swaggerer

3. Use Ray with final hooks, this makes for a fast and forward-moving outline, and easy derivatives:

Pitman's New Era: spurn burn born borne barn stubborn
spurn burn born borne barn stubborn

Pitman's New Era: turn return Saturn western darn churn adjourn
turn return Saturn western darn churn adjourn

Pitman's New Era: sojourn corn acorn fern Farnham
sojourn corn acorn fern Farnham

Pitman's New Era: thorn shorn morning mourn learn
thorn shorn morning mourn learn

Pitman's New Era: deserve preserve observe turf carafe scarf
deserve preserve observe turf carafe scarf

Pitman's New Era: portion apportion assertion immersion coercion desertion
portion apportion assertion immersion coercion desertion

Typical derivatives:

Pitman's New Era: burned/burnt burning burner turner learner sojourner
burned/burnt burning burner turner learner sojourner

Pitman's New Era: apportioner referred referee reference preserved preserver
apportioner referred referee reference preserved preserver

Pitman's New Era: server deserver observer carve carver
server deserver observer
but carve carver

See also "served/swerved/server/swerver" in Distinguishing Outlines

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If a vowel comes between the R and the N or F/V, Ray is the natural choice:

Pitman's New Era: sporran barren Turin Darren Karen foreign Sharon
sporran barren Turin Darren Karen foreign Sharon

Pitman's New Era: marine currency tariff sheriff midriff
marine currency tariff sheriff midriff

After a Shun Hook, use whichever joins best:

Pitman's New Era: partitioner practitioner pensioner conditioner
partitioner practitioner pensioner conditioner

Pitman's New Era: exhibitioner apportioner vacationer motioner commissioner
exhibitioner apportioner vacationer motioner commissioner

Where both join well, there is opportunity for vowel indication:

Pitman's New Era: redemptioner redemptionary extortioner extortionary
redemptioner redemptionary extortioner extortionary

Pitman's New Era: missioner missionary confectioner confectionery confectionary
missioner missionary confectioner
confectionery* confectionary**

* noun=sweets, ** adjective=relating to confections

When only Ray can be used after the Shun Hook, it may be advisable to insert any final vowel:

Pitman's New Era: stationer stationery* stationary petitioner petitionary probationer probationary
stationer stationery
* stationary** petitioner petitionary probationer probationary

*=paper   **=motionless   Mnemonic for spelling these 2 words

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5. For the sound "-ser" Use Ray after Kay Kway Gay Eff Vee En to gain a speedier outline (no examples found for Gway):

Pitman's New Era: kisser causer accuser crosser cruiser closer successor
kisser causer accuser
crosser cruiser closer successor

Pitman's New Era: boxer taxer mixer fixer vexer
boxer taxer mixer fixer vexer

Pitman's New Era: coaxer hoaxer guesser geyser/geezer geyser disguiser
coaxer hoaxer guesser geyser
*/geezer geyser* disguiser  *2 pronunciations

Pitman's New Era: grocer/grosser aggressor glazier quizzer squeezer
grocer/grosser aggressor glazier quizzer squeezer

Pitman's New Era:
professor refuser officer sacrificer

Pitman's New Era: visor reviser adviser supervisor x2 dancer
visor reviser adviser
* supervisor (2 pronunciations) dancer

*sometimes spelled advisor, and the adjective is always "advisory"

Pitman's New Era: mincer cancer announcer pronouncer
mincer cancer announcer pronouncer

Pitman's New Era: sincere sensor answer nicer insert insertion
sincere sensor answer nicer insert insertion

Pitman's New Era: analyser sympathiser synthesizer thesaurus tyrannosaurus
analyser sympathiser synthesizer
thesaurus tyrannosaurus

After other strokes, Ar is satisfactory and makes it clear that no vowel follows:

Pitman's New Era:
passer pacer opposer baser blazer buzzer/busser abuser

Pitman's New Era:
teaser tracer dossier desire bulldozer chaser Chaucer

Pitman's New Era: chooser juicer laser loser utiliser lazier cosier/cozier
chooser juicer
laser loser utiliser lazier cosier/cozier

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6. Use Ray after straight upstrokes, to maintain direction of writing:

Pitman's New Era:
rear reared roar roared uproar rower
* rosary   *as in rowing boats

Pitman's New Era: racer/raiser/razer razor riser theoriser career carrier
racer/raiser/razer
* razor riser theoriser career carrier *raze = to level to the ground

Pitman's New Era: terrier barrier superior mirror emperor
terrier barrier superior mirror emperor

Pitman's New Era: Farrar furore farrier furrier furrier furriery
Farrar furore
* farrier furrier (more furry) but furrier furriery (fur dealer & fur trade, shorter U vowel) – different derivations provide opportunity for distinguishing outlines

*pronunciation varies

Pitman's New Era: juror adhere adhered abhor abhorred
juror adhere adhered abhor abhorred  

Pitman's New Era: aware beware glassware Delaware
aware beware glassware Delaware

Pitman's New Era: footwear knitwear underwear where anywhere
footwear knitwear underwear where anywhere

Pitman's New Era: whirr wherry resource reserve peruser
whirr wherry resource reserve peruser

Pitman's New Era:
wiser hisser hussar
* ewer yore lawyer   *pronounced with a Z sound Pitman's New Era: bowyer terror terrorist terrorism tourist tourism
bowyer terror
terrorist terrorism compare tourist tourism

Three plain straight strokes in the same direction must be avoided, because it would not be clear whether 2 or 3 strokes were meant, so the final stroke uses Ar. The resulting join between Ray and Ar is not ideal, so care is needed to write accurately:

Pitman's New Era: rarer roarer hurrier hairier
rarer roarer hurrier hairier

Pitman's New Era: abhorrer adherer horror horary
abhorrer adherer but horror horary

Note the following where the hook or circle shows the junction:

Pitman's New Era:
harasser rehearse rehearser resorter

Pitman's New Era:
referrer reverter heronry hero-worship

The above outlines need not invade the line above, because they are written at a shallow angle. Invading the line above is not critical, because that line is already written; descending too far is more to be avoided because you will have to jump over the lower part of that outline when writing on the next line.

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7. Hook R is used for a slurred vowel (generally an unaccented syllable), Ar and Ray for a clearly sounded vowel:

Pitman's New Era: offer fir ferry rougher refire refer reverse/refers
offer fir ferry, rougher refire refer reverse/refers

Pitman's New Era: river revere reverie proffer prefer prover proverb
river revere reverie, proffer prefer, prover proverb

Pitman's New Era: deafer defer advert divert divers diverse
deafer defer, advert divert, divers
* diverse**

*= people who dive, or several/some (archaic)    **= various, assorted, different

8. After doubling + N hook, use whichever joins the best:

Pitman's New Era: plunderer ponderer tenderer wanderer saunterer
plunderer ponderer tenderer wanderer saunterer

Pitman's New Era: mutterer/motherer smotherer murderer adventurer
mutterer/motherer smotherer murderer adventurer

Pitman's New Era: orderer charterer flatterer flounderer thunderer
orderer charterer flatterer flounderer thunderer

Pitman's New Era: luckier liqueur
luckier liqueur – using Ar would result in an illegible outline.

