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Theory 17 – Ish

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Theory

Theory Intro

 1   Strokes

 2   Vowels

 3   Forming Outlines

 4   Circles

 5   Loops

 6   Hooks Intro

 7   Hooks R L

 8   Hooks N F V

 9   Shun Hook

10  Halving

11  Doubling

12  Hay Aspirate

13  W Forms

14  L Forms

15  R Forms

16  Imp/Imb

17  Ish

18  Prefixes

19  Suffixes General

20  Suffixes Contracted

Short Forms

SF Intro

SF List 1

SF List 2

SF List 3

SF List 4

Contractions

Contractions Intro

Contractions Main

Contractions Optional

Phrasing

1 Phrasing Intro & Contents list

2 Theory

3 Theory

4 Omission Part words

5 Omission Whole words

6 Miscellaneous

7 Miscellaneous

8 Intersections

Distinguishing Outlines

DO Intro

DO List 1 A-C

DO List 2 D-H

DO List 3 I-P

DO List 4 Q-Y

Vocabulary

Vocab Intro

Numbers

Punctuation

Word Lists

Text Lists from PDFs

 

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PAGE DATE 5 May 2011

Stroke Ish only has one form, but can be written in two directions:

  • The default is downwards, but is written upwards for convenient joining or to maintain balance, similar motion or lineality (=keeping to the line)

  • Can take Hooks

  • With R Hook = "Sher" is always written downwards

  • With L Hook = "Shel" is always written upwards

  • In some instances Ish + N Hook is used instead of Shun Hook

  • Denotes the suffix "-ship" in derivatives

  • Used for short forms: shall/shalt wish wished sure short (Short Forms List 4)

  • The thick stroke "Zhee" is always written downwards, with no exceptional uses, so is not part of this page

Initially
Medially
Finally
Hook between
Hooked Ish
Halving
Balancing, Angles & Similar Motion
Lineality
Derivatives
Suffix -ship
Words of non-English origin

Initially

1. Alone = always down

Pitman's New Era: ash shy Shaw show showy showiest shyest she shoe/shoo
ash shy Shaw show showy showiest shyest she shoe/shoo

Pitman's New Era: shine Sean/Shaun Shane shun shown shin ocean ashen Asian
shine Sean/Shaun Shane shun shown shin ocean ashen Asian

Pitman's New Era: sash sachet/sashay Sasha/Sacha stash swash swish shyster Schuster
sash sachet/sashay Sasha/Sacha stash swash swish shyster Schuster

Pitman's New Era: shot shut sheet shoot shout
shot shut sheet shoot shout

Pitman's New Era: satiate satiation sashed stashed shunt/shunned shined shinned
satiate satiation sashed stashed shunt/shunned shined shinned

Pitman's New Era: shatter shutter/shudder shooter shouter shunter
shatter shutter/shudder shooter shouter shunter

Top of page

2. Down before most strokes

Pitman's New Era: shop shape Sheppey ship sheep
Pee Bee: shop shape Sheppey ship sheep

Pitman's New Era: shabby Sheba Ashby Ashbourne
shabby Sheba Ashby Ashbourne

Pitman's New Era: Ashton Shetland shouted shiatsu shittim-wood
Tee Dee:
Ashton Shetland shouted shiatsu shittim-wood

Pitman's New Era: shade shed shadow shoddy shied shoed/shooed
shade shed shadow shoddy shied shoed/shooed

Pitman's New Era: short-change shortage shoji
Chay Jay:
short-change shortage shoji

Pitman's New Era: shock shack shake Shakespeare shook Chicago shaggy
Kay Gay: shock shack shake Shakespeare shook Chicago
shaggy

Pitman's New Era: sheath sheathe sheathed
Ith Thee: sheath sheathe sheathed

Pitman's New Era: chassis shush shortish shrewish Shushan shish-kebab
Ess (Zee) Ish (Zhee): chassis shush shortish shrewish Shushan shish-kebab

Pitman's New Era: sham shame ashamed shimmy shamrock shemozzle
Em Imp: sham shame ashamed shimmy shamrock shemozzle

Pitman's New Era: showman shaman shambles shampoo
showman shaman shambles shampoo

