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Theory 12 Hay Aspirate

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Theory

Theory Intro

 1   Strokes

 2   Vowels

 3   Forming Outlines

 4   Circles

 5   Loops

 6   Hooks Intro

 7   Hooks R L

 8   Hooks N F V

 9   Shun Hook

10  Halving

11  Doubling

12  Hay Aspirate

13  W Forms

14  L Forms

15  R Forms

16  Imp/Imb

17  Ish

18  Prefixes

19  Suffixes General

20  Suffixes Contracted

Short Forms

SF Intro

SF List 1

SF List 2

SF List 3

SF List 4

Contractions

Contractions Intro

Contractions Main

Contractions Optional

Phrasing

1 Phrasing Intro & Contents list

2 Theory

3 Theory

4 Omission Part words

5 Omission Whole words

6 Miscellaneous

7 Miscellaneous

8 Intersections

Distinguishing Outlines

DO Intro

DO List 1 A-C

DO List 2 D-H

DO List 3 I-P

DO List 4 Q-Y

Vocabulary

Vocab Intro

Numbers

Punctuation

Word Lists

Text Lists from PDFs

 

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PAGE DATE 18 April 2016

The sound of H can be represented in several ways, the choice being influenced by which makes the best join and therefore most legible outline:

  • Upward Hay, used by the majority of outlines.

  • Downward Hay is used when alone and before simple Kay Gay.

  • Initial Downward Hay is shortened to a tick before Em Imp Ell Ar Rer Ard.

  • Dot Hay a dot written next to the following vowel, used when the other methods are not convenient or possible.

  • In compound words and derivatives, the form that joins best is generally used.

  • Only used to represent the sound. A silent longhand H is not represented in shorthand.

  • As many examples as possible have been given, so that you can base new outlines on existing known ones.

Quick Reminders
Upward Hay
Large Medial Circle
Downward Hay
Tick Hay
Tick versus full Downward Hay
Tick Hay in Phrases
Dot Hay
Dot Hay in compound words
Prefixes
Short forms with H sound

Derivatives
Hay compared with similar circles and strokes
When not to use

QUICK REMINDERS one of each usage:

Pitman's New Era: head hammer hacker heckle hurry hose
UP: head hammer hacker heckle hurry hose

Pitman's New Era: hen half hat hunt behave racehorse
hen half hat hunt behave racehorse

Pitman's New Era: high highly hook hug ahem Bahamas
DOWN: high highly hook hug ahem Bahamas

Pitman's New Era: hem hump hear hearer hole, for whom
TICK: hem hump hear hearer hole, for whom

Pitman's New Era: uphill loophole exhume
DOT: uphill loophole exhume

Top of page

Upward Hay

Upward Hay is the most used form it is preferable as it is a forward moving stroke:

Pitman's New Era: happy hop hype hope hip heap
happy hop hype hope hip heap

Pitman's New Era: hoop/whoop hypothesis hypothetical hypocrisy
hoop/whoop hypothesis hypothetical hypocrisy


Pitman's New Era: hob hobby hautboy hub habit
hob hobby hautboy hub habit


Pitman's New Era: hod head heading headmaster headstrong
hod head heading headmaster headstrong

Pitman's New Era: headway ahead heed hood haddock hide/Hyde
headway ahead heed hood haddock hide/Hyde

Pitman's New Era: hidden Howden Hudson Hattie haughty hotel
hidden Howden Hudson Hattie haughty hotel
*

*pronunciation without the H sound is less common nowadays

Pitman's New Era: hottest heighten hiatus hatch hedge hedgerow
hottest heighten hiatus hatch hedge hedgerow

Pitman's New Era: huge hijack hitch hutch Hutchinson Hodges
huge hijack hitch hutch Hutchinson Hodges

Pitman's New Era: Hannah honey honeymoon hunch hinge
Hannah honey honeymoon hunch hinge

Pitman's New Era: hyena heinous Hendon Honduras Hindi
hyena heinous Hendon Honduras Hindi