See also Theory 2 Vowels/Intervening vowels

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After Hay

Use Tick Hay before Ar:

Pitman's New Era: hire hair here/hear harp harpoon harper herb herbal
hire hair here/hear harp harpoon harper herb herbal

Pitman's New Era: hark hearken Harvey harvest Harvard hoarse horse horsy
hark hearken Harvey harvest Harvard hoarse horse horsy

Pitman's New Era: horn horned hornet hernia harness harsh
horn horned hornet hernia harness harsh

Pitman's New Era: hurl hurled heart/hart hurt harder herder hoarder
hurl hurled heart/hart hurt harder herder hoarder

Use downward Hay before Ar if forming a derivative:

Pitman's New Era: high higher hoe hoer
high higher hoe hoer

Use Upward Hay before Ray:

Pitman's New Era: harrow hurry hearth Herrick Hereford Harwich
harrow hurry hearth Herrick Hereford Harwich

Pitman's New Era: herald Harrap hairiness harangue hieroglyph
herald Harrap hairiness harangue hieroglyph

Dot Hay has no effect on which R stroke to use:

Pitman's New Era: warhorse unhurt unheard light-hearted
warhorse unhurt unheard light-hearted

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After W Semicircle

W Semicircle behaves similarly to Circle S at the beginning of an outline:

Pitman's New Era: wire wear/ware weir warm worse
wire wear/ware weir warm worse

Pitman's New Era: warn worn war warrior
warn worn war warrior

Pitman's New Era: wiry wary worry weary wart wort
wiry wary worry weary wart wort

Pitman's New Era: warren warrant warden Warwick worth
warren warrant warden Warwick worth

Pitman's New Era: world warmer warehouse wiriness
world warmer warehouse wiriness

Pitman's New Era: wired ward wardrobe weird wearer
wired ward wardrobe weird wearer

W Semicircle + Ray is speedier before downstrokes, despite absence of vowel after the R:

Pitman's New Era: warp war-paint war-path wire-puller
warp war-paint war-path wire-puller

Pitman's New Era: Worsborough warble wirable war-office warship worship
Worsborough warble wirable war-office worship warship

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Derivatives

A final Ar may change to Ray in a derivative, to avoid awkward joins or a descending outline:

Pitman's New Era: bare bare-faced bareness bare-headed force forceful
bare bare-faced bareness bare-headed force forceful

Pitman's New Era: moor moorhen moorfowl persevere perseverance
moor moorhen moorfowl persevere perseverance

Pitman's New Era: sparing sparingly boring boringly retiring retiringly
sparing sparingly boring boringly retiring retiringly

Pitman's New Era: adoring adoringly adoration glaring glaringly
adoring adoringly adoration glaring glaringly

Pitman's New Era: jarring jarringly enduring enduringly endurance endurable
jarring jarringly enduring enduringly endurance endurable

Pitman's New Era: admiring admiringly admiration admirable
admiring admiringly admiration admirable

Pitman's New Era: enquiring enquiringly stirring stirringly stern sternmost
enquiring enquiringly stirring stirringly stern sternmost

Pitman's New Era: reassuring reassuringly reassurance inspire inspiration
reassuring reassuringly reassurance inspire inspiration

Pitman's New Era: discern discerning discernment ornament
discern discerning discernment
* ornament   *to distinguish it from discerning

Pitman's New Era: unerringly clear clearness clearance
unerringly clear clearness clearance

If there is a hook between the two strokes, the other R stroke may join better:

Pitman's New Era: arch archer orchard search searcher urge urger
arch archer orchard search searcher urge urger

Pitman's New Era: lard larder quart quarter fort fortress
lard larder quart quarter fort fortress

Pitman's New Era: earth Arthur forth/fourth farther war warfare
earth Arthur forth/fourth farther war warfare

Pitman's New Era: roam/Rome roamer/Romer romp romper warm warmer
roam/Rome roamer/Romer romp romper warm warmer

Pitman's New Era: origin orange arrange rearrange arid Arundel
origin orange arrange rearrange arid Arundel

Pitman's New Era: arm armour/armor armourer/armorer armoury/armory
Note: arm armour/armor armourer/armorer armoury/armory

Ar is more legible for -rful, despite 3 downstrokes:

Pitman's New Era: powerful powerfully prayerful tearful fearful
powerful powerfully prayerful tearful fearful

Pitman's New Era: sire seer sigher seer sayer sower/sewer
sire seer
(prophet) compare sigher seer (one who sees) sayer sower/sewer (one who sews) which are 2-syllable derivatives and therefore more readable retaining their original stroke Ess. This is in contrast to single syllable derivatives, which generally change their form as necessary e.g. said, seen, sown, sawn, sighed (to be discussed on a later page.)