Pitman's New Era: shiny shyness ashiness Shannon shunted shandy shantung Oceania
En Ing: shiny shyness ashiness Shannon
shunted shandy shantung Oceania

Pitman's New Era: sheeting shouting Shanghai shank Shanklin shingle
sheeting shouting Shanghai shank Shanklin shingle

Pitman's New Era: shire shore share shareholder sharer shared shirt shear/sheer
Ar Rer Ard: shire shore share shareholder sharer shared shirt shear/sheer

Pitman's New Era: assure Shirley Charlotte shower shower
assure Shirley Charlotte shower
(one who shows) shower (water)

Pitman's New Era: sherry/Cherie ashery shorn Sharon sheriff cheroot usherette
Ray: sherry/Cherie ashery shorn Sharon sheriff cheroot usherette

Pitman's New Era: assurance Sheerness Sheraton Sheridan Sherwood
assurance Sheerness Sheraton Sheridan Sherwood

Pitman's New Era: Sheehy Scheherezade
Hay: Sheehy Scheherezade

Top of page

3. Up before these strokes to make a good join:

Pitman's New Era: sheaf Sheffield shaft shift shifter shifty
Eff Vee: sheaf Sheffield shaft shift shifter shifty

Pitman's New Era: sheaves shove shoved shave shaven Siobhan/Siobhain
sheaves shove shoved shave shaven Siobhan/Siobhain

Pitman's New Era: shallow shawl shell Shelley shale shoal Sheila
Ell: shallow shawl shell Shelley shale shoal Sheila

Pitman's New Era: social socialise Seychelles shieling/shealing shilly-shally
social socialise Seychelles shieling/shealing
* shilly-shally

*Derivative of shiel, therefore stroke Ell, compare with shilling below which uses the L Hook

Pitman's New Era: shield shelled shoaled sheltie/shelty shelter shoulder
shield shelled shoaled sheltie/shelty shelter shoulder

The first two words below are compound words, so would take upward Ish because of the preceding stroke, but they show that Way joins best to upward Ish if a new word forced a choice. Using W semicircle is the best option for single words:

Pitman's New Era: brushwood dishwasher shwanpan schwa Schwarz
Way (Yay):
 brushwood dishwasher shwanpan schwa* Schwarz**

*=the name of the unaccented vowel sound e.g. sofa, metal; suggested outline, not in dictionary

**=anglicised "shworts", not in dictionary, suggested outline based on "shirts"; see below for "shv" version

Top of page

Medially

The direction of Ish is chosen to fit in with the stroke before the Ish. If the stroke after the Ish doesn't join well, there is always the option of disjoining:

Pitman's New Era: insure censure machinist misshape
insure censure machinist misshape
*

*Circle S shown, although hardly pronounced, resulting in a much more readable outline.

Pitman's New Era: bashful marchioness cashmere/Kashmir
bashful marchioness cashmere/Kashmir

Pitman's New Era: fisherman bushman store-ship wash-house
Compounds: fisherman bushman store-ship
wash-house

Pitman's New Era: sunshine moonshine marshmallow fish-market
sunshine moonshine marshmallow fish-market

See also Derivatives below, where the addition of grammatical endings makes the Ish medial.

Top of page

Finally

1. Downwards after most strokes:

Pitman's New Era: push pettish potash capacious captious apish waspish
Pee Bee:
push pettish potash capacious captious apish waspish

Pitman's New Era: bush bash abash rubbish snobbish sebaceous
bush bash abash rubbish snobbish sebaceous

Pitman's New Era: tish toyish attaché latish sluttish Saltash sottish sweetish
Tee (but not Dee): tish toyish
attaché latish sluttish Saltash sottish sweetish

Pitman's New Era: cultish coquettish moustache crustacea cetaceous/setaceous crustacean/crustation cetacean
cultish coquettish moustache crustacea cetaceous/setaceous
*
Note also: crustacean/crustation** cetacean

*cetaceous = relating to whales/dolphins; setaceous = bristly

**crustacean=shellfish; crustation=the formation of crust

Although plain Tee always takes downward Ish, stroke Dee (plain or with attachments) always take upward Ish. The reason for this is not explained, but I am assuming it is to provide an extra differentiation between the two strokes.