Pitman's New Era: hang hanger hung hunger
hang hanger hung hunger

Pitman's New Era: hank honk huffy heavy havoc
hank honk huffy heavy havoc

Pitman's New Era: hyphen haven Havana hath heath hawthorn
hyphen haven Havana hath heath hawthorn*

*although "haw" uses downward Hay, this derivative needs upward Hay to produce an angle at the join

Pitman's New Era: hithe/hythe heathen hussy hazy hash hush
hithe/hythe heathen hussy
* hazy hash hush

*2 pronunciations -ss- and -zz-

Pitman's New Era: Hiawatha haywire Hawaii Hawaiian
Hiawatha haywire Hawaii Hawaiian

Top of page

Ray following:

Pitman's New Era: Harry Harrow hurry hairy hero
Harry Harrow hurry hairy hero

Pitman's New Era: harass Harris Harrison horizon horizontal
harass Harris Harrison horizon horizontal

Pitman's New Era: heron Huron heresy heretic
heron Huron heresy heretic

Pitman's New Era: Harriet hardy horrid hurried heredity
Harriet hardy
* horrid hurried heredity

* "hearty" and "hardy" are distinguishing outlines; hardy follows the rule, hearty does not.

 

Pitman's New Era: hoarded herded hoard herd
hoarded herded
compare hoard herd

Pitman's New Era: heroic haricot hurricane Harrogate
heroic haricot hurricane Harrogate

Pitman's New Era: horrify horrible herring hearth
horrify horrible herring hearth

Pitman's New Era: Harold hurdle heroine harrier hairier
Harold hurdle heroine harrier hairier

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Hook following:

Pitman's New Era: hoper hopper hypertension hibernate
hoper hopper hypertension hibernate

Pitman's New Era: Hibernian haberdashery Hebrew hubris
Hibernian haberdashery Hebrew hubris

Pitman's New Era: hotter hider header heater hooter
hotter hider header heater hooter

Pitman's New Era: hydrogen hydraulic hydro-electric hydration hatcher hedger
hydrogen hydraulic hydro-electric
* hydration hatcher hedger

* "electric" is a contraction. Take care that "hydraulic" and "hydro-electric" are not read for each other.

Pitman's New Era: hacker hawker hiker hugger haggard
hacker hawker hiker hugger haggard

Pitman's New Era: heifer hover heaver hoover heather hither
heifer hover heaver hoover heather hither

Pitman's New Era: hammer hummer humour hamper hampered hankered hunkered/hungered
hammer hummer humour
* hamper hampered hankered hunkered/hungered

*the pronunciation "yumour" is less common nowadays

L Hook following:

Pitman's New Era: haply hobble Hubble huddle hackle heckle
haply hobble Hubble huddle hackle heckle

Pitman's New Era: huckleberry haggle haggler hovel
huckleberry haggle haggler hovel

Halved:

Pitman's New Era: hat hats hatbox hat-trick hot hotly hotspot hotbed
hat hats hatbox hat-trick hot hotly hotspot hotbed

Pitman's New Era: height hut hate hateful heat heating heatwave heatstroke
height hut hate hateful heat heating heatwave heatstroke

Doubled:

Pitman's New Era: hunter hinder hinder hounder hinterland
hunter hinder
(=further back) hinder (=obstruct) hounder hinterland

Top of page

Final attachments:

Pitman's New Era: hen hens/hence hewn hone Henry Henley
hen hens/hence hewn hone Henry Henley

Pitman's New Era: hint hints hindered hindrance hound hundred hunt huntress
hint hints hindered
* hindrance hound hundred hunt huntress

*typo corrected 12Apr2014 to "hindered" (this had been shown as "hind")

Pitman's New Era: half halved/haft hafts hive huff Hove
half halved/haft hafts hive huff Hove

Pitman's New Era: hoof hoof's/hooves haste host hast
hoof hoof's/hooves haste host hast

