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Theory 14 L Forms

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Theory

Theory Intro

 1   Strokes

 2   Vowels

 3   Forming Outlines

 4   Circles

 5   Loops

 6   Hooks Intro

 7   Hooks R L

 8   Hooks N F V

 9   Shun Hook

10  Halving

11  Doubling

12  Hay Aspirate

13  W Forms

14  L Forms

15  R Forms

16  Imp/Imb

17  Ish

18  Prefixes

19  Suffixes General

20  Suffixes Contracted

Short Forms

SF Intro

SF List 1

SF List 2

SF List 3

SF List 4

Contractions

Contractions Intro

Contractions Main

Contractions Optional

Phrasing

1 Phrasing Intro & Contents list

2 Theory

3 Theory

4 Omission Part words

5 Omission Whole words

6 Miscellaneous

7 Miscellaneous

8 Intersections

Distinguishing Outlines

DO Intro

DO List 1 A-C

DO List 2 D-H

DO List 3 I-P

DO List 4 Q-Y

Vocabulary

Vocab Intro

Numbers

Punctuation

Word Lists

Text Lists from PDFs

 

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PAGE DATE 7 February 2016

The stroke Ell in its basic form can be written in either direction:

  • The default is to write Ell upwards.

  • Written downwards to gain a more legible join.

  • Written downwards to continue the curve of the preceding or next stroke.

  • Written downwards in certain combinations for vowel indication.

  • Thickened for -Ler always downward.

  • Halved and thickened for -Ld always downward.

  • The sound of L as part of a compound consonant (as in play, flow) uses the L Hook, see Theory 7 Hooks R L page.

  • A longhand letter L that is not pronounced is not shown in the outline.

Upwards Ell
Reasons for downwards Ell:
  1. Continue curve
  2. Clear join with preceding or next stroke
  3. Choice of direction for vowel indication
Derivatives
Negatives
Joined vowel signs
Downstroke Ler
Downstroke Ld
Unpronounced longhand letter L

Upwards Ell

Upwards when it is the only stroke in the outline, regardless of length (halved, full or doubled) or attachments:

Pitman's New Era: ale ales ill eel Ely allow
ale ales ill eel Ely allow

Pitman's New Era: else sale seal sill silt salt slot soil silo
else sale seal sill silt salt slot soil silo

Pitman's New Era: stall stale still stool stilt swell swill
stall stale still stool stilt swell swill

Pitman's New Era: hall hallo hill heal hilt halt halter
hall hallo hill heal hilt halt halter

Pitman's New Era: lie low lea/Lee loss losses lost last less lose/loose
lie low lea/Lee loss losses lost last less lose/loose

Pitman's New Era: list Lister oleaster line lines lawn lane lone lion
list Lister oleaster line lines lawn lane lone lion

Pitman's New Era: lot lots let late elate lute/loot lit slit slat light lights slight
lot lots let late elate lute/loot lit slit slat light lights slight

Pitman's New Era: lend/lent lint silent Solent lends lender lenders slender slander
lend/lent lint silent Solent lends lender lenders slender slander

Pitman's New Era: launder lotion elation elision lesion illusion Silesian Alsatian
launder lotion elation elision lesion illusion Silesian Alsatian

Top of page

Upwards with most strokes, other than in the combinations described in the next sections:

Pitman's New Era: Alp alpine lapse elapse leap lupin
Alp alpine lapse elapse leap lupin

Pitmamn's New Era: Paul pale ball bill lab label elbow
Paul pale ball bill lab label elbow


Pitman's New Era: tall tally tile tale towel latte lattice lettuce
tall tally tile tale towel latte lattice lettuce

Pitman's New Era: lad led dale dull idle idol ideal
lad led dale dull idle idol ideal

Pitman's New Era: like lake lick slick silk sulk elastic
like lake lick slick silk sulk elastic

Pitman's New Era: kale keel coal cool log leg
kale keel coal cool log leg

Pitman's New Era: gallon gale gull goal guile
gallon gale gull goal guile

Pitman's New Era: latch leech/leach Ilchester chill chilly itchily sketchily patchily
latch leech/leach Ilchester chill chilly itchily sketchily patchily

Pitman's New Era: ledge ledger sledge sludge allege lodge village
ledge ledger sledge sludge allege lodge village

Pitman's New Era: jolly jelly gel Jill/Gill Jillian/Gillian Julian
jolly jelly gel Jill/Gill Jillian/Gillian Julian

Pitman's New  Era: jail jowl agile lull lily lowly Lola Leila
jail jowl agile lull lily lowly Lola Leila

Top of page

Pitman's New Era: laugh left self life leaf elephant Olaf
laugh left self life leaf elephant Olaf

Pitman's New Era: love live leave alive lath loth althaea
love live leave alive lath loth althaea

