Long Live Pitman's Shorthand banner text

Completely devoted to New Era Shorthand

 

Theory 8 - Hooks N F V

Long Live Pitman's Shorthand! Free resources

Read my Blog written in shorthand

 

Search this website.
Results by
Freefind
Advanced

Or use my Search page.

Find that New Era outline on the Shorthand Dictionary page - free PDF downloads

Home   

Recent Additions & Corrections

About

Shorthand Everywhere

Why Learn?

Notes for Beginners

Pen and Paper

Pen & Pencil Reviews

Dictation

How To Practise

Downloads

Blog downloads and reading articles have moved to new website:
www.long-live-pitmans-shorthand-reading.org.uk

Links

Guestmap & Guestbook links page

Feedback Form

You Can Help Form

Books

Shorthand Books

Shorthand Dictionaries

Theory

Theory Intro

 1   Strokes

 2   Vowels

 3   Forming Outlines

 4   Circles

 5   Loops

 6   Hooks Intro

 7   Hooks R L

 8   Hooks N F V

 9   Shun Hook

10  Halving

11  Doubling

12  Hay Aspirate

13  W Forms

14  L Forms

15  R Forms

16  Imp/Imb

17  Ish

18  Prefixes

19  Suffixes General

20  Suffixes Contracted

Short Forms

SF Intro

SF List 1

SF List 2

SF List 3

SF List 4

Contractions

Contractions Intro

Contractions Main

Contractions Optional

Phrasing

1 Phrasing Intro & Contents list

2 Theory

3 Theory

4 Omission Part words

5 Omission Whole words

6 Miscellaneous

7 Miscellaneous

8 Intersections

Distinguishing Outlines

DO Intro

DO List 1 A-C

DO List 2 D-H

DO List 3 I-P

DO List 4 Q-Y

Vocabulary

Vocab Intro

Numbers

Punctuation

Word Lists

Text Lists from PDFs

 

Yellow Teddy's page


Long Live Pitman's Shorthand! logo web


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PAGE DATE 22 March 2010

The sounds of N F V are also represented by hooks, in addition to the strokes.

  • All straight strokes can take these hooks.

  • Curved strokes only take N hook, as there is only one side on which to write it. The sound of F or V following a curve requires the stroke Eff or Vee.

  • There is always a vowel sound between the stroke and the N, F or V hook, therefore strokes with these hooks are not compound consonants (unlike the R and L hooks where the sounds are generally spoken together).

Adding circles and loops to the hooks is entirely covered in the Theory 4 Circles and Theory 5 Loops pages

N & F/V hook to straight strokes
N hook to curved strokes
Hooks in middle of outline
Vocalisation
Halving and doubling
Derivatives
When not to use

N & F/V hook to straight strokes

N is shown by a clockwise hook at the end of the stroke.

Pitman's New Era: pen open bone bin ton dine done chain chin John Jane June
pen open bone bin ton dine done chain chin John Jane June

Pitman's New Era: gain again rain terrain wine won/one win whine yen hen hone
gain again rain terrain wine won/one win whine yen hen hone

F or V is shown by an anticlockwise hook at the end of the stroke. The hook signifies either F or V and context is required to ascertain which one is meant. F and V are the least common sounds of all the hooks and, with judicious vowel insertion, this is not a problem in practice:

Pitman's New Era: pave puff proof/prove reproof/reprove reprieve buff rebuff above brief deprive
pave puff proof/prove reproof/reprove reprieve buff rebuff above brief deprive

Pitman's New Era: tough tiff doff deaf chafe chief active attractive dive endive drive chive achieve
tough tiff doff deaf chafe chief active attractive dive endive drive chive achieve

Pitman's New Era: gave gaffe graph gruff grove groove grief/grieve aggrieve engrave
gave gaffe graph gruff grove groove grief/grieve aggrieve engrave

Pitman's New Era: rough/ruff roof rife/rive rove tariff deserve reserve swerve sheriff
rough/ruff roof rife/rive rove tariff deserve reserve swerve sheriff

Pitman's New Era: wife waif/wave weave whiff huff heave behave behoove
wife waif/wave weave whiff huff heave behave behoove

Top of page

N hook to curved strokes

N is shown by a small hook inside the end of the stroke:

Pitman's New Era: fine fan fun phone fin often soften refine roughen
fine fan fun phone fin often soften refine roughen

Pitman's New Era: van vine vain/vane/vein even Evans riven heaven leaven Bevan
van vine vain/vane/vein even Evans riven heaven leaven Bevan