Pitman's New Era: hoist heist Hester hustings Hastings Haitian
hoist heist Hester hustings Hastings Haitian

Circle S following:

Pitman's New Era: hawse haze/hays hose/hoes huss hues/hews/Hughes hiss hisses
hawse haze/hays hose/hoes huss hues/hews/Hughes hiss hisses

Pitman's New Era: hissing house/Howe's housing housewife husband housebound
hissing house/Howe's housing housewife husband housebound

Pitman's New Era: hasp hyssop hospice hospital Hispanic
hasp hyssop hospice hospital Hispanic

Pitman's New Era: hesitate hesitation hostel hostile hostility
hesitate hesitation hostel hostile hostility

Pitman's New Era: history historical hysterical hazard hazardous
history historical hysterical hazard hazardous

Pitman's New Era: hawser husk hassock Hoskins
hawser husk hassock Hoskins

Pitman's New Era: hyacinth haziness hustle hazel
hyacinth haziness hustle hazel

Top of page

Medially (see below for how to form the Hay circle going back on itself):

Pitman's New Era: behalf behave behaved behaviour behoove beehive
behalf behave behaved behaviour behoove beehive

Pitman's New Era: behind behest behead boyhood babyhood
behind behest behead boyhood babyhood

Pitman's New Era: cubby-hole uphold behold withhold
cubby-hole uphold behold withhold

Pitman's New Era: foothold high-heeled upheaval haphazard biohazard
foothold high-heeled upheaval haphazard biohazard

Pitman's New Era: pea-hen abhor prohibit rehabilitation
pea-hen abhor prohibit rehabilitation

Pitman's New Era: Tahiti prehistoric antihistamine top-heavy
Tahiti prehistoric antihistamine top-heavy

Pitman's New Era: adhere adhesive dehydrate rehydrate rehang
adhere adhesive dehydrate rehydrate rehang

Pitman's New Era: overhang overhaul overhear overheard overhunt
overhang overhaul overhear overheard overhunt

Pitman's New Era: unheeding unhesitating unhesitatingly unhindered unholy
unheeding unhesitating unhesitatingly
* unhindered unholy

*Outlines like this look unwritable with all the vowel signs inserted, but are easy to write unhesitatingly when unvocalised!

Pitman's New Era: unhinge unhitch unhampered unhygienic
unhinge unhitch unhampered unhygienic

Pitman's New Era: enhance enhearten unhurried downhearted
enhance enhearten unhurried downhearted

Pitman's New Era: foolhardy Fieldhouse field-hospital playhouse brewhouse
foolhardy Fieldhouse field-hospital playhouse brewhouse

Pitman's New Era: outhouse gatehouse Woodhouse hothouse
outhouse gatehouse Woodhouse hothouse

Pitman's New Era: clubhouse guest-house warehouse weigh-house
clubhouse guest-house warehouse weigh-house

Pitman's New Era: poorhouse Whitehouse rehouse rehash rehearsal
poorhouse
* Whitehouse rehouse rehash rehearsal

* "poorhouse" and "beerhouse" are distinguishing outlines; poorhouse follows the rule, beerhouse does not.

Pitman's New Era: bloodhound wolfhound deadhead hot-head bareheaded
bloodhound wolfhound deadhead hot-head bareheaded

Pitman's New Era: overhead overheat deadheat reheat preheat superheated
overhead overheat deadheat reheat preheat superheated

Finally:

Pitman's New Era: Idaho Jehu Yahoo
Idaho Jehu Yahoo

Large Medial Circle A Circle S can be enlarged so that it includes a following Hay circle, but this large circle must be written so that the result still resembles upward Hay, i.e. mostly written going back on itself (see below for formation of this circle). Only a few words use this:

Pitman's New Era: racehorse clotheshorse post-haste dust-heap doss-house
racehorse clotheshorse post-haste dust-heap doss-house

