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Theory 5 Loops

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Theory

Theory Intro

 1   Strokes

 2   Vowels

 3   Forming Outlines

 4   Circles

 5   Loops

 6   Hooks Intro

 7   Hooks R L

 8   Hooks N F V

 9   Shun Hook

10  Halving

11  Doubling

12  Hay Aspirate

13  W Forms

14  L Forms

15  R Forms

16  Imp/Imb

17  Ish

18  Prefixes

19  Suffixes General

20  Suffixes Contracted

Short Forms

SF Intro

SF List 1

SF List 2

SF List 3

SF List 4

Contractions

Contractions Intro

Contractions Main

Contractions Optional

Phrasing

1 Phrasing Intro & Contents list

2 Theory

3 Theory

4 Omission Part words

5 Omission Whole words

6 Miscellaneous

7 Miscellaneous

8 Intersections

Distinguishing Outlines

DO Intro

DO List 1 A-C

DO List 2 D-H

DO List 3 I-P

DO List 4 Q-Y

Vocabulary

Vocab Intro

Numbers

Punctuation

Word Lists

Text Lists from PDFs

 

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PAGE DATE 15 July 2010

In addition to the strokes, the sounds of ST and STER can be represented by loops. This page also describes how to write these sounds when the loops cannot be used.

STEE LOOP
Size and shape
Placement and use
With R Hook on straight strokes
With N Hook on straight strokes
When not to use
Derivatives

STER LOOP
Size and shape
Placement and use
With N Hook on straight strokes
Circle S following
When not to use
Derivatives

See Theory 2 Vowels page for vowel placement for strokes that have loops.

  • Both loops are applied to the stroke in the same way as Circle S.

  • Stee represents the sounds ST, and also ZD finally.

  • Ster represents the sounds ST + slurred vowel + R.

  • No vowel comes between the S and T sounds.

  • Stee can be used at the beginning, middle and end of an outline.

  • Ster can be used in the middle and end only.

  • Read first and last.

  • The name Stee is for convenience only, any vowel can come before or after it.

  • The name Ster does approximate to the vowel it contains i.e. slurred and unaccented.

  • The loops themselves are never vocalised with Stee there is no vowel and with Ster the vowel is always slurred.

  • There are no thick versions.

  • Can be combined with R and N Hooks on straight strokes, but no other hooks.

  • Can be followed by Circle S.

STEE LOOP

Size and shape

The loop should be shallow, closed and extend half the length of the stroke. Keep the final part flattened so that it does not look like Circle S. Ensure it is closed so that it does not look like a hook. If the stroke is halved, then the Stee loop is half of that length:

Pitman's New Era: stiff fist stiffest mist midst steam steamed
stiff fist stiffest, mist midst, steam steamed

Pitman's New Era: state stated study studied stopped stored didst
state stated, study studied, stopped stored didst
(archaic)

On a doubled stroke, the loop remains the same size as on normal length strokes:

Pitman's New Era: stamper stinker stentor
stamper stinker stentor

Top of page

Placement and use:

Write on the same side as Circle S:

Pitman's New Era: stop stub stood stitch stage stick stag
stop stub stood stitch stage stick stag

Pitman's New Era: stuff stove stethoscope Staithes stem stump stone sting
stuff stove stethoscope Staithes stem stump stone sting

Pitman's New Era: steal store storm stern story/storey stereo
steal store storm stern story/storey stereo

Pitman's New Era: paste best toast tossed dust deduced just chest cost guest
paste best toast tossed dust deduced just chest cost guest

Pitman's New Era: fast vast atheist lithest essayist ceased sauced zest schist lushest fascist
fast vast atheist lithest essayist ceased sauced zest schist lushest fascist

Pitman's New Era: must warmest imposed nest honest west yeast haste
must warmest imposed nest honest west yeast haste

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Can also represent the sound ZD finally:

Pitman's New Era: posed buzzed abused dazed cruised refused revised mused nosed raised whizzed
posed
buzzed abused dazed cruised refused mused nosed raised whizzed

