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Theory 7 - Hooks R L

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Theory

Theory Intro

 1   Strokes

 2   Vowels

 3   Forming Outlines

 4   Circles

 5   Loops

 6   Hooks Intro

 7   Hooks R L

 8   Hooks N F V

 9   Shun Hook

10  Halving

11  Doubling

12  Hay Aspirate

13  W Forms

14  L Forms

15  R Forms

16  Imp/Imb

17  Ish

18  Prefixes

19  Suffixes General

20  Suffixes Contracted

Short Forms

SF Intro

SF List 1

SF List 2

SF List 3

SF List 4

Contractions

Contractions Intro

Contractions Main

Contractions Optional

Phrasing

1 Phrasing Intro & Contents list

2 Theory

3 Theory

4 Omission Part words

5 Omission Whole words

6 Miscellaneous

7 Miscellaneous

8 Intersections

Distinguishing Outlines

DO Intro

DO List 1 A-C

DO List 2 D-H

DO List 3 I-P

DO List 4 Q-Y

Vocabulary

Vocab Intro

Numbers

Punctuation

Word Lists

Text Lists from PDFs

 

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PAGE DATE 2 March 2011

The sounds of R and L are very frequently pronounced with the preceding consonant, e.g. PR PL CR CL, the sounds running together with no vowel between. To reflect the joining of the two sounds in a double consonant, the combination is shown as a hooked stroke. This double consonant is sometimes called a consonantal diphthong, and occasionally referred to as a blend, although these terms are not normally used in Pitman's Shorthand theory books.

  • Primary use is to indicate the above combination of 2 consonants.

  • Secondary use is for when the combination includes a slurred or indistinct vowel.

  • Third use is for convenience, despite the presence of an distinct vowel, to avoid an awkward outline or to obtain a briefer outline.

The R and L are always pronounced second in the combination, although when the hooks are written, the pen will form the hook part first.

Not all strokes can take the R or L hook.

Adding S to the hooks is entirely covered on the Theory 4 Circles/With hooks page.

The reversed forms section contains a very large number of example outlines. Parts of theory where there are alternatives can cause hesitation and it is essential to have a wide vocabulary of known outlines on which to base similar words.

R & L Hook to straight strokes
R & L Hook to curved strokes
Vocalisation
Reversed forms for F V Ith Thee
Reversed forms R Hook
Reversed forms L Hook
Reversed forms Derivatives
Suffixes -ful & -fully
Special case for Ing
Halving a hooked stroke
Hooks in middle of outline
When not to use
Strokes not taking R or L Hook

For hooks to Imp/Imb, see Theory 16 Imp/Imb page

R & L Hook to straight strokes

R is shown by a clockwise hook written at the beginning of the stroke.

L is shown by an anticlockwise hook written at the beginning of the stroke.

Pitman's New Era: pray play brew blue tray day dray crow clay grew glue
pray play brew blue tray dray crow clay grew glue

Pitman's New Era: upper apple rubber rubble batter battle adder addle acre eager eagle
upper apple rubber rubble batter battle adder addle acre eager eagle

Pitman's New Era: etcher fetcher voucher lodger Roger cadger cudgel hopper yapper
etcher fetcher voucher lodger Roger catcher cadger cudgel hopper yapper

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R & L Hook to curved strokes

R is a small hook inside the beginning of the stroke:

Pitman's New Era: offer ever every author either
offer ever every author either

Pitman's New Era: shrew shrub shred shrink usher Esher masher washer
shrew shrub shred shrink usher Esher masher washer

Pitman's New Era: pressure fisher/fissure leisure measure erasure casher cashier usury
pressure fisher/fissure leisure measure erasure casher 
but cashier usury

Pitman's New Era: inner honour tanner liner emmer murmur slimmer hammer
inner honour tanner liner emmer slimmer hammer

L is a large hook inside the beginning of the stroke. As hooks are never written outside the curve, the difference has to be shown by having a larger hook:

Pitman's New Era: flow fly evil Ethel camel tunnel bushel essential
flow fly evil Ethel camel tunnel bushel essential

Sher is always written downwards and Shel always upwards, so they can never be mistaken for each other:

Pitman's New Era: pusher specialise fisher official fresher freshly
pusher specialise, fisher official, fresher freshly

Pitman's New Era: polisher palatial, finisher initial harsher Herschel harshly
polisher palatial, finisher initial, harsher Herschel
but harshly

There appears to be no word that contains ZH-L with an slurred vowel, but should one occur, it would never be written upwards, as it is a thick stroke. That combination of sounds would probably is best written using the full stroke Ell.