Pitman's New Era: Fitzhugh Fitzherbert Fitzhenry
Fitzhugh Fitzherbert Fitzhenry

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Downward Hay

Use when the H sound is the only consonant in the word:

Pitman's New Era: high/hie haw/haugh hay/hey Hoo Hoey Hoy Howe/how
high/hie haw/haugh
* hay/hey Hoo Hoey Hoy Howe/how**

*haugh = water-meadow     **"how" noun, meaning a low hill

Pitman's New Era: hew/hue/Hugh ha ho/hoe aha oho ahoy Ohio
hew/hue/Hugh ha ho/hoe aha oho ahoy Ohio

Retain in derivatives where a syllable is added (see also Derivatives below for -s, -n and -ed):

Pitman's New Era: hayloft haymaker haymow hayrick haystack
hayloft haymaker haymow hayrick haystack

Pitman's New Era: hewer hewing rough-hew rough-hewing hoer hoeing hieing heyday boohoo
hewer hewing rough-hew rough-hewing hoer hoeing hieing heyday boohoo


Pitman's New Era: higher highest highly highness high-class high-born
higher highest highly highness high-class high-born

Pitman's New Era: Highbury highflyer high-priest highroad highway
Highbury highflyer high-priest highroad highway

Pitman's New Era: high-seas, hey presto, high-pressure
high-seas, hey presto, high-pressure
*   *optional contraction

Use before simple Kay Gay:

Pitman's New Era: hack hackney hike hake hook hoax
hack hackney hike hake hook hoax

huckster Hawkins hexagon hexagonal Huxley
huckster Hawkins hexagon hexagonal Huxley

Pitman's New Era: hector hick hiccup huckaback hectic hectare
hector hick hiccup huckaback hectic hectare

Pitman's New Era: hag haggis hug Haig/Hague Higgins Highgate Hugo
hag haggis hug Haig/Hague Higgins Highgate Hugo

Top of page

Medially and finally: use when upstroke not convenient sometimes the choice is made because of the join with the following stroke, rather than the preceding stroke e.g. "Abraham". Note that the downward Hay can only take a final Circle S when it is attached to another stroke, because only then is it obvious it is a Hay and not some other stroke.  The circle part of the Hay is written anticlockwise (diagram below):

Pitman's New Era: cohabit mayhap mayhem Limehouse Abraham
cohabit mayhap mayhem Limehouse Abraham

Pitman's New Era: behemoth anhydrous annihilate nihilism inhuman
behemoth anhydrous annihilate nihilism inhuman

Pitman's New Era: all-hail All-Hallows billhook Lahore lahar
all-hail All-Hallows billhook Lahore lahar

Pitman's New Era: ad hoc hulahoop lighthouse alehouse Brighouse farmhouse
ad hoc
* hulahoop lighthouse alehouse Brighouse farmhouse

*this is the only instance of a Downward Hay following stroke D "hoc" is a separate word and this outline is really behaving like a mini-phrase.

Pitman's New Era: wheelhouse summerhouse maharajah Sahara Mohican Mohawk
wheelhouse summerhouse maharajah Sahara Mohican Mohawk

Pitman's New Era: mahogany music-hall tomahawk mohair Leghorn
mahogany music-hall tomahawk mohair Leghorn

Pitman's New Era: cowherd cohere cohesive incoherent Gehenna
cowherd cohere cohesive incoherent Gehenna

Pitman's New Era: aloha tally-ho Mayhew Omaha mahout
Final:
aloha tally-ho Mayhew Omaha mahout

Pitman's New Era: cowhide cahoot cahoots anyhow know-how/no-how sky-high
cowhide cahoot cahoots anyhow know-how/no-how
* sky-high

*Always insert the vowel, to distinguish it from "anyhow"

Pitman's New Era: Shanghai shanghaied haw-haw heigh-ho Soho Sheehy
Shanghai shanghaied haw-haw heigh-ho Soho Sheehy

Before Ray: Upward Hay is generally used before Ray, but a few words produce better outlines with downward Hay. The first four are taking advantage of halving the Ray, and the last two are avoiding 3 straight strokes in succession which would be illegible:

Pitman's New Era: hortative heritage heritable horticulture heritor hierarchy
hortative heritage heritable horticulture heritor
hierarchy

Top of page

Tick Hay

Downward Hay is reduced to a tick (i.e. just the lower third of the stroke):

  • Before simple Em Imp, upward Ell, Ar Rer Ard MNEMONIC: HoMeLieR

  • Used only initially, never medially or finally.