Pitman's New Era: Chesham childish Joshua Jewish
Chay Jay: Chesham
(2 pronuniations) childish Joshua Jewish

Pitman's New Era: cash crash clash brackish rakish Turkish thickish
Kay Gay:
cash crash clash brackish rakish Turkish thickish

Pitman's New Era: ticklish cliquish precocious lickerish/liquorice/licorice (liquorish)
ticklish cliquish precocious lickerish
*/liquorice/licorice**

*greedy/lecherous **=sweet confection – different derivations but both can have variant spelling "liquorish"

Pitman's New Era: efficacious factious fractious vexatious cattish skittish Scottish
efficacious factious fractious vexatious cattish skittish Scottish

Pitman's New Era: Scotia gash gracious sagacious sluggish roguish
Scotia gash gracious sagacious sluggish roguish

Pitman's New Era: negotiate negotiation ingratiate
negotiate negotiation ingratiate

Pitman's New Era: quash squash vanquish anguish languish
Kway (Gway):
quash squash vanquish but anguish* languish*

*outline omits the G sound, and note also that "relinquish distinguish extinguish" are contractions that omit the "guish" part

Pitman's New Era: etherish spathaceous acanthaceous

Ith Thee: etherish spathaceous acanthaceous

Pitman's New Era: freshish Tarshish baksheesh/bakshish hasheesh/hashish beige-ish/beigeish
Ish (Zhee): freshish
* Tarshish* baksheesh/bakshish hasheesh/hashish beige-ish/beigeish*   *Suggested outlines, not in dictionary

Pitman's New Era: mash smash mesh mushroom Amish Hamish machine
Em Imp: mash smash mesh mushroom Amish
(pronunciations vary) Hamish machine

Pitman's New Era: famish Flemish blemish Romish squeamish tam-o'-shanter
famish Flemish blemish Romish squeamish tam-o'-shanter
(=tammy, a type of beret/cap)

Pitman's New Era: ambush impish lumpish dampish vampish frumpish
ambush impish lumpish dampish vampish frumpish

Pitman's New Era: nash/gnash tenaceous pretentious Danish tarnish burnish nourish
En Ing: nash/gnash tenaceous pretentious Danish tarnish
burnish nourish

Pitman's New Era: clannish mannish womanish admonish diminish
clannish mannish womanish admonish diminish

Pitman's New Era: pernicious pugnacious carbonaceous licentious English
pernicious pugnacious carbonaceous licentious English
*   *Contraction

Pitman's New Era: initiate initiation initiative differentiate differentiation
initiate initiation initiative differentiate differentiation

Pitman's New Era: lash leash luscious slash slushy stylish yellowish
Ell: lash leash luscious slash slushy stylish yellowish

Pitman's New Era: delicious fallacious malicious demolish galoshes Galashiels
delicious fallacious malicious demolish galoshes Galashiels

Pitman's New Era: Welsh/welch Walsh woolshed
Wel:
Welsh/welch Walsh woolshed

Pitman's New Era: harsh Horsham Irish
Ar:
harsh Horsham Irish

Pitman's New Era: rash rush rawish parish bearish boorish
Ray: rash rush rawish parish bearish boorish

Pitman's New Era: cherish marsh Marcia nightmarish Moorish
cherish marsh Marcia nightmarish Moorish

Pitman's New Era: Horatio Hiroshima voracious veracious avaricious
Horatio Hiroshima voracious
* veracious* avaricious*

*voracious=huge appetite, veracious=truthful, avaricious=greedy for gain

Pitman's New Era: hash hush wash woosh/whoosh wheyish whitish yashmak
Hay Way Hway Yay: hash hush wash woosh/whoosh wheyish whitish yashmak

Pitman's New Era: fresh freshen liverish silverish cleverish
Reversed FR VR:
fresh freshen liverish silverish cleverish

Top of page

2. Upwards after these strokes:

Pitman's New Era: dosh dash dish radish widish wildish Yiddish
Dee:
dosh dash dish radish widish wildish Yiddish

Pitman's New Era: modish prudish saddish Swedish audacious seditious mendacious

 