Pitman's New Era: Athol Othello thrill thrall throstle
Athol Othello thrill thrall throstle

Pitman's New Era: health stealth tilth filth lathe loathe withal
health stealth tilth filth lathe loathe withal

Pitman's New Era: lasso lassie lossy lazy laser loser
lasso lassie lossy lazy laser loser

Pitman's New Era: lash lush leash mile male mole mill meal
lash lush leash mile male mole mill meal

Pitman's New Era: mule/mewl impel puzzle appraisal reprisal basil bristle
mule/mewl impel puzzle appraisal reprisal basil bristle

Pitman's New Era: tussle teazel/teasel trestle docile dazzle drizzle castle Cassell
tussle teazel/teasel trestle docile dazzle drizzle castle Cassell

Pitman's New Era: crossly crassly gristle/grizzle grizzly guzzle
crossly crassly gristle/grizzle grizzly guzzle

Pitman's New Era: chisel chastely jostle justly rustle/Russell wrestle whistle
chisel chastely jostle justly rustle/Russell wrestle whistle

Pitman's New Era: chrysalis Chrysler useless hazel hustle


chrysalis Chrysler useless hazel hustle

Pitman's New Era: sprucely sparsely cautiously Cecil sessile isosceles
sprucely sparsely cautiously Cecil sessile isosceles

Pitman's New Era: frizzle frazzle versal reversal mizzle measles
frizzle frazzle versal reversal mizzle measles

Pitman's New Era: muscle/muzzle embezzle mostly muslin mucilage impiously
muscle/muzzle embezzle mostly muslin mucilage impiously

Pitman's New Era: loosely wholesale callously keenly cleanly
loosely wholesale callously keenly cleanly

Pitman's New Era: kindly grandly secondly subsequently frequently blandly friendly
kindly grandly secondly subsequently frequently blandly friendly

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Pitman's New Era: rational national optional occasional professional
rational national optional occasional professional

Pitman's New Era: pelt bolt tilt adult dolt searchlight torchlight jilt jolt
pelt bolt tilt adult dolt searchlight torchlight jilt jolt

Pitman's New Era: kilt colt exalt exult guilt/gilt fault felt asphalt
kilt colt exalt
* exult** guilt/gilt fault felt asphalt   *elevate, raise  **be joyous

Pitman's New Era: volt revolt vault lilt assault oscillate zealot shallot
volt revolt vault lilt assault oscillate zealot shallot

Pitman's New Era: malt moult melt tumult result somersault quilt
malt moult melt tumult result somersault quilt

Pitman's New Era: polder bolder/boulder/boulter belter assaulter Note: bolder
polder bolder/boulder/boulter belter assaulter

Pitman's New Era: Calder kilter quilter gilder/guilder guelder
Calder kilter quilter gilder/guilder guelder

Pitman's New Era: folder defaulter violator revolter smelter smoulder
folder defaulter violator revolter smelter smoulder

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Reasons to use downward Ell, in order of priority:

  1. To continue the direction of curve of the preceding or next stroke, or its hook or circle, i.e. keeping them all clockwise, or all anti-clockwise, called "similar motion".

  2. Make a legible join with the next stroke in the outline. This may necessitate ignoring the rule of similar motion.

  3. With certain strokes, to differentiate between words that have an initial or final vowel and those that do not. Vowel indication only occurs in cases where both directions of Ell are equally convenient. Some of the words naturally fall into pairs e.g. full, fully.

An initial downwards Ell cannot take an initial circle or loop.

Note the placing of the vowel signs against the Ell: first place vowels are written at the beginning of the stroke, which with downwards Ell is at the top. In such cases it is behaving similarly to stroke Chay.

1. Continue curve

An initial or final Ell is written downwards in order to continue the motion of the preceding curved stroke, or straight stroke with hook or circle:

(a) After En and Ing

Pitman's New Era: Nile nail null anull knoll nil kneel/Neal/Neil anneal
Nile nail null anull knoll nil kneel/Neal/Neil anneal

Pitman's New Era: Noel/Nowell canal denial annual annually only unless annulus
Noel/Nowell canal denial annual annually only unless annulus

Pitman's New Era: unlace unlaced enlist presently sandal sand-eel soundly swindle
unlace unlaced enlist presently sandal sand-eel soundly swindle

Pitman's New Era: meanly manly manual Nielsen sanely senile
meanly manly manual Nielsen sanely senile

Pitman's New Era: Stanley Stoneleigh stonily stainless tuneless somnolent consonantal
Stanley Stoneleigh stonily stainless tuneless somnolent consonantal

Pitman's New Era: newly nightly/knightly inlet unlet insult insulate
newly nightly/knightly inlet unlet insult insulate

Pitman's New Era: vanilla Fenella plainly Townley suddenly certainly
vanilla Fenella plainly Townley suddenly certainly