Pitman's New Era: suer/sewer x2 sewage sewerage
suer/sewer* (drain) sewage (contents) sewerage (the drainage system)

*2 pronunciations given.

"Suer" is a 2-syllable derivative and would therefore keep the stroke Ess whichever vowel sign is used. "Sewer" (drain) is not a derivative, but uses stroke Ess because of the triphone, and also to form its derivatives conveniently, i.e. sewerage, sewage. (Latin: ex + aquaria = ex + ewer = sewer)

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Stroke Rer

This is a thickened Ar, always written downwards:

  • Its central vowel is always unaccented and never vocalised

  • Only used to replace a final stroke Ar in derivatives

  • Never starts an outline, must have another stroke or an attachment (tick, circle, semicircle, loop) before it

Pitman's New Era: poor poorer bore borer fair fairer hire hirer
poor poorer bore borer fair fairer hire hirer

Pitman's New Era: hear hearer wear wearer explore explorer
hear hearer wear wearer explore explorer

Pitman's New Era: sourer storer swearer airer airers sourest
sourer storer swearer
but airer airers Note: sourest

Stroke Ard

Ar is halved and thickened for the addition of D:

  • No vowel may come between the R and D sounds.

  • Can stand alone (unlike Rer which cannot)

  • Never has a final vowel after it

  • Used for the short forms "yard" and "word"

Pitman's New Era: aired erred sired sword surd soured stirred starred steered sward
aired erred sired sword surd soured stirred starred steered sward

Pitman's New Era: hired heard/herd poured prepared repaired aspired
hired heard/herd poured prepared repaired aspired

Pitman's New Era: barred/bard bored/board beard blared absurd tired retired dared desired
barred/bard bored/board beard blared absurd tired retired dared desired

Pitman's New Era: card card/chord cored curd cured cleared acquired charred jeered
card cord/chord cored curd cured cleared acquired charred jeered

Pitman's New Era: fired ford feared fjord veered revered
fired ford feared fjord veered revered

Pitman's New Era: shard sherd shared shored showered assured assuredly
shard sherd shared shored showered assured assuredly*

*Exceptional, in that a vowel is allowed after the Ard stroke, being lightly-sounded

Pitman's New Era: marred mired admired nard nerd un-aired
marred mired admired nard nerd un-aired

Use halved Ray to avoid illegible joins:

Pitman's New Era: geared gored glared lard larding lording
geared gored glared lard larding lording

Pitman's New Era: leered layered lowered laird Lord lord
leered layered lowered laird
* Lord** lord** (short form)

*best always vocalised

**If personal name, use full outline, as context cannot help = Lord's Cricket Ground, Mr Lord
If title or noun, use short form = Lord Nelson, The Lord's Prayer

Where stroke Ard is not convenient, used halved Ray:

Pitman's New Era: boarding-house boarding-school
boarding-house boarding-school

If there is a final vowel after the RD sound, use full strokes:

Pitman's New Era: hard hardy bird birdy tarred tardy
hard hardy bird birdy tarred tardy

Pitman's New Era: word wordy weird weirdo hairdo
word wordy weird weirdo
Note also hairdo

Any vowel sign following it (i.e. the next syllable) is written against the next stroke:

Pitman's New Era: harden hardened ordain ordained inordinate ordinary
harden hardened ordain ordained inordinate ordinary

Pitman's New Era: herding hoarding boarding Harding Arding
Dot Ing:
herding hoarding boarding but Harding Arding as stroke Ing is preferable for proper names.