 


modish prudish saddish Swedish audacious seditious mendacious

Pitman's New Era: fish officious facetious efficient/ly/cy* sufficient/ly/cy
Eff Vee:
fish officious facetious efficient/efficiently/efficiency* sufficient/sufficiently/ sufficiency  *Contractions


Pitman's New Era: flash flesh afresh facia/fascia fasciation
flash flesh afresh facia/fascia fasciation

Pitman's New Era: lavish elvish slavish vivacious
lavish elvish slavish vivacious

Pitman's New Era: ravish knavish feverish devilish
ravish knavish feverish devilish

Pitman's New Era: associate associated association
Ess (Zee): associate associated association

Pitman's New Era: foolish vilish Felisha Felicia
Down Ell: foolish vilish retain downward Ell of "fool" & "vile", compare Felisha Felicia

Pitman's New Era: thrash thresh thrush three-ish
THR: thrash thresh thrush three-ish

Top of page

Hook between

If there is a hook between Ish and the stroke it is joined with, Ish will be written in the most convenient direction:

1. Initial Ish is always upwards before the following:

Pitman's New Era: shackle shaker sugar chagrin/shagreen shocker
KL KR GR: shackle shaker sugar chagrin/shagreen Note: shocker
*

*probably as a distinguishing outline from "shaker"

Pitman's New Era: chauffeur Schaeffer shaver shover shiver
reversed FR VR: chauffeur Schaeffer shaver shover shiver

Pitman's New Era: shammer shamer shimmer
MR:
shammer shamer shimmer

Other hooks do not affect an initial Ish:

Pitman's New Era: shopper shipper shepherd/Sheppard shoeblack shootable
shopper shipper shepherd/Sheppard shoeblack shootable

Pitman's New Era: shattery shattered shuttered shuddered shuttle shuddered shiner shunner
shattery shattered shuttered shuddered shuttle shuddered shiner shunner

Pitman's New Era: shuffle shovel
shuffle shovel

Top of page

2. Final Ish will follow the motion of the intervening hook ("similar motion"):

Pitman's New Era: punish Spanish replenish banish brandish blondish outlandish
punish Spanish replenish banish brandish blondish outlandish

Pitman's New Era: peevish briefish toughish deafish deficienty/deficiently/deficiency Babylonish
peevish briefish toughish deafish deficient/deficiently/deficiency
* Babylonish

*Contraction

Pitman's New Era: finish vanish Cavendish faintish/fiendish faint fiend fiendishly
finish vanish Cavendish faintish
*/fiendish* compare faint fiend fiendishly

*There is no room on the outline to show the different places occupied by the vowel in the first syllable, so these two words have virtually identical outlines. A non-theory suggestion would be to write "fiendish" with the Ish through the line.

Pitman's New Era: thinnish heathenish varnish furnish
thinnish heathenish varnish furnish

Top of page

Hooked Ish

1. R Hook – Sher is always down:

Pitman's New Era: usher Esher shrew shrewish Shrewsbury sharp Shropshire shrapnel
usher Esher shrew shrewish Shrewsbury
(note vowel) sharp Shropshire shrapnel

Pitman's New Era: shrub shrubbery sherbet shred shrewd shroud shredder shrewder
shrub shrubbery sherbet shred shrewd shroud shredder shrewder

Pitman's New Era: shark shirk shriek shrug shrew-mouse shrimp shrink
shark shirk shriek shrug shrew-mouse shrimp shrink

Pitman's New Era: shrine enshrined shrill shroffage shrift shrivel Shrove
shrine enshrined shrill shroffage shrift shrivel Shrove

Pitman's New Era: pusher pressure basher brasher brusher blusher
pusher pressure basher brasher brusher blusher

Pitman's New Era: Derbyshire dasher Cheshire casher kosher gusher cashier
Derbyshire
(note vowel) dasher Cheshire casher kosher gusher Note: cashier

Pitman's New Era: clasher crusher rasher rusher lavisher fisher/fissure fishery
clasher crusher rasher rusher lavisher fisher/fissure
Note: fishery

Pitman's New Era: flasher fresher refresher thrasher thresher
flasher fresher refresher thrasher thresher

Pitman's New Era: finisher lasher slasher polisher masher smasher
finisher lasher slasher polisher masher smasher