Pitman's New Era: casually casual usual/usually
casually, casual (optional contraction), usual/usually (short form)

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Vocalisation

Vowels are always placed outside the hook. Only the Shun Hook takes a vowel inside and then only in certain circumstances (see Shun Hook on Theory 2 Vowels page).

(a) No intervening vowel Vowels are read immediately before the double consonant or immediately after:

Pitman's New Era: appraise oblique address across acclimatise
appraise oblique address across acclimatise

(b) An indistinct, unaccented or slurred vowel between the two consonants. This is never shown and the outline is fully correct without it. With the R hook, this is generally the "-er" sound (equivalent to 2nd place light dot), hence the 2nd position of the outline. See Intervening Vowels on Theory 2 Vowels page for fuller explanation:

Pitman's New Era: reader puddle miner/minor person personal terminal machinery
reader puddle miner/minor person personal terminal machinery

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(c) Distinct vowel Although the intervening vowel is generally an indistinct one, some distinct vowels are allowed for convenience, to avoid unwieldy outlines. Such vowels are indicated somewhat differently from normal, by circles and intersected dashes, and their placement.

See also Theory 2 Vowels/Intervening Vowels and Theory 15 R Forms page/R Hook For Brevity for more examples.

Pitman's New Era: engineer mutineer veneer souvenir virulent ethnology Penelope
engineer mutineer veneer souvenir virulent ethnology Penelope

In many words the second syllable starts with a consonant. As no vowel needs to be written between the syllables, using the hook results in a briefer outline:

Pitman's New Era: perfect perceive purchase persuade pearl parcel pilgrim
perfect perceive purchase persuade pearl parcel pilgrim

Pitman's New Era: journey vortex culminate garnish carnage furnish
journey vortex culminate garnish carnage furnish

Care with "per-" needs to be taken, because there are many similar words starting with "pre-" and "pro-".

Some combinations of consonants never occur in English without a vowel inbetween, so the hook may safely be used to obtain a briefer outline, as it will not clash with any other words:

Pitman's New Era: telephone telegraph deliberate divulge charm Charles German
telephone telegraph deliberate divulge charm Charles German

Pitman's New Era: molecule moral nullify narrate nourish shilling
molecule moral nullify narrate nourish shilling

Pitman's New Era: analytic enliven enlighten enlightenment Dunlop
analytic enliven enlighten enlightenment
Dunlop   *contraction

Other examples:

Pitman's New Era: collect courage college forget caramel colony ignore
collect courage college forget caramel colony ignore

More examples on Theory 15 R Forms page/R Hook For Brevity

(d) Third place vowels

Unlike Circle S, the presence of a hook in the middle of a stroke does not affect the correct placement of a third place vowel against the second of the 2 strokes. This is because, although the hook is written between the strokes, the R or L that it represents is spoken after the stroke, i.e. there is nothing spoken between the two consonants other than the vowel:

Pitman's New Era: trip tripper cheap cheaper tick tickle dig digger
trip tripper, cheap cheaper, tick tickle, dig digger

Pitman's New Era: book booker look looker rich richer teach teacher
book booker, look looker, rich richer, teach teacher

Pitman's New Era: nib nibble rip ripple reapply grim grimmer
nib nibble, rip ripple reapply, grim grimmer

Compare the placement of the vowel in:

Pitman's New Era: weep weeper wisp deep deeply display
weep weeper wisp, deep deeply display

Pitman's New Era: whip whipper whisper rip ripper respray
whip whipper whisper, rip ripper respray

Pitman's New Era: fitch visage groom groomer gruesome
fitch visage, groom groomer gruesome

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Reversed forms for F V Ith Thee

Ar Rer Ess Zee do not use R or L Hook (see below) and these shapes when hooked are used to represent reversed versions of hooked F V Ith Thee. Reversing is used:

  • to obtain a better join (both hooks)

  • to indicate absence of initial vowel (R hook only)

The reversal is not a mirror image, either vertically or horizontally, but the "mirror" is along the stroke's own angle of formation. They cannot clash with Ar Rer Ess Zee because of the presence of the hook – see zither below which has both strokes together.