Pitman's New Era: wrongly strongly kingly Headingly exceedingly jokingly
wrongly strongly kingly Headingly exceedingly jokingly

Pitman's New Era: seemingly surprisingly accordingly accord/according
seemingly surprisingly
* accordingly Note: accord/according*  *short forms

Pitman's New Era: adoringly sparingly amazingly amusingly
adoringly sparingly amazingly
* amusingly*

*always insert 2nd vowel in amaze/amuse -s -d -ing -ingly -ment

Pitman's New Era: antlike auntlike saintlike womanlike sportsmanlike kinglike
antlike auntlike saintlike womanlike sportsmanlike kinglike

Pitman's New Era: springlike ringlike analog analyse analyst nylon aniline
springlike ringlike analog analyse analyst
nylon aniline


Pitman's New Era: clothesline mainland inland downland England Englander inlander
clothesline mainland inland downland England
* Englander inlander   *contraction

Pitman's New Era: natural naturally insulator insulter ventilator vacillator
natural naturally insulator insulter ventilator vacillator

Pitman's New Era: candlestick inelastic inlay inlaying in-law* father-in-law
candlestick inelastic inlay inlaying in-law
* father-in-law

*uses short form in, hence first position

"underl-" words are disjoined, therefore the Ell can remain upward as these words are mostly derivatives, this allows the original word to remain unchanged, whilst avoiding the undesirable join between the En stroke and upwards Ell. It also has he added advantage that the outlines are less likely to be confused with all the "in-" and "un-" words:

Pitman's New Era: underlay underlaid underline underling underlying inlying
underlay underlaid underline underling underlying
Note also: inlying*

*uses short form in, hence first position

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(b) N-S-L

Pitman's New Era: nasal nozzle nuzzle noiseless noiselessly senseless businesslike
nasal nozzle nuzzle noiseless noiselessly senseless businesslike

Pitman's New Era: unseal groundsel Onslow Kingsley densely
unseal groundsel Onslow Kingsley densely

Pitman New Era: tensile tonsil council counsel cancel consul
tensile tonsil council counsel cancel consul

Pitman's New Era: nicely pencil stencil utensil chancel sensual
nicely pencil stencil utensil chancel sensual

Pitman's New Era: immensely Barnsley benzol benzolene insolent
immensely Barnsley benzol benzolene insolent

Although Chay is not written after downwards Ell, Jay is allowed. This does not produce an ideal join to the Ell (shallow angle, and both strokes going backwards) but does allow similar motion between the En and Ell. Presumably the thickness of Jay helps readability despite the poor join (compare with "unlatch" below). Such a join is avoided where possible by using Hook L, mainly the "-ology" words:

Pitman's New Era: analogy mineralogy ensilage silage criminology
analogy mineralogy ensilage
Note: silage criminology

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(c) L-S-N and L-S-Ing

Pitman's New Era: license licentious lesson/lessen listen lozenge
license licentious lesson/lessen listen lozenge

Pitman's New Era: loosen looseness loosing/losing leasing leasing Alison Lawson Lessing
loosen looseness loosing/losing leasing leasing Alison Lawson Lessing

Pitman's New Era: Elsinore Elysian, Los Angeles, Los Alamos
Elsinore Elysian, Los Angeles, Los Alamos

Pitman's New Era: adolescence convalescence opalescence coalescence
adolescence convalescence opalescence coalescence

Pitman's New Era: Halesowen halcyon hallucination
Halesowen halcyon hallucination

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(d) More instances of maintaining similar motion

Pitman's New Era: elusive elusively illusive lascivious lucific
elusive elusively illusive lascivious lucific

Pitman's New Era: fossil facile fussily fizzle faceless voiceless nervously
fossil facile fussily fizzle faceless voiceless nervously

Pitman's New Era: fusil fusel-oil vassal vessel vaseline vacillation vastly
fusil fusel-oil vassal vessel vaseline vacillation vastly

Pitman's New Era: mischievously conversely aversely adversely Eversley everlasting
mischievously conversely aversely adversely Eversley everlasting

Pitman's New Era: thistle Methuselah Thessalonians thusly, this letter, this will, they will
thistle Methuselah Thessalonians thusly, this letter
*, this will* but they will

*Because of the circle S, downward Ell is the only way to make a join. Ell used in phrases for "will" is normally upwards.