When used finally, there does not have to be a vowel before the ST:

Pitman's New Era: lapsed traipsed waltzed blitzed
lapsed traipsed waltzed blitzed

Stee loop is used medially after Tee Dee Jay Ell, where it makes a good join with a clear angle (but also see derivatives note below):

Pitman's New Era: testing dusting adjusting fantastic statistics artistic logistics elastic stylistic
testing dusting adjusting fantastic statistics artistic logistics elastic stylistic

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With other strokes, the join is not so good, or cannot be made, so these use dot "-ing" or Circle S and Tee:

Pitman's New Era: posting boasting fasting listing misting nesting wasting Hastings
posting boasting fasting listing misting nesting wasting Hastings

Pitman's New Era: posted boasted tasted dusted fasted listed misted nested wasted
posted boasted tasted dusted fasted listed misted nested wasted

Pitman's New Era: customer fastidious instead plastic obstacle obstinate hostile
customer fastidious instead plastic obstacle obstinate hostile

Dot "con-" can precede the loop:

Pitman's New Era: constellation consternation constipated constitute constituted
constellation consternation constipated constitute constituted

Sometimes a medial lightly-sounded T is omitted from the outline, therefore just Circle S is used:

Pitman's New Era: last lastly post postal vast vastly vastness most mostly
last lastly, post postal, vast vastly vastness, most
(short form) mostly

Pitman's New Era: firstly first-rate mistake procrastinate institute
firstly first-rate mistake procrastinate institute

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In compound words, even though the second word normally uses the loop, it is quicker to write one outline with full strokes loops by nature involve a change of direction, whereas consecutive strokes keep the movement going forward more quickly; a speed-reducing pen-lift is also avoided:

Pitman's New Era: book store bookstore live stock livestock
book store bookstore, live stock livestock

Pitman's New Era: up stairs upstairs out stare outstare stick mahlstick
up stairs upstairs, out stare outstare, stick mahlstick

The following do not follow the normal rule about keeping the strokes of derivative parts separate but the convenience of the outlines prevails:

Pitman's New Era: candle stick candlestick
candle stick candlestick hail storm hailstorm

Do not be misled by the longhand spelling, where the T is silent:

Pitman's New Era: pestle bustle castle gristle nestle whistle
pestle bustle castle gristle nestle
* whistle

*Note the Circe S in "nestle" looks like a Stee loop, but it is not, this is merely a distortion of the circle when it is written between the two curves. A medial stee loop never crosses the outline.

Pitman's New Era: hasten christen glisten listen fasten hasten
chasten christen glisten listen fasten hasten

Do not confuse with TS:

Pitman's New Era: post pots fast fats toast tots chest chats must moats waste waits
post pots, fast fats, toast tots, chest chats, must moats, waste waits

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With R Hook on straight strokes

The ST is read first, then the stroke with its R Hook next. There is always a vowel sound between initial Stee loop and the stroke. The R Hook is used in these cases because the vowel before the R sound is indeterminate:

Pitman's New Era: stopper stutter stitcher stager sticker stagger
stopper stutter stitcher stager sticker stagger

With N Hook on straight strokes

The stroke with its N Hook are read first, and the ST read last. There is no vowel between the N sound and the ST:

Pitman's New Era: pounced bounced tensed danced chanced rinsed winced enhanced
pounced bounced tensed danced chanced rinsed winced enhanced

Where there is a vowel between the N sound and the ST, these outlines are derivatives using a full stroke En:

Pitman's New Era: run runny runniest puny puniest brain brainy brainiest
run runny runniest, puny puniest, brain brainy brainiest

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Circle S following

Circle S can be added after Stee loop by continuing the motion, writing the small circle on the other side of the stroke:

Pitman's New Era: posts tests guests masts nests lists arrests rests
posts tests guests masts nests lists arrests rests

If there is a vowel before the last S, Stee loop is not used:

Pitman's New Era: hosts hostess pastes pasties beasts beasties
hosts hostess, pastes pasties, beasts beasties

Circle S never precedes Stee loop:

Pitman's New Era: cistern system cystic sustain Sistine sister
cistern system cystic sustain Sistine sister

Top of page

When not to use

If the ST sounds are the only consonantal sounds in the word:

Pitman's New Era: stay stow sit east oust iced asset
stay stow sit east oust iced asset

Derivates of the above type of word retain the original outline and do not take Stee loop (but see also below**):

Pitman's New Era: stay stayer staying stair sting
stay stayer staying (compare with stair and sting)

Pitman's New Era: stow stowing stower store
stow stowing stower (compare with store)

**The past tense of words beginning with ST does however use the Stee loop, to avoid ending up with two full strokes:

Pitman's New Era: stayed/staid stowed stewed
stayed/staid stowed stewed

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For the combination STR, use Circle S and stroke T with R Hook:

Pitman's New Era: stray strayed straying strayer straw construe strain construct obstruct mistrust
stray strayed straying strayer straw construe strain construct obstruct mistrust

If a vowel occurs between the S and T:

Pitman's New Era: best beset test tacit deposed deposit
best beset, test tacit, deposed deposit

Pitman's New Era: faced facet vest visit star seater satire
faced facet, vest visit, star seater satire

If there is a vowel before an initial ST or after a final ST:

Pitman's New Era: astound astonish astray astute esteem estate pasta chesty majesty gusto
astound astonish astray astute esteem estate pasta chesty majesty gusto

Pitman's New Era: feisty vista misty nasty lusty rusty Westie yeasty hasty
feisty vista misty nasty lusty rusty Westie yeasty hasty

When the ST precedes a stroke with a hook that cannot be combined with the loop, then Circle S and Tee must be used. The hooked form is used because the vowel is unaccented:

Pitman's New Era: staple stipple stable stubble stickle stifle
staple stipple stable stubble stickle stifle

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Do not use initially to Ess or Ish

Pitman's New Era: stasis Stacy apostasy stash station
stasis Stacy apostasy stash station

Before upward RT or a triphone, use Circle S and Tee:

Pitman's New Era: start starting started starter Stortford steward stewardess Stewart/Stuart
start starting started (derivative: starter) Stortford steward stewardess Stewart/Stuart

Cannot be written initially to Way, Yay, Hay, Kwa or Gwa

Cannot be written on a Shun Hook:

Pitman's New Era: perfectionist expressionist
perfectionist expressionist

Not used at the end of doubled strokes use a halved Ess:

Pitman's New Era: tenderest
tenderest

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Derivatives

Derivatives generally follow on from the original outline wherever possible, whilst a word that has a similar consonant structure may be written differently because it is either not a derivative of anything, or derived from a different outline:

Pitman's New Era: majesty majestic logistics
majesty majestic
compare with logistics

Pitman's New Era: taste tasty tastiness testings
taste tasty tastiness
compare with testings

Pitman's New Era: dust dusty dustiness dustings
dust dusty dustiness
compare with dustings

Pitman's New Era: stiff stiffly stuffy stuffily stifle
stiff stiffly stuffy stuffily
compare with stifle

Pitman's New Era: stick sticky stickily stickle
stick sticky stickily
compare with stickle

Pitman's New Era: stub stubby stubbily stubbly

stub stubby stubbily
compare with stubbly

Pitman's New Era: stain stains stained stand standard stunt stint constant stance
stain stains stained
compare with stand standard stunt stint constant stance

Top of page

STER LOOP

Size and shape

This is a large loop, written two thirds the length of the stroke, and fuller than the Stee loop. Keep the final part flattened so that it does not look like Circle Ses. Ensure the loop is closed that it is does not look like Shun Hook. It is not used on halved or doubled strokes.