Pitman's New Era: Fer Ver Ther THer
Fer                          Ver                          Ther                   THer

Pitman's New Era: Fel Vel Thel
Fel                           Vel                          Thel

Thel does not take right curve form. Most words with that combination use stroke Ell (see below). No known examples of the voiced THel.

Reversed Forms, R Hook

(a) One stroke outlines The reversed form provides a means of vowel indication: left curve if there is a vowel or "dot con-" before, right curve if not. Derivatives that add another stroke retain the form if possible:

Left:

Pitman's New Era: offer suffer afront/affront affright affray
offer suffer afront/affront affright affray
    (afront = in front of;  affront = insult)

Pitman's New Era: over ever every sever averse converse conversion conversation Avro Sèvres
over
* ever every sever averse converse conversion conversation Avro Sèvres  *short form

Pitman's New Era: author ether athirst either soother seether cither
author ether athirst either soother seether cither

Right:

Pitman's New Era: free fray frost friend front fright fruit
free fray frost friend front fright fruit

Pitman's New Era: verse versed version versus very
verse versed version versus very
*  *short form

Pitman's New Era: throw three thrice thirst thrust threat throat third there therefore
throw three thrice thirst thrust threat throat third
* there* therefore*  *short forms

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(b) Two or more stroke outlines The form is used that gives a better join (clear angle of join, best hook, and similar motion of curves/hooks). If all else is equal, the right curve is preferable, because it then matches the R hooks on straight strokes, thus helping overall legibility:

Left:

Pitman's New Era: authoring affrighted affronted frighten fruity fraud Friday
authoring affrighted affronted frighten fruity fraud Friday

Pitman's New Era: frayed afraid fragile fridge free-hand frank France
frayed afraid fragile fridge free-hand
* frank France

Pitman's New Era: froth free-thinking freckle frugal phrenetic frantic
froth free-thinking
* freckle frugal phrenetic frantic

*3rd place vowel is placed against the Fer because "hand" and "think" are short forms

Pitman's New Era: tougher duffer chafer Jeffrey/Geoffrey overalls* Avril Trevor driver
tougher duffer chafer Jeffrey/Geoffrey overalls
* Avril Trevor driver

*Vowel placed against Ell because "over" is a short form

Pitman's New Era: endeavour achiever Chivers jiver thievery arriver
endeavour achiever Chivers jiver thievery arriver

Pitman's New Era: verge converge leverage virtual vortices
verge converge leverage virtual vortices

Pitman's New Era: vernacular verve verdant convertible vertical
vernacular verve verdant convertible vertical

Pitman's New Era: authorship etherism ethernet x2
authorship etherism ethernet
(2 pronunciations)

Right:

Pitman's New Era: frap freebie Africa fresco fraction frequent frog
frap freebie Africa fresco fraction frequent frog

Pitman's New Era: frame Ephraim freedom frump freeness* freesia
frame Ephraim freedom frump freeness
* freesia

*derivative retaining right curved form, despite the En stroke

Pitman's New Era: frail frazzle free-hold frolic
frail frazzle free-hold frolic

Pitman's New Era: freer fraternal French franchise frenzy
freer fraternal French franchise frenzy

Pitman's New Era: fragility fronted frightful puffer buffer coffer gaffer
fragility fronted frightful puffer buffer coffer gaffer

Pitman's New Era: loafer rougher refrigerator sniffer chamfer chauffeur
loafer rougher refrigerator sniffer chamfer chauffeur

Pitman's New Era: paver beaver believer cover giver lever/leaver silver
paver beaver believer cover giver lever/leaver silver

Pitman's New Era: river weaver hover shaver mover Hannover hangover
river weaver hover shaver mover Hannover hangover
*

*Vowel belongs with second word; being reversed, it does not count as short form here, therefore vowel is needed.