  • The tick is treated as an initial attachment, like Circle S. It therefore does not count as the first stroke when placing the outline in position and is not used if a vowel precedes it.

Pitman's New Era: ham hammock hamster hamstring homage hominy
Em:  ham hammock hamster hamstring homage hominy


Pitman's New Era: haulm home hem hemmed hymn humble Humphrey
haulm home hem hemmed hymn humble Humphrey


Pitman's New Era: hemisphere haemoglobin hemorrhage haematite homicide
hemisphere haemoglobin hemorrhage haematite homicide

Pitman's New Era: Himalaya whom humid humidity humidify
Himalaya whom humid humidity humidify

Pitman's New Era: humility humanity human humane humus/humous hummus
humility humanity human
* humane* humus/humous hummus**

*these two are positioned according to the second vowel, in order to provide distinguishing outlines.

**humus=soil, humous=pertaining to vegetable mould, hummus=chickpea spread

Pitman's New Era: hemp hempen hempseed Hampshire Hampton humbug
Emp: hemp hempen hempseed Hampshire Hampton
humbug

Pitman's New Era: hall/haul hollow holly hallow halo hello Hayley
Ell:
hall/haul hollow holly hallow halo hello Hayley

Pitman's New Era: hauled holiday hold/holed Hilda haulage Holocaust
hauled holiday hold/holed Hilda haulage Holocaust

Pitman's New Era: Halifax health Helen helm helmet helium
Halifax health Helen helm helmet helium

Pitman's New Era: help hole/whole holey/holy wholly wholesale wholesome holster
help hole/whole holey/holy wholly wholesale wholesome holster

Pitman's New Era: hull hulk hill hillock hillside hallelujah
hull hulk hill hillock hillside hallelujah

Pitman's New Era: halt halter holder hilt Hilton Hilary hilarious
halt halter holder hilt Hilton Hilary hilarious

Pitman's New Era: heel/heal heliograph howl howler hailstone
heel/heal heliograph howl howler hailstone

Pitman's New Era: here/hear heard hearer hearsay hereby hire hired hireling
Ar, Ard:
here/hear heard hearer hearsay hereby hire hired hireling

Pitman's New Era: hair/hare hairpin harebell harp harpoon herb Herbert harbour
hair/hare hairpin harebell harp harpoon herb
* Herbert harbour

*pronunciation without the H sound is less common nowadays

Pitman's New Era: hurt heart/hart hearty hard hardly harden hark hearken Harcourt
hurt heart/hart hearty
* hard hardly harden hark hearken Harcourt

* "hearty" and "hardy" are distinguishing outlines; hardy follows the rule, hearty does not.

Pitman's New Era: Harvey harvest harvester hurl hurled harsh
Harvey harvest harvester hurl hurled harsh

Pitman's New Era: harm harem harmony Herman harness
harm harem harmony Herman harness

Pitman's New Era: horse horseback horseman horse-power horseshoe hoarse
horse horseback horseman horse-power horseshoe hoarse

Pitman's New Era: her hers/hearse Hurst horn Horner horror horror horary Harare
her hers/hearse Hurst horn Horner horror horror horary
* Harare**

* "horary" avoids upward Hay+Ray+Ray which would make an unacceptable outline of 3 continuous strokes in the same direction.

** "Harare" not in dictionary, could also be written like "horary". The form offered here, using two of stroke Ray, accords with the accented vowels that follow them take your choice.