Pitman's New Era: burnisher tarnisher Shoreditch off-shore Ayrshire Perthshire
burnisher tarnisher Shoreditch off-shore Ayrshire Perthshire

Pitman's New Era: beneficiary tertiary fiduciary penitentiary evidentiary
beneficiary tertiary fiduciary penitentiary evidentiary

Pitman's New Era: pressured fissured tonsured ushered short* shortest shorten shorter
Sher halved:
pressured fissured tonsured ushered short* shortest shorten shorter

*Short form

Use Ray if Sher cannot join:

Pitman's New Era: punisher replenisher banisher varnisher furnisher furniture
punisher replenisher banisher varnisher furnisher Note: furniture

Top of page

2. L Hook – Shel is always up, and the central vowel is not shown if it is a short E or a slurred vowel:

Pitman's New Era: shelf bookshelf shelve shellac shellfish
shelf bookshelf shelve shellac shellfish

Pitman's New Era: nuptial bushel racial Herschel specialist special

nuptial bushel racial Herschel specialist Note: special*   *Short form

Pitman's New Era: potential provincial credential presidential fiducial
potential provincial credential presidential fiducial

Pitman's New Era: official facial beneficial superficial sacrificial
official facial beneficial superficial sacrificial

Pitman's New Era: residential torrential deferential differential defer differ
residential torrential deferential differential
Note: defer differ

Pitman's New Era: officially superficially initially essentially
For -ly, add the dot vowel:
officially superficially initially essentially

Pitman's New Era: sheepishly boyishly boorishly waspishly
sheepishly boyishly boorishly waspishly

Pitman's New Era: lavishly slavishly peevishly feverishly
lavishly slavishly peevishly feverishly

Pitman's New Era: flashily fleshly fleshliness foolishly
flashily fleshly fleshliness foolishly

Use for -ciality, and the central IA vowels are not written:

Pitman's New Era: partiality speciality specialty superficiality potentiality
partiality speciality
* specialty superficiality potentiality   *Note the vowel before the Tee

Used for some words beginning "shel-" to gain a more convenient outline (there are no words beginning "shl-" that they could clash with):

Pitman's New Era: shilling Shelton Sheldon Shelburne
shilling Shelton Sheldon Shelburne

Never used on its own for the word "shell", but can replace the normal outline in compound words:

Pitman's New Era: egg-shell snail-shell bomb-shell tortoise-shell
egg-shell snail-shell bomb-shell tortoise-shell
*

*S is not pronounced in this compound word, so no Circle S is shown in the dictionary outline but if you did insert it, the outline would be just as quick to write and probably be easier to recognise when transcribing. Compare with "misshape" above.

Can be halved for D in derivatives:

Pitman's New Era: marshall/martial marshalled bushelled initialled
marshall/martial marshalled bushelled initialled

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3. N Hook

Stroke Ish + N Hook is used instead of the Shun Hook after triphones and where the Shun Hook is not convenient or appropriate to write:

Pitman's New Era: continuation sinuation tuition situation striation
continuation sinuation tuition situation
* striation*

*Direction of Ish balances the initial attachment

Shun Hook is not used in these derivatives because it would not join, so full strokes are necessary:

Pitman's New Era: nation nationhood secession secessionist concession concessionary
nation nationhood secession secessionist concession concessionary

More details on Theory 9 Shun Hook/On halved stroke & When not to use

Top of page

Halving

For past tenses, where the Ish already makes an angle the direction can remain the same, but these do need extra care as the angle is not very sharp and a halved Ish is less clear than a full stroke:

Pitman's New Era: pushed upshot splashed brushed blushed bloodshot dashed trashed
pushed upshot splashed brushed blushed bloodshot dashed trashed

Pitman's New Era: cashed gushed rushed gnashed astonished finished varnished
cashed gushed rushed gnashed astonished finished varnished

After curved strokes a full-length Ish often continues the curve. But when halved it needs an angle to show its different length, so it may need to change direction:

Pitman's New Era: fish fished officiate officiator vitiate vitiation flash flashed
fish fished officiate officiator vitiate vitiation
* flash flashed

*to match vitiate, compare with fasciation above

Pitman's New Era: fresh freshet refresh refreshed impoverish impoverished
fresh freshet refresh refreshed impoverish impoverished