Pitman's New Era: London Londoner Londonderry Landon Linton
Special outlines
London Londoner Londonderry but generally thus: Landon Linton

After small Shun Hook, follow the motion most of them have downward Ell:

Pitman's New Era: sensational positional conversational transitional compensational
sensational positional conversational transitional compensational

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(e) These not only continue the motion, but also produce compact outlines with clear sharp joins

Pitman's New Era: film fulminate volume voluminous vellum Velma realm
film fulminate volume voluminous vellum Velma realm

Pitman's New Era: column columnar calumny Coleman calamity
column columnar calumny Coleman calamity

Pitman's New Era: coulomb calamine columbine Colombo Columbus
coulomb calamine columbine Colombo Columbus

Pitman's New Era: skulk skullcap skulker onlooker
skulk skullcap
but skulker onlooker to join the Ker

Pitman's New Era: helterskelter skelter scolder scalder
helterskelter compare skelter scolder scalder one might expect upwards Ell in the second part of "helterskelter" in order to retain the direction of the circle, but compactness is more important here.

Pitman's New Era: unwarlike mirrorlike lawyerlike
For compactness:
unwarlike mirrorlike lawyerlike

Pitman's New Era: warlike warily rarely relic
Compare
warlike warily rarely relic

Top of page

2. Clear join with preceding or next stroke

Downwards Ell does not always make a good join with the following stroke, or may produce an outline with too much backward movement, so in some cases the rule of similar motion cannot be used. With some of the words beginning "-un" this has the incidental advantage of retaining the outlines they are derived from:

Pitman's New Era: inlaid unlaid unled unload unladen unladylike
inlaid unlaid unled unload unladen unladylike

Pitman's New Era: unlatch unlearn unlovable unleavened unleash
unlatch unlearn unlovable unleavened unleash

Pitman's New Era: unlettered unlighted unlikelihood unlaboured unlabelled
unlettered unlighted unlikelihood unlaboured unlabelled

Pitman's New Era: unsullied insulted unsling enslave unsaleable
unsullied insulted unsling enslave unsaleable

Pitman's New Era: facile facility fuselage fossilology footslog
facile
but facility fuselage fossilology footslog

Pitman's New Era: unsold unsoiled
Note distinguishing outlines:
unsold unsoiled (unsold has the shorter outline as it is the most frequent word; outlines with diphthongs very often keep the strokes in full)

Hook L is used in a few instances (even though vowels may intervene) where it produces a brief and distinctive outline that cannot clash with anything else (more such outlines on Theory 7 Hooks R L page):

Pitman's New Era: analytic enliven molecule
analytic enliven molecule

Top of page

3. Vowel indication

For initial and final Ell, and only with certain strokes, different in each case. Vowel indication never occurs medially medial Ell is chosen only for convenience and to a lesser degree to show derivatives.

(a) Initially Before simple horizontal stroke - Kay Gay Em Emp En Ing - the downward Ell (full or halved) is used to indicate an initial vowel:

Pitman's New Era: elk alike alcove Alec Alexander like Luke
elk alike alcove Alec Alexander
compare like Luke

Pitman's New Era: Alcock Ilkeston elixir Laycock  Laxton Luxor
Alcock Ilkeston elixir
compare Laycock Laxton Luxor

Pitman's New Era: allocate election elocution alkaline locate location localised
allocate election elocution alkaline
compare locate location localised

Pitman's New Era: electricity electron electrician alchemy laxity leukaemia
electricity
* electron electrician alchemy compare laxity leukaemia  *contraction

Pitman's New Era: alligator allegation elegant elegance legate legation legacy
alligator allegation elegant elegance
compare legate legation legacy

Pitman's New Era: elegaic Olga Elgin league Logan
elegaic Olga Elgin
compare league Logan

Pitman's New Era: element elementary eliminate illuminate lament Lomond lemonade
element elementary eliminate illuminate
compare lament Lomond lemonade

Pitman's New Era: elm aluminium aluminum alimony lame lemony
elm aluminium aluminum alimony
compare lame lemony

Pitman's New Era: Elmleigh Elmsley Ilminster Lumley Leominster
Elmleigh Elmsley Ilminster
compare Lumley Leominster*

*pronounced "lemster"

Top of page

Pitman's New Era: Alhambra Olympia Olympus Olympic lumpy lambast lampoon
Alhambra Olympia Olympus Olympic
compare lumpy lambast lampoon

Pitman's New Era: Allenson ulna Olney Illinois Iolanthe luna Lana
Allenson ulna Olney Illinois Iolanthe
compare luna Lana

Pitman's New Era: Ealing Illingworth along oolong elongate long Langworth
Ealing Illingworth along oolong elongate
compare long Langworth

Pitman's New Era: Allingham Allington Langham  Langton
Allingham Allington
compare Langham  Langton

Pitman's New Era: ultimate ultimatum allotment altimeter Eltham Feltham
ultimate ultimatum allotment altimeter Eltham
compare Feltham

Pitman's New Era: alone align alien Alan Elaine Ellen Elena
alone
* align* alien* Alan* Elaine* Ellen* Elena

Pitman's New Era: lone lonely lanoline line Len Lennie Lena
Compare: lone lonely lanoline line Len Lennie Lena