Ard is used for the past tense of outlines with a doubled stroke + N hook:

Pitman's New Era: ponder pondered tender tendered splinter splintered
ponder pondered tender tendered splinter splintered

An outline using R Hook or doubling uses halving for "-ered", rather than Ard, as the syllable is mostly unaccented:

Pitman's New Era: bicker bickered better bettered puckered occurred incurred
bicker bickered better bettered puckered occurred incurred

Pitman's New Era: lacquered honoured mannered ushered hammered badgered
lacquered honoured mannered ushered hammered badgered

Pitman's New Era: father fathered matter mattered mutter/mother muttered mothered
father fathered matter mattered mutter/mother muttered mothered

Pitman's New Era: order ordered enter entered inter interred deter deterred
order ordered enter entered
compare: inter interred deter deterred where the accent is on the last syllable.

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Prefix Irr-

This prefix means either a negative (same as "un-") or "in/into". Pairs of such outlines need to be distinctive as most of the time they will be unvocalised. This is achieved by changing the R stroke if possible, or adding an additional R stroke. This method is only concerned with producing pairs of different outlines and avoiding bad joins, not with showing the meaning of the prefix or any attempt to reflect the two R's in the longhand:

1. Change Ray to Ar, this accords with normal vowel indication:

Pitman's New Era: relevant irrelevant replaceable irreplaceable
relevant irrelevant replaceable irreplaceable

Pitman's New Era: retrievable irretrievable religious irreligious
retrievable irretrievable religious irreligious

2. If the Ray cannot be changed because a bad join would result, then add Ar to the beginning. No vowel sign comes between the two R strokes:

Pitman's New Era: radiate irradiate reclaimable irreclaimable
radiate irradiate reclaimable irreclaimable

Pitman's New Era: redeemable irredeemable reducible irreducible rational irrational
redeemable irredeemable reducible irreducible rational irrational

3. If the outline already uses Ar, then repeat the Ar:

Pitman's New Era: remissible irremissible remediable irremediable
remissible irremissible remediable irremediable
*

*Note the use of the halved stroke, to prevent further descent of the outline

Some are not part of a pair, so they follow normal rules:

Pitman's New Era: irrigate irritate irruption iridium iridescence irascible

irrigate irritate irruption iridium* iridescence* irascible*

*Single R, from "iris" and "ira" (Latin=anger). Iridium also pronounced "eye-ridium"

Contractions:

Pitman's New Era: recoverable irrecoverable regular irregular regularly irregularly
recoverable irrecoverable regular irregular regularly irregularly

Pitman's New Era: responsible/responsibility irresponsible/irresponsibility, respective irrespective, removable irremovable
responsible/responsibility irresponsible/irresponsibility, respective irrespective, removable irremovable

Pitman's New Era: removably responsibly irresponsibly responsibilities
These are normal outlines: removably responsibly irresponsibly responsibilities
*

*Aways vocalising the outlines for "response" and "responses" would give additional insurance against misreading.

If unsure about an "irr-" word during dictation, add the extra initial Ar anyway, whether it is correct or not – it will be perfectly legible. Avoiding hesitation during dictation is the highest priority, but the outline should be looked up and drilled at the first opportunity, so that you are always using the shortest outline available.

These and similar negatives are also described on Theory 18 Prefixes page.

R not shown

Suffixes -ward -wort -wart -yard. These are unvocalised when used as suffixes. See Theory 10 Halving page for description and examples. Follow normal rules if writing as whole words:

Pitman's New Era: ward wort wart yard
 ward wort wart yard
*   *short form

The following outlines omit the R as even in the longhand the R is redundant and unpronounced:

Pitman's New Era: Worcester/Wooster Worcestershire worsted worse worst worsted
Worcester/Wooster Worcestershire worsted
= woollen cloth, named after UK town of Worstead

The adjective/adverb worse worst and verb worst* worsted* are pronounced as normal and so the R is shown in their outlines.

* = to get advantage over, defeat

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"Whatever is true, whatever is noble, whatever is right, whatever is pure, whatever is lovely, whatever is admirable – if anything is excellent or praiseworthy – think about such things." (Philippians 4:8)

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