Pitman's New Era: thin thane methane polythene marathon dethrone Nathan Athens
thin thane methane polythene marathon dethrone Nathan Athens

Pitman's New Era: than then thine heathen leathern assign Essene zone ozone zen ocean Asian
than then thine heathen leathern assign Essene zone ozone zen ocean Asian

Pitman's New Era: man mine moon nine none impugn campaign campion
man mine moon nine none impugn campaign campion

Ell takes its N Hook at its end, whether upwards or downwards. An Ell standing alone is always written upwards and therefore a hook at the base is Wel and at the top is L-N. See also below When Not To Use/Downward Ell

Pitman's New Era: lane lone/loan line fallen nylon aniline will well
lane lone/loan line fallen nylon aniline
but will well

Pitman's New Era: earn urn, fuller than, hang on
earn urn, fuller than, hang on
(phrases)

F or V cannot be shown by a final hook on a curved stroke, because attachments (circles, loops, hooks, attached vowels) are never written outside the curve, so a full stroke Eff or Vee must be used.

Pitman's New Era: fife five Viv Vivian thief thieve arrive
fife five Viv Vivian thief thieve arrive

Pitman's New Era: sheaf shave love leaf muff move knife nave/knave
sheaf shave love leaf muff move knife nave/knave

Ish + N hook is used in those cases where the Shun Hook is not appropriate or convenient, mostly single stroke words and sometimes sh-nt/sh-nd:

Pitman's New Era: shine shined Sean/Shaun shown sheen shin shinned
shine shined Sean/Shaun shown sheen shin shinned

Pitman's New Era: ashen machine ancient mentioned pensioned sanctioned
ashen machine ancient mentioned pensioned sanctioned

Top of page

Hooks in middle of outline

(a) The hook is used medially if it makes an easy and clear join:

Pitman's New Era: penning paving profit prophet provide provoke perfect prefix
penning paving profit prophet provide provoke perfect prefix

Pitman's New Era: plenty planet browning bluffing briefing
plenty planet browning bluffing briefing

Pitman's New Era: traffic toughen telephone advance define defect defer diverse
traffic toughen telephone advance define defect defer diverse

Pitman's New Era: driving divide drifting toning training dining draining tendency presidency
driving divide drifting toning training dining draining tendency presidency

Pitman's New Era: canning counting graining graphic organic
canning counting graining graphic organic

Pitman's New Era: fanning fountain convenient Athenian manning mining
fanning fountain convenient Athenian manning mining

(b) With horizontals and upstrokes, a hook may be impossible to write or the angle insufficient for clarity, so strokes En is used:

Pitman's New Era: count counted, ground grounded, gift gifted
count counted, ground grounded, gift gifted

Pitman's New Era: surround surrounded, rift rifted, wind windy, waft wafted
surround surrounded, rift rifted, wind windy, waft wafted

Pitman's New Era: hound hounded, hand handy, heft hefty, iron ironing ironic
hound hounded, hand
(short form) handy, heft hefty, iron* ironing* ironic

*R sound is always shown, even though it is not pronounced in many English accents; exceptions only occur in a very few abbreviating devices.

Pitman's New Era: mind minded, mound/mount mounted mountain maintain maintenance
mind minded, mound/mount mounted mountain maintain maintenance

(c) Stroke En is used when it produces a more facile outline or to ensure distinguishing outlines, mainly before Chay/Jay and Ess/Zee:

Pitman's New Era: plunge sponge expunge pinch poncho bench Benjamin blanch
plunge sponge expunge pinch poncho bench Benjamin blanch

Pitman's New Era: drench drainage strange stringent tonnage tinge contingence change challenge impinge
drench drainage strange stringent tonnage tinge contingence change challenge impinge

Pitman's New Era: bandage appendage
but bandage appendage to avoid using a full stroke Dee

Pitman's New Era: lunge lunch crunch munch dentist dental suddenly
lunge lunch crunch munch dentist dental suddenly

Pitman's New Era: mange manger manage manager mannish garnish regency
mange manger manage manager mannish garnish regency

Stroke En is preferable when it starts its own syllable, so long as the join remains good. Syllables generally have their own stroke, with abbreviating devices used for additional sounds within the syllable. In practice you will omit most vowels and the remaining consonant structure of the outline generally lets you know where the syllables break and where the vowels are:

Pitman's New Era: lemonade panacea lunacy mend/meant pansy fancy brilliancy solvency
lemonade panacea lunacy
compare mend/meant pansy fancy brilliancy solvency

Pitman's New Era: Barton Morton Martin baritone puritan Samaritan
Barton Morton Martin
compare baritone puritan Samaritan