In those marked above* stroke En is used despite no following vowel, to make it obvious the Ell is written downwards. Downward Ell standing alone never takes a hook, as this would look like stroke Wel. When the Ell is attached to another stroke, it becomes obvious that it is an Ell written downwards and is not a Wel/Whel written upwards:

Pitman's New Era: lone well lotion whale nylon welling
lone well, lotion whale, nylon
* welling    *more examples above

The rule for vowel indication does not apply if there is a circle or hook coming between the Ell and the next stroke, as downward Ell there would not make a good join:

Pitman's New Era: Alaska Lasky Elswick Liskeard algorithm logarithm
Alaska Lasky Elswick Liskeard
* algorithm logarithm   *pronounced "liss-kard"

Pitman's New Era: logger Elgar liner ulnar Eleanor/Ellenor lissom alyssum
logger Elgar liner ulnar Eleanor/Ellenor lissom alyssum

Pitman's New Era: alienor Pilsener
Exceptions:
alienor Pilsener

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(b) Finally After normal-length Eff Vee S-Kay Kway Ray Way Yay and upward Hay:

  • Downward Ell = no final vowel

  • Upward Ell = final vowel

Pitman's New Era: full file fail awful fully folly failure awfully
full file fail awful
compare fully folly failure awfully

Pitman's New Era: successful graceful false falsity successfully gracefully felicity
successful graceful false falsity
compare successfully gracefully felicity

Pitman's New Era: Val vale vole vowel volley villa viola Evelyn
Val vale vole vowel
compare volley villa viola Evelyn

Pitman's New Era: level Lovell revulsion lovely Clovelly revolution
level Lovell
revulsion compare lovely Clovelly revolution

Pitman's New Era: scale skull skill scowl scholastic scaly Scully
scale skull skill scowl scholastic
compare scaly Scully

Note that the SK above has no vowel between. If there is a vowel between, then the outlines are formed under the basic rules, with no need for a downward Ell:

Pitman's New Era: sickle cyclist sickly sackless sicklist
sickle cyclist sickly sackless sicklist

Pitman's New Era: quell quail quill quilling colloquial Aquila
quell quail quill quilling colloquial
compare Aquila quelea

Pitman's New Era: squall sequel Gwillim squally sequela Gwalia
squall sequel Gwillim
compare squally sequela Gwalia

Pitman's New Era: dwell yell Howell compare waylay yellow Yolande unholy
dwell yell Howell
compare waylay yellow Yolande unholy

Pitman's New Era: royal roll/role real royally Rollo really relay
royal roll/role real
compare royally Rollo really relay

Pitman's New Era: rill rule spiral gorilla Rula spirally
rill rule spiral
compare gorilla Rula spirally

Pitman's New Era: plural mural viral pluralist muralist virally
plural mural viral
compare pluralist muralist virally

Pitman's New Era: coral choral coralline choralist
coral choral
compare coralline choralist

Pitman's New Era: enrol snarl snarly gnarl
enrol snarl
compare snarly Note: gnarl

Pitman's New Era: compulsorily satisfactorily sincerely necessarily
compulsorily satisfactorily* but 2 exceptions: sincerely necessarily where the Ell matches the direction of the circle.

*Contraction

Top of page

Pitman's New Era: rascal fiscal rascally fiscally physical physically
rascal fiscal compare rascally fiscally Note: physical physically

Pitman's New Era: alcohol alcoholic alkali alkaline
Distinguishing outlines
alcohol alcoholic alkali alkaline
To remember these, pair them with other outlines: full/alcohol fully/alkali

Pitman's New Era: fall falling follow following avail available value valuing
fall falling follow following avail available value valuing

Pitman's New Era: carol carolling fuel fuelling flail flailing
carol carolling fuel fuelling flail flailing

Varying the Ell form for vowel indication does not apply to SKR and SK-R. Normal upwards Ell is used, which also achieves similar motion:

Pitman's New Era: scrawl scrawly scroll scrolly secretly
scrawl scrawly scroll scrolly secretly

The rule for final vowel indication is stretched to include these:

Pitman's New Era: actual actually structural structurally
actual actually structural structurally

Pitman's New Era: artistical artistically fantastical fantastically
artistical artistically fantastical fantastically

Pitman's New Era: statistical statistically logistical logistically egotistical egotistically
statistical statistically logistical logistically egotistical egotistically

These follow similar motion, but do not vary for final vowel indication:

Pitman's New Era: intellectual intellectually conjectural conjecturally electoral electorial
intellectual intellectually
conjectural conjecturally electoral Note: electorial

When a suffix is adding another L sound to a word that already ends in L, the outline repeats the Ell, to reflect the lengthened pronunciation. This seems to happen when there is a long vowel preceding:

Pitman's New Era: foully vilely servilely scale-less skill-less soulless
foully
* vilely* servilely* scale-less* skill-less* soulless

*The second Ell here goes upwards to prevent 3 full downstrokes, and at slightly shallower angle in order to be writable

Pitman's New Era: style-less tail-less guile-less futilely hostilely
style-less tail-less guile-less futilely hostilely

Pitman's New Era: wholly solely dully coolly holy/holey dolly coolie
wholly solely dully coolly compare holy/holey dolly coolie

With a short vowel, the pronunciation of the L sounds is generally unchanged, so no extra Ell is needed:

Pitman's New Era: additional additionally conditional conditionally provisional provisionally
additional additionally conditional conditionally provisional provisionally

Words like the following are adding the -y sound to form an adjective, and the longhand LL is merely a convention of spelling to show that a short spoken vowel precedes. Only an extra final dot is needed:

Pitman's New Era: weasel weaselly tinsel tinselly
weasel weaselly tinsel tinselly

It is always helpful to insert the final vowel sign if the outline itself does not show whether there is a final vowel or not.

A small number of words with halved strokes take a downward Ell to achieve similar motion with the preceding curve, hook or circle. Such words generally do not come in pairs like "full fully" and so similar motion is the only issue:

Pitman's New Era: completely boldly bloodless softly swiftly exactly adequately worldly
completely boldly bloodless softly swiftly exactly adequately worldly

Pitman's New Era: proudly broadly sprightly strictly contritely coldly
Compare proudly broadly sprightly strictly contritely where the normal upward Ell achieves similar motion as a matter of course. Note also short form coldly.

Pitman's New Era: deservedly unreservedly vividly fervidly pectoral
deservedly unreservedly vividly fervidly pectoral

Pitman's New Era: fatal fatally fitly foothill thoughtless thoughtlessly effortless effortlessly comfortless
fatal fatally fitly foothill thoughtless thoughtlessly effortless effortlessly comfortless

Pitman's New Era: fatal futile thoughtless thankless
Distinguishing outlines
fatal futile, thoughtless thankless*   *Uses short form

Top of page

Although Ell halved for T is mostly written upwards, it is written downwards in these circumstances:

  • After strokes En Ing, see examples above

  • After stroke Way if no vowel follows:

Pitman's New Era: dwelt indwelt twilight twilit
dwelt indwelt but twilight twilit  (These seem to be the only examples, as most instances of w-lt use stroke Wel halved)

Keeping halved Ell mostly upwards has the additional benefit of providing distinction from stroke Ld which is always downwards.

Top of page

Derivatives

Some derivative outlines may change the direction of the stroke Ell. Keeping derivatives similar to the original is useful but is never done at the expense of a flowing and reliable outline:

Pitman's New Era: ail ailing lose/loose losing/loosing looseness lace lacing
ail ailing lose/loose losing/loosing looseness lace lacing

Pitman's New Era: fallen felon villain fall-out
fallen
is an exception, compare felon villain, fall-out to enable the next stroke to join

Pitman's New Era: lawful unlawful lamented unlamented
lawful unlawful, lamented unlamented

Pitman's New Era: link unlink limited unlimited licensed unlicensed
link unlink, limited unlimited, licensed unlicensed

Pitman's New Era: like likely unlike unlikely unlikeliness
like likely unlike unlikely unlikeliness

Pitman's New Era: lock unlock lucky unlucky located unlocated
lock unlock, lucky unlucky, located unlocated

Some derivative outlines are clearer if they retain the direction of the Ell in the original outline:

Pitman's New Era: ally alliance allying allow allowing allowance
ally alliance allying, allow allowing allowance

Pitman's New Era: fool foolish fallacy fallacious eligible ineligible
fool foolish fallacy fallacious eligible ineligible

*avoiding 3 downstrokes and an unclear join between the Ell and Jay

Pitman's New Era: alloy alloying oil oiling owl owling
alloy alloying oil oiling owl owling*   See more oil & owl below

*wool-smuggling, a reference to it being a night-time activity

Parts of compound words benefit from keeping their forms, enabling the components can be more easily recognised, but only if a good outline results:

Pitman's New Era: ill illness ill-natured ill-omened quicklime
ill illness ill-natured ill-omened quicklime

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Negatives

"unl-" words follow the rules above i.e. use downward Ell, so long as the next stroke can be joined:

Pitman's New Era: unless unlike unloved
unless unlike unloved

"ill-" words will use downward Ell if possible, to signify an initial vowel, making it obvious it is a negative:

Pitman's New Era: limited illimited unlimited
limited illimited
also unlimited

Often that is not possible, because the Ell would not make a good join with the following stroke. In those cases the Ell is repeated. This means that the negative is still obvious even when no vowels are written in:

Pitman's New Era: legal illegal legitimate illegitimate licit illicit
legal illegal, legitimate illegitimate, licit illicit