The same applies if it is the curved stroke before or after that is halved:

Pitman's New Era: flattish fetish shallot
flattish fetish shallot

If halving cannot be done because no angle can be achieved in either direction, then upward Ish+Tee is used:

Pitman's New Era: lash lashed unleashed polish polished
lash lashed unleashed polish polished

Pitman's New Era: abolish abolished relish relished demolish demolished
abolish abolished relish relished demolish demolished

Pitman's New Era: mashed smashed meshed blemished famished skirmished
mashed smashed
meshed blemished famished skirmished – these provide easier outlines than a halved upward Ish.

A joined "shunt/shund" stroke is mostly written upwards to keep the outline moving forwards. The examples in the second row show where Shun Hook cannot be retained for the past tense (see also Theory 9 Shun Hook/On halved stroke):

Pitman's New Era: ancient initiand freshened machined harshened
ancient initiand freshened machined
Note: harshened

Pitman's New Era: impassioned sanctioned unctioned pensioned mentioned dimensioned
impassioned sanctioned unctioned pensioned mentioned dimensioned

Top of page

Balancing, Angles & Similar Motion

If a straight stroke has an initial circle or hook, the Ish will go the opposite way to balance the outline, with the purpose of keeping the stroke straight (same as happens with Shun Hook). If all the curves went the same way, the outline would be difficult to read and become illegible when written at speed.

"Similar motion" is beneficial only between two consecutive curves to aid speed, so long as it remains clear which strokes/hooks are involved. When the outline has a mixture of straight and curved strokes, possibly of different lengths, plus various hooks, then it is necessary to introduce angles to keep it readable:

Pitman's New Era: push plush splash spacious species bush blush bluish
push plush splash spacious species bush blush bluish

Pitman's New Era: precious prescience prescient brash brush soberish
precious prescience prescient brash brush soberish

Pitman's New Era: tosh superstitious trash atrocious nutritious Patricia bitterish
tosh
superstitious* but trash atrocious nutritious Patricia bitterish

*Balance takes preference over lineality here, as a reliable outline is more important than avoiding a descending outline.

Pitman's New Era: fairish flourish squarish mopish mobbish
fairish flourish squarish mopish mobbish
would be unreadable if written with downward Ish.

Pitman's New Era: ashlar Schiller
ashlar Schiller
would be unreadable if written with upward Ish.

For SH-L-R words which are derivatives, as under, I would suggest adding stroke Ray, in order to preserve the original outline, although no precedent outline is available in the dictionary (stroke Ler can only be used to replace an existing downward Ell):

Pitman's New Era: marshaller busheller initialler sheller
marshaller
* busheller* initialler* sheller*   *Suggested outlines, not in dictionary

After halved BR, the Ish can remain downward, presumably as a help to distinguish them from outlines that have full BR + upward Ish:

Pitman's New Era: British broadish broadsheet Bradshaw
British
* broadish broadsheet Bradshaw   *Distinguishing outline, compare with brutish below

In compound words and phrases, the Ish may change direction in order to form the necessary angle or continue the motion of the preceding hook:

Pitman's New Era: sheets balance-sheets proof-sheets shots shoot off-shoot overshot earshot
sheets balance-sheets proof-sheets shots shoot off-shoot overshot earshot

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Lineality

Ish goes upwards to keep the outline compact, to avoid 3 or more descending strokes, but only if the joins remain good:

Pitman's New Era: bishop sheepish sheepshank shipshape foppish
bishop sheepish sheepshank shipshape foppish

Pitman's New Era: herbaceous furbish brutish thirtyish fictitious
herbaceous furbish brutish thirtyish fictitious

Pitman's New Era: disputatious patience patient peashooter sharpshooter
disputatious patience patient, peashooter
but sharpshooter for balance

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Derivatives

In compound words, retain the original direction wherever possible:

Pitman's New Era: shyly shoeless shoehorn ash-hole Ashley Ashford Sheila chauffeured
shyly shoeless shoehorn ash-hole Ashley Ashford
compare Sheila chauffeured

Pitman's New Era: overshadow showroom snowshoe sash-line sash-window show-ground
overshadow showroom snowshoe sash-line sash-window show-ground