Top of page

Tick versus full Downward Hay If the H sound has an initial vowel before, or triphone after, use the full stroke. This is the only time that the stroke Hay indicates the presence of a vowel or triphone. (This rule is the same as that for the use of Circle S versus stroke Ess, and Hook En versus stroke En):

Pitman's New Era: hem ahem hull ahull
hem ahem, hull ahull

Pitman's New Era: hare O'Hare horse ahorse
hare O'Hare, horse ahorse

Pitman's New Era: ham Higham/Hyam hiemation howl Howell hyaline
ham Higham/Hyam hiemation, howl Howell hyaline

Pitman's New Era: heard Howard hoot Hewitt Howitt Howitzer
heard Howard, hoot Hewitt Howitt Howitzer

Tick Hay in phrases Tick Hay may occur medially in a phrase. Vocalisation should be considered, as in a phrase it is identical to Tick The. You cannot used both ticks together in a phrase:

Pitman's New Era: for whom, in her, in the air
for whom, in her
compare in the air

Note the exact placement of first place vowels in regard to the tick the vowel sign is placed at the extreme end of the stroke, necessary so that the vowel sign is not mistaken for a second place vowel. This does not mean that the vowel is spoken before the H if there were a vowel before the H, you would be using a full downward Hay stroke to place it against. Note also that the tick does not count as the first up or downstroke:

Pitman's New Era: ham haulm hem homestead hemstitch
ham haulm hem homestead hemstitch

Top of page

Dot Hay

Use Dot Hay when the other forms cannot conveniently be written. It is only used if the resultant outline remains legible when unvocalised.

  • Mostly used in compound words, where the original form of Hay would make an awkward join.

  • Never used initially or finally.

  • The dot is always placed close against the vowel that comes after the H sound, and both signs are placed against the following stroke, regardless of whether the vowel is a first, second or third place one (as the H is medial, this is similar to the behaviour of vowels after a medial Circle S or medial hook).

  • The sign for a vowel that is sounded immediately before the H sound also remains with its own stroke, whether first second or third place vowel, because it cannot "jump" over the H, e.g. "apprehend" below

  • The dot is always written against a vowel sign. If you omit the vowel sign, then also omit the Dot Hay. Dot Hay on its own is meaningless, but a vowel sign on its own is preferable, when hard-pressed, if you feel the outline needs it for clarity.

Note the exact placement of the Dot Hay:

  • Over a dot vowel, so they occupy the same position against the stroke, i.e. a line drawn between them would resemble a dash vowel. The Dot Hay is the outer one of the two. The two dots are not side by side in relation to the stroke.

  • Immediately before and beside a dash vowel, which will vary according to the direction of the stroke.

  • To the left side of a diphthong.

Pitman's New Era: Blackheath loophole pinhole manorhouse
Blackheath loophole pinhole manorhouse

This can look similar to two vowel signs written together e.g. genii nuclei tracheae* but as Dot Hay is never used finally and is never placed immediately after a stroke, this does not present a problem.

*see outlines on Vowels page

Pitman's New Era: apprehend apprehension reprehend philharmonic
apprehend apprehension reprehend philharmonic

Pitman's New Era: unwholesome unhappy unhealthy unharness unheard unhurt
unwholesome unhappy unhealthy unharness unheard unhurt

Pitman's New Era: alcohol perhaps mishap vehicle dehumanise
alcohol perhaps mishap vehicle
* dehumanise**

*choice of pronunciations 

**always insert the U diphthong, so it does not clash with "demonise", although if you wanted a non-dictionary distinguishing outline, using downward Hay would make sense (as in "ad hoc")

Pitman's New Era: upholster grasshopper diehard firehose exhale
upholster grasshopper diehard firehose exhale exhume

Top of page

Dot Hay in compound words Some outlines that use stroke Hay will change to Dot Hay when they are part of a compound word, either because stroke Hay is inconvenient or impossible to join, or to obtain a briefer outline. The list is not exhaustive:

Pitman's New Era: hall townhall guildhall Whitehall Vauxhall
hall townhall guildhall Whitehall Vauxhall

Pitman's New Era: handed lefthanded right-handed high-handed open-handed short-handed
handed lefthanded right-handed high-handed open-handed short-handed

Pitman's New Era: head letterhead Godhead figurehead loggerhead Whitehead
head letterhead Godhead figurehead loggerhead Whitehead

Pitman's New Era: bulkhead blockhead axehead hogshead pinhead
bulkhead blockhead axehead hogshead pinhead drumhead

Pitman's New Era: hearted faint-hearted kind-hearted warm-hearted hard-hearted light-hearted
hearted faint-hearted kind-hearted warm-hearted hard-hearted light-hearted

Pitman's New Era: hill uphill downhill foothill Redhill Cornhill
hill uphill downhill foothill Redhill Cornhill

Pitman's New Era: hog hedgehog roadhog groundhog warthog
hog hedgehog roadhog groundhog warthog

Pitman's New Era: hold household freehold stronghold
hold household freehold stronghold

Pitman's New Era: leasehold leaseholder shareholder penholder
leasehold leaseholder shareholder penholder

Pitman's New Era: hole porthole air-hole armhole bolt-hole coal-hole
hole porthole air-hole armhole bolt-hole coal-hole

Pitman's New Era: manhole pothole pigeonhole sinkhole
manhole pothole pigeonhole sinkhole

Pitman's New Era: hood neighbourhood knighthood falsehood likelihood livelihood
hood neighbourhood knighthood falsehood likelihood livelihood

Pitman's New Era: manhood womanhood adulthood childhood girlhood maidenhood
manhood womanhood adulthood childhood girlhood maidenhood

Pitman's New Era: widowhood brotherhood priesthood
widowhood brotherhood
* priesthood*

*optional contractions

Pitman's New Era: horse hobbyhorse rocking-horse coach-horse
horse hobbyhorse rocking-horse coach-horse

Pitman's New Era: hook fishhook boathook pruning-hook sheep-hook
hook fishhook boathook pruning-hook sheep-hook

Pitman's New Era: horn greenhorn longhorn Langhorne hartshorn
horn greenhorn longhorn Langhorne hartshorn

Pitman's New Era: hound greyhound foxhound staghound
hound greyhound foxhound staghound

Pitman's New Era: hawk sparrow-hawk goshawk night-hawk news-hawk
hawk sparrow-hawk goshawk night-hawk news-hawk

Pitman's New Era: house  alms-house boarding-house boiler-house beerhouse
house alms-house boarding-house boiler-house beerhouse
*

* "poorhouse" and "beerhouse" are distinguishing outlines; poorhouse follows the rule, beerhouse does not

Pitman's New Era: clearing-house counting-house dwelling-house eating-house
clearing-house counting-house dwelling-house eating-house

Pitman's New Era: glasshouse greenhouse henhouse penthouse townhouse
glasshouse greenhouse henhouse penthouse townhouse

Pitman's New Era: ice-house oast-house storehouse wash-house long-house meeting-house
ice-house oast-house storehouse wash-house long-house meeting-house

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Prefixes

Initial in- , when not a negative, is shown by a small "-in" hook to upward Hay only.(This hook is only used for inh- instr- inskr-) The hook does not need vocalising, as the vowel is included in the meaning of the hook. The stroke Hay still goes through the line because the first sounded vowel is a third place one, despite it not being represented by a dot:

Pitman's New Era: inhale inhaled inhalant inhabit inhibition
inhale inhaled inhalant inhabit inhibition

Pitman's New Era: inherent inherit inheritance
inherent inherit inheritance

Negatives in- and un- use stroke N, which makes a much more reliable outline, considering that the meanings are opposites:

Pitman's New Era: inhospitable inhuman inharmonious unhelpful
inhospitable inhuman inharmonious unhelpful

Pitman's New Era: uninhabited uninhabitable disinherit
uninhabited
* uninhabitable* disinherit as the "in-" hook cannot be used medially.