Pitman's New Era: liberal illiberal literate illiterate
liberal illiberal, literate illiterate

Pitman's New Era: logical illogical liquid illiquid
logical illogical, liquid illiquid

Some words starting ill- are not negatives, the "in" part meaning "into", or are formed from the word "ill", and so follow the normal rules for choice of Ell:

Pitman's New Era: illumination illinition illustration illustrious
illumination illinition illustration illustrious

Pitman's New Era: illude illusion illusory ill-informed
illude illusion illusory ill-informed
*

*contraction

Outlines for similar negatives such as imm- irr- inh- inn- unn- etc are dealt with in the same way (see Theory 18 Prefixes page). This section on negatives points up the necessity for shorthand writers to have a good grasp of how English words are formed and their meanings.

These and similar negatives are also described on Theory 18 Prefixes page.

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Joined vowel signs

Some initial vowel signs are joined to the stroke Ell:

Pitman's New Era: isle/aisle aisled islet/eyelet oil oily oiled owl owlet owlish
isle/aisle aisled islet/eyelet oil oily oiled owl
* owlet* owlish*

*3rd place vowel joined at the beginning for convenience, these are the only outlines that do this with this diphthong. This is the same liberty that is being taken when the first place "I" diphthong is joined to the end of the stroke e.g. night.

Pitman's New Era: awl altar/alter alteration Allsop Alston Alcester
awl altar/alter alteration Allsop Alston Alcester
*   *pronounced "awlster"

Pitman's New Era: all-clear all-fours also all-spice all-hail All-Hallows
all-clear all-fours also all-spice all-hail All-Hallows

Do not confuse this with instances of the short form "all" being joined. The short form includes the L sound, so no stroke Ell is required:

Pitman's New Era: almost always all-wise all-round all-rounder
almost always all-wise all-round all-rounder

Pitman's New Era: almighty already although altogether all-important all-in
almighty already although altogether all-important all-in

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Downstroke Ler

Downward Ell is thickened to add the unaccented sound of "-er". It is it is only used where a downward Ell would normally be used, i.e. it never replaces an upward Ell. No vowel sign is required for the unaccented vowel within it. No vowel may come after the stroke, but it can take a final circle S:

Pitman's New Era: fuller feeler feelers fowler/fouler revealer reviler reveller
fuller feeler feelers fowler/fouler revealer reviler reveller

Pitman's New Era: leveller ovular dweller bewailer roller
leveller ovular dweller bewailer roller

Pitman's New Era: nailer/Naylor kneeler antler annular granular
nailer/Naylor kneeler antler annular granular

Pitman's New Era: squalor scowler secular vascular
squalor scowler secular vascular

Pitman's New Era: councillor counsellor consular chancellor
councillor counsellor consular chancellor


Pitman's New Era: chandler stenciller tonsillar inhaler peninsular
chandler stenciller tonsillar inhaler peninsular
*   *adjective

Pitman's New Era: wine-cellar bookseller salt-cellar
wine-cellar
to avoid an awkward join, but generally thus: bookseller salt-cellar

In comparison, where upward Ell is used, use stroke Ar to add the "-er" sound:

Pitman's New Era: tailor trailer dealer drawler jeweller bachelor
tailor trailer dealer drawler jeweller bachelor

Pitman's New Era: paler follower miller similar Weller
paler follower miller similar Weller

Pitman's New Era: caller colour cooler healer hillier
caller colour cooler healer hillier

Pitman's New Era: puzzler dazzler scrawler wheeler hustler
puzzler dazzler scrawler wheeler hustler

Pitman's New Era: ocular jocular lenticular muscular crepuscular
ocular jocular lenticular muscular crepuscular
*   *compare corpuscular below

As no vowel can come after Ler, use Ray when there is a final vowel:

Pitman's New Era: valour Valerie scholar scullery railer raillery
valour Valerie scholar scullery railer raillery

Pitman's New Era: insular insularity insularism
insular insularity insularism

The vowel in stroke Ler is unaccented, so use full strokes if the vowel is accented:

Pitman's New Era: failure velour/velours chevalier bandolier/bandoleer
failure velour/velours chevalier bandolier/bandoleer

Pitman's New Era: chandelier gasolier electrolier hotelier espalier
chandelier gasolier electrolier hotelier
* espalier*  *accent is on 2nd syllable

Stroke Ler never stands alone, as a lone Ell stroke is always upwards and will always have an accented vowel:

Pitman's New Era: lore lair leer lure allure
lore lair leer lure allure

Pitman's New Era: lyre liar lower lair lower lour/lower Loire
lyre liar lower lair lower lour/lower
* Loire

*= to be gloomy or threatening, rhymes with flower

Pitman's New Era: seller cellar styler staler stellar holier
seller cellar styler staler stellar holier