Pitman's New Era: bountiful panache painful punish banish Spanish replenish brandish
bountiful panache
compare painful punish banish Spanish replenish brandish

Pitman's New Era: lioness zoneless Zionist lions zones Zion's
lioness zoneless Zionist
compare lions zones Zion's

(d) The hook may need to be opened out slightly to join the next stroke:

Pitman's New Era: chiefly jovial ignominy canary appendix opencast penmanship
chiefly jovial ignominy canary appendix opencast penmanship

(e) Medial N hook is not used if it unbalances the outline. If both attachments are on the same side of a straight stroke and therefore written in the same direction, the outline would tend to curve and become illegible at speed. This mostly occurs in past tenses with the suffix "-ted" and "-ded":

Pitman's New Era: paint painted plant planted print printed, sprint sprinted, misprint misprinted
paint painted plant planted
but print printed, sprint sprinted, misprint misprinted

Pitman's New Era: grant granted, ground grounded, graft grafted, decant decanted
grant granted, ground grounded, graft grafted, decant decanted

Pitman's New Era: band banded blend blended, attend attended brand branded, strand stranded
band banded blend blended, attend attended
but brand branded, strand stranded

Pitman's New Era: appended abandoned expended responded supplanted disappointed suspended
appended abandoned expended responded supplanted disappointed
* suspended*

*Although the attachments are on the same side, the initial stroke helps to keep the second stroke straight, therefore N Hook can be used.

Pitman's New Era: up-end up-ended print-out bran-tub
Note compound words:
up-end up-ended print-out bran-tub

Top of page

Vocalisation

The stroke is vocalised as normal, with a third place vowel being written outside the hook. The stroke is read first, then the vowel, then the hook.

Pitman's New Era: pan pen bin bon bun boon tine join town tune
pan pen bin bon bun boon tine join town tune

Pitman's New Era: open happen ribbon fatten adjoin pigeon attune
open happen ribbon fatten adjoin pigeon attune

If the next syllable starts with a vowel, the vowel sign is placed against the next stroke, as it is spoken after the N sound:

Pitman's New Era: opening open-air open-eyed defence/defense plantain
opening open-air open-eyed defence/defense plantain

A fully vocalised outline will generally have a vowel sign after the stroke and before the N or F/V hook, even if that vowel is slurred or unaccented (unlike some of unaccented vowels with the R & L hooks):

Pitman's New Era: eaten pardon deaden kitchen kitten reckon dozen raisin cousin
eaten pardon deaden kitchen kitten reckon dozen raisin
exception: cousin*

*The dictionary outline gives no second vowel for this word, despite its similarity to dozen and raisin. A third-place light dot vowel would be appropriate, if vowel insertion was felt necessary.

Top of page

Halving and doubling

The stroke is read first, then the hook, then the halving or doubling sound. It is easier to remember if you think of the hooked stroke as being halved or doubled:

Pitman's New Era: pen penned/pent, pave paved, puff puffed, pine pint/pined, bone boned, buff buffed
pen penned/pent, pave paved, puff puffed, pine pint/pined, bone boned, buff buffed

Pitman's New Era: tone toned, tough toughed/tuft, drain drained, drive drift, gain gained, gave gift
tone toned, tough toughed/tuft, drain drained, drive drift, gain gained, gave gift

Pitman's New Era: chain chained, chuff chuffed, jive jived, win wind went, wave waved, wife waft
chain chained, chuff chuffed, jive jived, win wind went, wave waved, wife waft

Pitman's New Era: hone honed, heave heaved, rain rained, rough/ruff roughed/ruffed, rave raved
hone honed, heave heaved, rain rained, rough/ruff roughed/ruffed, rave raved

Pitman's New Era: fine fined/find, vain/vane/vein vent event, thin thinned, assign assigned
fine fined/find, vain/vane/vein vent event, thin thinned, assign assigned

Pitman's New Era: shun shunned/shunt, man manned, nine anoint, lean leaned, earn earned
shun shunned/shunt, man manned, nine anoint, lean leaned, earn earned

Pitman's New Era: ponder tender canter render winter minder fender venture
ponder tender canter render winter minder fender venture

Circles or loops are read last of all, after the hook and the halving/doubling:

Pitman's New Era: bone bones, bond bonds, bounder bounders
bone bones, bond bonds, bounder bounders

Pitman's New Era: pain pains, paint paints, painter painters
pain pains, paint paints, painter painters

Pitman's New Era: spin spins spinster spinsters, Dan dance dances danced
spin spins spinster spinsters, Dan dance dances danced