These two outlines have been corrected 14 April 2014

hetero- Most use halved downward Hay:

Pitman's New Era: heterodox heterogeneous heteronym heterocarpous
heterodox heterogeneous heteronym heterocarpous

These three use upward Hay for better join before Gay Em Ell:

Pitman's New Era: heterogamous heteromorphous heterology
heterogamous heteromorphous heterology

Top of page

Short forms with H sound:

Pitman's New Era: had which have however him himself hand
had which have however him himself hand

Pitman's New Era: has his when what who how why, for he can
has his when what who how why, for he can
( "he" in phrases only)

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Derivatives

Some words that use downward Hay on its own, use upward Hay to accommodate  attachments and to form single-syllable derivatives:

Pitman's New Era: hoe hoes/hose hoed, hie hies/highs hied/hide
hoe hoes/hose hoed, hie hies/highs hied/hide

Pitman's New Era: hew hews hewed hewn
hew hews hewed hewn

Derivatives need to keep their full stroke:

Pitman's New Era: highly holly Highland Holland
highly
but holly, Highland but Holland

Pitman's New Era: hoe hoer hoar higher hire
hoe hoer
(one who hoes) but hoar, higher but hire

Where the rules call for a downward Ell (see Theory 14 L Forms page), Tick Hay cannot be used:

Pitman's New Era: hallucination halcyon haloes
hallucination halcyon
compare haloes

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Hay compared with similar circles and strokes

Writing the Circle Stroke Hay must never be allowed to resemble S-CH or S-Ray, so medially and finally it is sometimes necessary to write the circle going back upon itself. The use of such an abrupt change of direction is always kept to an absolute minimum in the rules of Pitman's Shorthand. Whichever method is used to write the Hay, the final shape is always the same, i.e. the circle never changes sides:

Compare the following:

Pitman's New Era: Bohemia beseech adhere deserve unheated inserted
Bohemia beseech, adhere deserve, unheated inserted

Pitman's New Era: Omaha mischief coffee-house officer
Omaha mischief, coffee-house officer

Similarity to other strokes:

Pitman's New Era: hay rays/race series ways yes hat hit chats chits hunt child's

hay rays/race, series ways yes, hat hit chats chits, hunt child's

Confusion as to which stroke is meant is only likely when there is only one stroke in the outline. An additional stroke in the outline makes it clear which direction the strokes were written:

  • "hay" and "rays/race" could be confused, so keep the angle of Ray shallow.

  • "series" "ways" and "yes" show why a solitary downward Hay does not take final hooks or circle.

  • the writing direction of the half length strokes becomes clear when the vowels are inserted, but if vowels are omitted, then only the steep or shallow angle shows which stroke is meant.

See also note on Theory 10 Halving "extra care straight strokes"

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When not to use

Silent longhand H is not represented in Pitman's Shorthand:

Pitman's New Era: heir heiress heirloom honest honestly hombre hacienda
heir heiress heirloom honest honestly hombre hacienda

Pitman's New Era: haute cuisine honour honourable dishonour ohm Brahms
haute cuisine, honour honourable dishonour ohm Brahms

Pitman's New Era: vehemence exhibit exhort exhilarate exhaust
vehemence exhibit exhort exhilarate exhaust

Pitman's New Era: forehead rhetoric rhyme rhubarb threshold
forehead rhetoric rhyme rhubarb threshold
*

*this word is sometimes pronounced with a separate additional H sound, a possibly false etymology from "hold", but the dictionary outline reflects the normal pronunciation

Pitman's New Era: Hannah Hugh high bah
Hannah Hugh high bah

WH: the H sound is included in the Whay and Whel strokes, therefore does not need to be indicated separately.

Pitman's New Era: where while
where while

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