Pitman's New Era: unsocial antisocial shatterproof fish-shop toyshop
unsocial antisocial shatterproof fish-shop toyshop
(compare bishop above)

Pitman's New Era: shell-shock unshackle unsheathe
shell-shock unshackle unsheathe

With most endings, the direction of Ish does not need to change:

Pitman's New Era: pushing bashing dashing crashing punishing finishing
pushing bashing dashing crashing punishing finishing

Pitman's New Era: washable crushable perishable flushable accomplishable
washable crushable perishable flushable accomplishable
*

*The stroke Kay represents the prefix "accom-" (see Theory 18 Prefixes/Accom page)

Pitman's New Era: boyishness freshness bookishness brackishness stylishness
boyishness freshness bookishness brackishness stylishness

Pitman's New Era: rashness noxiousness sluggishness foolishness
rashness noxiousness sluggishness foolishness

Pitman's New Era: preciously atrociously audaciously tenaciously graciously ferociously
preciously atrociously audaciously tenaciously graciously ferociously

The stroke direction only changes to make a better join or more compact outline:

Pitman's New Era: abolishable polishable demolishable
abolishable polishable demolishable

Pitman's New Era: vicious viciousness viciously fishiest Fascist Fascism
vicious viciousness
but viciously, fishiest but Fascist to match Fascism

Pitman's New Era: round roundish oldish
round roundish oldish

Top of page

Suffix -ship

Stroke Ish is used to denote the suffix "-ship" and occasionally the noun "ship" (=boat), either joined or disjoined, and in full where that is more legible:

Pitman's New Era: citizenship township friendship hardship courtship fellowship worship
citizenship township friendship hardship courtship fellowship worship

This is dealt with more fully on Theory 20 Suffixes Contracted/ship page.

Top of page

Words of non-English origin

Words of French origin often pronounce their longhand "ch" with the Ish sound, although the rest of the word generally accords with English pronunciation. Avoid the error of using Chay to match the longhand:

Pitman's New Era: chandelier chamois château chaperon/chaperone charade charlatan
chandelier chamois château chaperon/chaperone charade charlatan

Pitman's New Era: chauvinism chef Chevrolet chevron chevronel
chauvinism chef Chevrolet chevron
* chevronel*

*The normal rule is to use upwards Ish and reversed VR (as in shaver above) but presumably the above form is used to allow the derivative "chevronel"

Pitman's New Era: chivalry chic chicane chicanery chiffon champagne
chivalry chic chicane chicanery chiffon champagne

Pitman's New Era: crèche cache cachet quiche panache
crèche cache cachet quiche panache

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Longhand spelling "sch" varies in pronunciation:

Pitman's New Era: schist schmaltz schmooze schnapps schnauzer Schwarz
SH:
schist schmaltz schmooze schnapps schnauzer* Schwarz**

* "shnowt-ser"  ** "shvarts", dictionary outline, see "shw" version above)

Pitman's New Era: schnorkel schnorrer scheelite schilling schorl schottische
schnorkel schnorrer scheelite schilling schorl schottische

Pitman's New Era: Schubert Schubertian borsch borscht meerschaum
Schubert Schubertian borsch borscht meerschaum

Pitman's New Era: schedule schedule sciolto nasturtium
schedule
(British=SH) schedule (American=SK) sciolto nasturtium

Pitman's New Era: atichoo/atishoo issue issued issuer tissue tissued
atichoo/atishoo issue
* issued issuer tissue* tissued

*Dictionary outlines. If you used Ish you would then have to change the past tenses to much longer outlines with full stroke Dee.

Pitman's New Era: schema scholar schizophrenia schizanthus
SK: schema
scholar schizophrenia schizanthus

Pitman's New Era: scherzo schism ischiatic eschatology
scherzo schism ischiatic eschatology

Pitman's New Era: scholium schooner Pasch paschal
scholium schooner Pasch paschal

Pitman's New Era: escheat eschew kitsch klatsch
CH:  escheat eschew kitsch klatsch

Methods for writing non-English vowel and consonant sounds will be dealt with on a future page.

Concession is made that all "English" words are ultimately from other languages, depending on how far back into pre-history one wishes to go!

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