As stroke Ler is only used where a downward Ell would be written, it cannot replace a Hook L:

Pitman's New Era: prevail prevailer groveller babbler muffler tunneller
prevail prevailer
but groveller babbler muffler tunneller

Pitman's New Era: circular binocular spectacular corpuscular
circular binocular spectacular corpuscular
*   *compare crepuscular above

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Downstroke Ld

Ell is halved and thickened to indicate the sound of Ld. The stroke Ld is always written downwards. No vowel comes between the L and D sounds, and no vowel comes after it. With the derivatives, it does not matter whether the original Ell was up or down:

Pitman's New Era: ailed old old-age Oldham piled polled pulled boiled bowled bold
ailed old old-age Oldham piled polled pulled boiled bowled
Note: bold

Pitman's New Era: bailed billed brawled tailed trailed toiled tolled doled dialled drilled
bailed billed brawled tailed trailed toiled tolled doled dialled drilled

Pitman's New Era: coiled cowled culled killed skilled scold scaled
coiled cowled culled killed skilled scold scaled

Pitman's New Era: scrolled guild/gild geld beguiled regaled
scrolled guild/gild geld beguiled regaled

Pitman's New Era: filed foiled failed fold filled field fuelled
filed foiled failed fold filled field fuelled

Pitman's New Era: veiled reviled revealed mild milled mulled mould/mold
veiled reviled revealed mild milled mulled mould/mold

Pitman's New Era: nailed kneeled annealed annulled lolled lulled
nailed kneeled annealed annulled lolled lulled

Pitman's New Era: riled railed rolled ruled world yelled yield
riled railed rolled ruled world yelled yield

Pitman's New Era: behold withhold foothold stronghold stranglehold
behold withhold foothold stronghold stranglehold

Pitman's New Era: installed smiled squealed cancelled excelled chiselled
installed smiled squealed cancelled excelled chiselled

Pitman's New Era: scaffold nestled pencilled stencilled herald
scaffold nestled pencilled stencilled herald

Pitman's New Era: puzzled bristled tussled dazzled drizzled guzzled grizzled nuzzled
puzzled bristled tussled dazzled drizzled guzzled grizzled nuzzled

Pitman's New Era: build/building told called cold/equalled gold child
Note short forms: build/building told called cold/equalled gold child

Stroke Ld can take a final circle or dot ing/dash ings:

Pitman's New Era: folds fields guilds scolds moulds upholds
folds fields guilds scolds moulds upholds

Pitman's New Era: balding foldings fieldings gelding gilding beholding withholding
balding foldings fieldings gelding gilding beholding withholding

When it stands alone, stroke Ld can have no attachments, therefore:

Pitman's New Era: sold styled welled swelled hold oldest oldster
sold styled welled swelled hold oldest oldster

As stroke Ld is only used to replace a stroke Ell, it cannot replace a Hook L:

Pitman's New Era: prevail prevailed grovelled babbled muffled tunnelled
prevail prevailed
but grovelled babbled muffled tunnelled

Where it is not convenient or even possible to write stroke Ld, full strokes must be used:

Pitman's New Era: wrestled whistled frizzled frazzled
wrestled whistled frizzled frazzled

Pitman's New Era: mizzled muscled/muzzled embezzled sizzled sozzled
mizzled muscled/muzzled embezzled sizzled sozzled

Pitman's New Era: shelled shoaled shield freehold household leasehold
shelled shoaled shield freehold household leasehold

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Unpronounced longhand letter L

Most of these have a long vowel before the L sound and a consonant immediately after:

Pitman's New Era: stalk baulk/balk talk chalk caulk/calk walk
stalk baulk/balk talk chalk caulk/calk walk

Pitman's New Era: folk yolk palm balm psalm psalmist psalmody

folk yolk palm balm psalm psalmist psalmody

Pitman's New Era: calm qualm halm haulm calf/calve half/halve Ralph
calm qualm halm haulm calf/calve half/halve Ralph
*   *When pronounced "rafe"

Pitman's New Era: alms almond salmon Malcolm Colquhoun
alms almond salmon Malcolm Colquhoun

Similar words with a short vowel generally have the L pronounced, and it is therefore shown in the outline:


Pitman's New Era: bulk hulk polka whelk talc talcum
bulk hulk polka whelk talc talcum

Pitman's New Era: shelf overwhelm palmate palmetto psalmodic
shelf overwhelm palmate palmetto psalmodic

Pitman's New Era: golf gulf self elf Rolf Ralph
golf gulf self elf Rolf Ralph
*

*When pronounced as written

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"Whatever is true, whatever is noble, whatever is right, whatever is pure, whatever is lovely, whatever is admirable if anything is excellent or praiseworthy think about such things." (Philippians 4:8)

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