Pitman's New Era: verb vertebra vortex verdict verdure vermin
verb vertebra vortex verdict verdure vermin

Pitman's New Era: throb throttle thread thrift thrive throng throwing feathery slithery Rotherham
throb throttle thread thrift thrive throng throwing feathery slithery Rotherham

Pitman's New Era: thrum thrombosis thermal threesome thrill thrower thrush anther panther
thrum thrombosis thermal threesome thrill thrower thrush anther panther

Pitman's New Era: thirteen thirty Thursday Luther lethargic Arthur arthritis arthritic arthropod
thirteen thirty Thursday Luther lethargic Arthur arthritis arthritic arthropod

Pitman's New Era: pother bather brother tether dither gather
pother bather
brother tether dither gather

Pitman's New Era: leather writher weather heather zither farther but further furthered
leather
writher weather heather zither farther but further furthered

Notes:

Pitman's New Era: affront affronted confront confronted front fronted
affront affronted, confront
* confronted*, front fronted

*Under the rules, "confront" would be a left curve but it is too close in meaning to affront, therefore it is written with the right curve, its "-con dot" keeping it different from "front".

Pitman's New Era: afresh fresh affranchise franchise
Distinguishing outlines: afresh fresh, affranchise franchise

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Reversed Forms, L Hook

  • Reversal is not used for vowel indication.

  • The reversed form is only used after straight horizontals (Kay Gay En) and straight upstrokes (Ray, Way, Whay, Yay, upward Hay) to provide a better joining.

  • Where the outline starts with an L hooked stroke, the left curve is always used. This includes those with a "dot con-". This matches with the L hook on straight strokes, which are all left curves, thus helping overall legibility.

(a) L-hooked stroke starts the outline:

Pitman's New Era: flow aflow fly Eiffel fluster flutter
flow aflow fly Eiffel fluster flutter

Pitman's New Era: flap flab flatten flood flitch fledge Fletcher
flap flab flatten flood flitch fledge Fletcher

Pitman's New Era: flake flask flag flame aflame flump
flake flask flag flame aflame flump

Pitman's New Era: flounce flannel flounce flowing fling fluent affluent
flounce flannel flowing fling fluent affluent

Pitman's New Era: flail flair/flare flower flour flurry flourish fleecy flash
flail flair/flare flower flour flurry flourish fleecy flash

Pitman's New Era: soufflé safflower flagrant conflagration conflict conflation confluence
soufflé safflower flagrant conflagration conflict conflation confluence

Pitman's New Era: evil civil civilian civilisation vulnerable vulture vulpine vulva wildebeestx2
evil
civil civilisation vulnerable vulture vulpine vulva* wildebeest (x2)

*All other words beginning "vul-" use stroke Ell

Pitman's New Era: Ethel Ethelbert Ethelred
Ethel Ethelbert Ethelred

(b) L-hooked stroke is in middle or end of outline: use left curve, unless reversed has better join (i.e. after Kay Gay En Ray Way Whay Yay upward Hay):

Left:

Pitman's New Era: piffle baffle briefly stifle toughly duffel/duffle acephalous
piffle baffle briefly stifle toughly duffel/duffle acephalous

Pitman's New Era: earful earflap actively alternatively develop privilege
earful earflap actively alternatively develop privilege

Pitman's New Era: bevel bravely travel drivel ogival devolve Pavlov
bevel bravely travel drivel ogival devolve Pavlov

Right:

Pitman's New Era: gruffly unflagging inflow inflation inflame inflict
gruffly unflagging inflow inflation inflame inflict

Pitman's New Era: snowflake rifle ruffle reflect
snowflake rifle ruffle reflect

Pitman's New Era: waffle whiffle yaffle muffle mayflower
waffle whiffle yaffle muffle mayflower

Pitman's New Era: gravel gravely arrival marvel weevil hovel
gravel gravely arrival marvel weevil hovel Yeoville

Pitman's New Era: cavalry naval/navel anvil revel athletic betrothal
cavalry naval/navel anvil revel athletic
* betrothal

*Uses Thel to avoid an unwieldy outline


All other TH-L combinations use stroke Ell:

Pitman's New Era: ethyl methyl ethal lethal Athol Athlone athlete
ethyl methyl ethal lethal Athol Athlone athlete