Placement and use

Write on the same side as Circle S:

Pitman's New Era: poster brewster bluster Webster lobster taster truster duster roadster
poster brewster bluster Webster lobster taster truster duster roadster

Pitman's New Era: coaster cluster chorister huckster Baxter Manchester adjuster register
coaster cluster chorister huckster Baxter Manchester adjuster register

Pitman's New Era: foster vaster investor ancestor Cirencester shyster
foster vaster investor ancestor Cirencester
* shyster

(*This town name does have several other traditional local pronunciations)

Pitman's New Era: master semester minister imposter hamster dumpster
master semester minister imposter hamster dumpster

Pitman's New Era: nester sinister songster gangster Lester/Leicester Ulster bolster burster
nester sinister songster gangster Lester/Leicester Ulster bolster burster

Pitman's New Era: roster forester barrister waster southwester souwester Hester
roster forester barrister waster southwester souwester Hester

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Can be used medially, only if there is a good join:

Pitman's New Era: masterpiece fosterer upholsterer bolsterer Chesterfield Chesterton
masterpiece fosterer upholsterer bolsterer Chesterfield
but Chesterton

Stroke Ing cannot be added after Ster loop, therefore use dot "-ing":

Pitman's New Era: fostering bolstering ministering blusterings
fostering bolstering ministering blusterings

For "-ingly" use all full strokes (the strokes for "-ingly" are often used disjoined elsewhere in shorthand, when a join is not possible):

Pitman's New Era: blusteringly
blusteringly

Ster loop not used on doubled or halved strokes. The following are not doubled strokes, but two of the same stroke in succession:

Pitman's New Era: popster Chichester
popster
* Chichester     (*not in dictionary)

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With N Hook on straight strokes

The stroke and its N Hook are read first, and the Ster read last. There is no vowel between the N and the Ster:

Pitman's New Era: punster spinster Dunster
punster spinster Dunster

Where there is a vowel between the N sound and the Ster, the full stroke En is used:

Pitman's New Era: banister canister Glennister
banister canister Glennister

Circle S following

Circle S can be added after Ster loop by continuing the motion, writing the small circle on the other side of the stroke:

Pitman's New Era: posters masters fosters adjusters registers
posters masters fosters adjusters registers

Top of page

When not to use

If ST-R are the only consonantal sounds in the word:

Pitman's New Era: aster Esther Easter oyster store stir Stour
aster Esther Easter oyster store stir Stour

If there is a clear vowel between the ST and the R:

Pitman's New Era: posture pasteurise moisture mixture Finisterre posterior posterity
posture pasteurise moisture mixture Finisterre posterior posterity

If a vowel follows and/or there is no vowel between the ST and R:

Pitman's New Era: extra history mystery songstress blustery
extra history mystery songstress blustery

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Derivatives

When a D sound follows, the Ster loop cannot be written medially and so the outline uses Circle S and TRD:

Pitman's New Era: pestered blustered upholstered bolstered mastered
pestered blustered upholstered bolstered mastered

Pitman's New Era: registered fostered clustered rostered
registered fostered clustered rostered

There are very few cases where Ster is used medially, and in derivatives the outine generally uses Circle S and T or TR:

Pitman's New Era: ministerial ministry ministration ministered ministrant
ministerial, ministry ministration (contractions), ministered ministrant (R omitted)

Pitman's New Eera: assist assister sister assistant Gloucester Gloucestershire dexter dextrous
assist assister
* (note sister) assistant, Gloucester Gloucestershire, dexter dextrous

(*not in dictionary, I have based this on "ancestor")

Pitman's New Era: yester yesterday yesteryear yesternight
yester
but yesterday (contraction), yesteryear yesternight

Pitman's New Era: master master-key
master
but master-key

Words like "master-key" may equally well be written as separate words (both in shorthand and in transcription), as the hyphenation of pairs of words is not strictly fixed and can be changeable, according to the differing opinions of dictionary editors, as well as custom and fashion. However, writing one outline is quicker than writing two.

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"Whatever is true, whatever is noble, whatever is right, whatever is pure, whatever is lovely, whatever is admirable if anything is excellent or praiseworthy think about such things." (Philippians 4:8)

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