Pitman's New Era: dove doves, drift drifts, drifter drifters
dove doves, drift drifts, drifter drifters

Pitman's New Era: fine fines, find/fined finds, finder finders
fine fines, find/fined finds, finder finders

Pitman's New Era: lean leans, lend/Lent lends, lender lenders
lean leans, lend/Lent lends, lender lenders

Pitman's New Era: rain rains, rent/rend rents/rends, render renders, raft rafts, rafter rafters
rain rains, rent/rend rents/rends, render renders, raft rafts, rafter rafters

Pitman's New Era: hunt hunts, hunter hunters, win wins, wonder wonders
hunt hunts, hunter hunters, win wins, wonder wonders

The only time the hook is read after a halving or doubling sound is when the hook is used in a few phrases to represent another whole word. This goes against the rule for the order in which the elements are read the rule is always observed within a word, and only occasionally broken for adding a word in a phrase. The instances of such phrases are few but the usefulness gained is worthwhile, and no clashes will be found:

serVeD, leNDer (normal order within a single word)

sorT oF, laTer oN (phrase order)

Pitman's New Era: part, part of, sort, sort of parts of, sorts of, bereft served
part, part of, sort, sort of
but parts of, sorts of compare bereft served

Pitman's New Era: later on/later than, further on/further than lender fender
later on/later than, further on/further than
compare lender fender

If the N hook is already in use in the main word, you cannot then make it do double duty for the next word in the phrase as well, such as "kinder than" "blunder on" "gift of" "bereft of".

Derivatives

Derivatives will not always retain the N hook of the primitive outline, they will vary according to the subsequent strokes, vowels, and attachments that are involved, in exactly the same way as spoken words change their syllable stress and their vowels. This also applies to words that are not derivatives but share the same consonant structure.

Where the syllable after the N F or V is unaccented, a following R- or L-hooked stroke or full strokes are often used, producing a better reflection of the pronunciation and therefore more legible outlines:

Pitman's New Era: prefer proffer, discovery discover, refer roofer
prefer proffer, discovery discover, refer roofer

Pitman's New Era: defer deferential, differ differential
defer deferential, differ differential

Pitman's New Era: brave bravery braveness bravest braver bravely
brave bravery braveness bravest braver bravely

Pitman's New Era: grave graver engraver gravely graveness
grave graver engraver gravely graveness

Pitman's New Era: tough toughness tougher toughly, midwife midwifery wafer
tough toughness tougher toughly, midwife midwifery wafer

Derivatives may replace a stroke with a hook, or vice versa, to accommodate vowels or suffixes, or to obtain a compact or faster outline:

Pitman's New Era: serve serving served server servery service servant serval
serve serving served server servery service servant serval

Pitman's New Era: solidify solidified, electrify electrification, deviate deviation
solidify solidified, electrify electrification, deviate deviation

Pitman's New Era: pains painstaking painless, found founder foundry foundation founded
pains painstaking painless, found founder foundry foundation founded

Pitman's New Era: geographic geographical geography geographer
geographic geographical geography geographer

In some cases distinguishing outlines are needed:

Pitman's New Era: refer referee reference, revere reverie reverence
refer referee reference, revere reverie reverence

Pitman's New Era: provide proviso providence, pervade pervasive, perverse perversion
provide proviso providence, pervade pervasive, perverse perversion

Pitman's New Era: situation station, divide defied
situation station, divide defied

Top of page

When not to use

When N is the only stroke, no hook is possible:

Pitman's New Era: sun stone swoon
sun stone swoon

When a final vowel follows the N F or V sound, the stroke En is used. Thus the existence of a final vowel is indicated without actually writing it:

Pitman's New Era: pen penny, puff puffy, proof/prove privy, Ben Benny, Bev bevy
pen penny, puff puffy, proof/prove privy, Ben Benny, Bev bevy

Pitman's New Era: tune tuna, toff toffee, Dan Danny, Dave Davey
tune tuna, toff toffee, Dan Danny, Dave Davey

Pitman's New Era: cough coffee, cave cavy, gran granny
cough coffee, cave cavy, gran granny

Pitman's New Era: men many, nan nanny, Len Lenny
men many, nan nanny, Len Lenny

Pitman's New Era: earn/Ern Ernie, run runny, rave revenue
earn/Ern Ernie, run runny, rave revenue

Pitman's New Era: wave wavy, win winnow, hone honey, heave heavy
wave wavy, win winnow, hone honey, heave heavy

Where a medial hook would be illegible or cannot be written, use full strokes:

Pitman's New Era: defame prevail defile cavity gravity refuge refuse reveal
defame prevail defile cavity gravity refuge refuse reveal

When the N sound is preceded by a circle or loop, there is no stroke to put a hook on. In these cases using stroke En is the only option and therefore does not indicate a following vowel:

Pitman's New Era: prison basin treason design chosen Jason suggestion
prison basin treason design chosen Jason suggestion

Pitman's New Era: fasten ensign monsoon reason hasten
fasten ensign monsoon
reason hasten

After a curved stroke, when adding a Ses, Stee or Ster loop after the N sound, the full stroke En is required, in order to be able to write the circle or loop:

Pitman's New Era: fine finest mean meanest minster minister lenses
fine finest mean meanest minster minister lenses

With straight strokes, a full stroke En is needed if there is a vowel before the ST:

Pitman's New Era: keenest canister against canst
keenest canister
compare against canst

A few words retain the hook and used halved Ess for the "-est" sound, to gain a better outline:

Pitman's New Era: kindest grandest earnest plainest toughest
kindest grandest earnest plainest toughest

Use stroke N after a triphone starting with diphthong U:

Pitman's New Era: genuine pursuance continuant constituent constant continent
genuine
pursuance continuant constituent compare constant continent

After other triphones, and diphones, N hook is used:

Pitman's New Era: buoyancy truant neon client gradient expedient ebullient diaphanous
buoyancy truant neon client gradient expedient ebullient diaphanous

Some exceptions to above:

Pitman's New Era: buoyant truancy triune Rayon ruin ruined fluent fluency affluent confluent pioneer
buoyant truancy triune Rayon ruin ruined fluent fluency affluent confluent pioneer

Following a curve, a final NS sound is always stroke En plus Circle S. As such words are not plurals, the stroke En allows easy derivatives to be formed (explained in full on Theory 4 Circles/S versus Z sound page):

Pitman's New Era: fens fence fencing
NZ sound:
fens NS sound: fence fencing

You cannot use the NS circle (i.e. hook N closed up into a circle to indicate NS) medially between two strokes because that would rely on the direction of the circle. As the direction of a medial circle is decided by convenience only, its direction cannot indicate an N Hook (see Theory 4 Circles/Medial Circles for fuller explanation).

Pitman's New Era: dusty density destroy, expense expensive expensiveness, pens pencil Paisley
dusty density destroy, expense expensive
(short form) expensiveness, pens pencil Paisley

Pitman's New Era: prince princeling princess principled prosper precept
prince princeling princess principled prosper precept

In the following outlines the NS/NZ circle is being used to show the N, but that is allowed because there is no other stroke immediately following, only the small shun hook:

Pitman's New Era: compensation condensation transition transitional compensatory transit
compensation condensation transition transitional
compare compensatory transit

In some cases it is possible to show the medial hook followed by Circle S. These need extra care to write clearly and it is helpful to exaggerate the length of the hook and the flattened circle (see also explanation of R Hooks in middle of outline which have a similar formation):

Pitman's New Era: ransom kinsman lonesome winsome hansom handsome
ransom kinsman lonesome winsome hansom
(but handsome derivative of "hand")

Downward Ell is generally an upstroke, but an initial Ell is written downwards before horizontals (Kay, Gay, En, Em, Ing) to show that there is a vowel before the Ell, and then stroke En is used, because an N Hook would make the Ell look like Wel. Using stroke N in such cases does not necessarily signify a following vowel:

Pitman's New Era: alone lone/loan well

alone lone/loan well

See Theory 14 L Forms page for details on when to write Ell up or downwards.

Top of page

 
 

"Whatever is true, whatever is noble, whatever is right, whatever is pure, whatever is lovely, whatever is admirable if anything is excellent or praiseworthy think about such things." (Philippians 4:8)

Charlie's Fight - save this baby's life - https://www.facebook.com/Charliegardsfight Online petition to continue his life support: https://www.change.org/p/parliament-to-keep-charlie-gard-alive-and-allow-him-to-receive-treatment-from-the-usa

Guestbook     Guestmap     Feedback Form page

All original material, images and downloads on this website, on the shorthand reading website and on the Blogger sites is copyright Beryl L Pratt and is provided for personal non-commercial study use only, and may not be republished in any form, or reposted online, either in full or part. If you wish to share the content, please do so by a link to the appropriate page of the website.

Free Web Counter from www.statcounter.com
Free GuestMap, Guestbook & Feedback Forms www.bravenet.com

Use the space on your 404 page to help find missing people by embedding info from notfound.org     See my 404 page