Pitman's New Era: Bethel brothel withal lithely blithely authority authorise
Bethel brothel withal lithely blithely authority authorise

Notes:

Pitman's New Era: envelope novelise ethereal level monthly
envelope novelise ethereal level monthly

Top of page

Reversed Forms, Derivatives

There is normally an effort to preserve original forms in derivatives, but legibility always takes top priority:

Pitman's New Era: free freed fry fried fruit fruited lever leverage
free freed, fry fried, fruit fruited, lever leverage

Pitman's New Era: fresh fresher freshly garish garishly rash rasher rashly
fresh fresher freshly, garish garishly, rash rasher
but rashly

A medial circle keeps the strokes separate, in the same way that an angle does:

Pitman's New Era: frost frosted  fret fretted
frost frosted 
but fret fretted

Similar motion of curves and medial hooks gives a faster outline:

Pitman's New Era: verse versicoloured versify versicle fever favour favoured favourite
verse
versicoloured versify
versicle fever favour favoured but favourite

Some awkward combinations:

Pitman's New Era: inflationary inflationary inflationism inflationist
inflationary
inflationary* inflationism inflationist

"Inflationary" has a choice of full outline or contraction. For "inflationism" and "inflationist" a non-dictionary right-curve would be more legible.

Pitman's New Era: reflation reflationary revaluation refloat refloated
reflation reflationary revaluation refloat refloated

For "reflationary" a non-dictionary contraction similar to "inflationary" (i.e. right curve and omitting shun hook) is better. Any contraction decided upon must not clash with "revaluation".
"Refloated" is presumably disjoined, rather than using the awkward joining of the reversed form, to accord with "floated".

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Suffixes -ful and -fully

The suffix "-ful" and "-fully" are normally written the same as the single words:

Pitman's New Era: full fully careful carefully lawful lawfully
full fully careful carefully lawful lawfully

In some cases using the hooked stroke gives a better outline and the final vowel inserted if thought necessary:

Pitman's New Era: powerful powerfully joyful faithful hopeful skilful cheerful colourful
powerful powerfully joyful faithful hopeful skilful cheerful colourful

Special case for Ing

Ing plus R hook is not used for ing-er as one might expect, but instead for ing-ger (hard G) and ing-ker, as these are more common sounds:

ing-ker and ing-ger:

Pitman's New Era: pinker banker tanker dunker clinker conker/conquer/conger finger thinker
pinker banker tanker dunker clinker conker/conquer/conger finger thinker

 

Pitman's New Era: bankrupt bankruptcy
bankrupt bankruptcy*   *contraction

Pitman's New Era: fishmonger warmonger costermonger ironmongery mongrel
fishmonger warmonger costermonger ironmongery* but mongrel *contraction

Note:

Pitman's New Era: Bangor clangour
Bangor clangour
*   *"Clangour" can also be pronounced without hard G, like "clanger"  

ing-er is written by just adding Ar, which has the advantage of retaining the original form. Some dialects in UK pronounce a hard G in words like these but this is not taken into account in Pitman's Shorthand:

Pitman's New Era: sing singer clang clanger swing swinger singe singer
sing singer clang clanger swing swinger
but singe singer (one who singes)

Pitman's New Era: bang banger ring ringer hang hanger but hangar
bang banger ring ringer hang hanger
but hangar*

*Formerly with hard G, but now pronounced like "hanger"; derived not from "hang" but from Medieval Latin angarium = shed

Although Ing can use the R hook, ing-ger and ink-ker can also be shown by doubling the stroke; this is used where the hooked form does not join easily, or if alone.

Pitman's New Era: longer ranker/rancour winker hanker hunker/hunger
longer ranker/rancour winker hanker hunger/hunker

Pitman's New Era: anger/anchor sinker
anger/anchor sinker

Use Ger if there is a final vowel:

Pitman's New Era: hungry/Hungary angry
hungry/Hungary angry

Ing does not take a large L hook, because that would not indicate the sound of hard G or K that occurs in the middle. Therefore, Gay or Kay with L Hook is used:

Pitman's New Era: bungle tangle jungle mingle uncle
bungle tangle jungle mingle uncle

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Halving a hooked stroke

Hooked strokes can be halved for T/D, according to the normal rules:

Pitman's New Era: babbled battered bottled uttered addled toggled giggled haggled
babbled battered bottled uttered addled toggled giggled haggled

Pitman's New Era: offered float afloat flit flint honoured tankard drunkard
offered float afloat flit flint honoured tankard drunkard

Pitman's New Era: angered lingered hungered feathered mothered measured ushered hammered
angered lingered hungered feathered mothered measured ushered hammered

R & L Hook in middle of outline

In most cases the hook is easily accommodated:

Pitman's New Era: paper papal deeper deeply cater label loader liner earner
paper papal deeper deeply cater label loader liner earner

Pitman's New Era: bicycle designer listener atmosphere retrain restrain tunneller channelling
bicycle designer listener retrain restrain tunneller channelling

Sometimes the hook has to be opened out or flattened slightly. The pen should flow into the hook smoothly with no undue effort at making a sharp angle. On no account should the pen be lifted from the paper. Do not curl the end of the hook round in an attempt to make it look like the normal full hook:

Pitman's New Era: cheaper reply shipper taker docker trigger jogger vital
cheaper reply shipper taker docker trigger jogger vital

Some Circle S + hook combinations in the middle of the outline need extra care to write clearly. A slight exaggeration of the size of the hook is unavoidable if the hook is to be seen at all, and giving the hook a very slight corner as it emerges from the stroke is helpful. It is safe to elongate the Circle S, as it will not clash with Stee loop which never crosses a stroke. Such expedients will keep the outline readable:

Pitman's New Era: explain disbranch massacre miscreant gossamer
explain disbranch massacre miscreant gossamer

This larger example shows the exact difference:

Pitman's New Era: expose explain chasm gossamer
expose explain chasm gossamer

If the hook cannot legibly be written, then Ar Ray or Ell must be used:

Pitman's New Era: runner winner winery Henry runnel tamer dimmer
runner winner winery Henry runnel tamer dimmer

The R is omitted in some words in order to secure a brief outline:

Pitman's New Era: demonstrate demonstration ministry transcript subscript subscriber
demonstrate
* demonstration ministry* ministered transcript subscript subscriber
*contractions

On curved strokes, Sway Circle/Stee Loop cannot be used at the same time as R or L hook:

Pitman's New Era: swimmer swooner suaver swivel steamer stainer stinger
swimmer swooner suaver swivel steamer stainer stinger

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When not to use

A distinct vowel between the consonant and the R or L sound generally requires separate strokes. This allows you to see how the word breaks into its natural syllables, thus aiding legibility:

Pitman's New Era: pray par parry play pal average aver avarice
pray par parry, play pal, average aver avarice

Pitman's New Era: display dispel flew full flower failure finger vinegar
display dispel, flew full, flower failure, finger vinegar

Pitman's New Era: ripper repair ripple repea, REBel reBEL
ripper repair
, ripple repeal, rebel rebel

Pitman's New Era: personal personnel milliner millionaire
personal personnel, milliner millionaire

"-ery" "-ary" As the vowels are distinct, stroke Ray is used, so that the outline can be fully vocalised:

Pitman's New Era: brave braver bravery grain grainer granary verse varies
brave braver bravery, grain grainer granary, verse varies

Pitman's New Era: refine refiner refinery wafer midwifery
refine refiner refinery, wafer midwifery

Sometimes the consonant and the following R or L belong to different words, or word and suffix, and so separate strokes are used to accurately reflect the separate syllables:


thrum bathroom, masher mushroom, shrimp showroom


enabling sibling, dandruff woodruff midriff, usher ashery ashore

Strokes not taking R or L hook

Way, Yay, Hay, Kwa, Gwa cannot take an initial R or L hook because because they already have an initial attachment, as well as being unpronounceable without a vowel between. An R or L sound after them will use strokes.

Ray, El, Ler.

  • Ray with initial attachment would look like Way, Whay, Yay or upward Hay

  • Ell with initial hook is used for Wel, Whel

  • Ler already signifies two consonants

Ess, Zee, Ar, Rer do not take an initial R or L hook, because of the uncommonness of the combinations. Their initially hooked forms are "borrowed" by F V Ith Thee as a reversed form, see explanation above. An R or L sound after them will use other strokes.

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