Long Live Pitman's Shorthand banner text

Completely devoted to New Era Shorthand

 

Theory 10 – Halving

Long Live Pitman's Shorthand! Free resources

Read my Blog written in shorthand

 

Search this website.
Results by
Freefind
Advanced

Or use my Search page.

Find that New Era outline on the Shorthand Dictionary page - free PDF downloads

Home   

Recent Additions & Corrections

About

Shorthand Everywhere

Why Learn?

Notes for Beginners

Pen and Paper

Pen & Pencil Reviews

Dictation

How To Practise

Downloads

Blog Downloads have moved to new website:
www.long-live-pitmans-shorthand-reading.org.uk

Links

Guestmap & Guestbook links page

Feedback Form

You Can Help Form

Theory
 
Intro
 1   Strokes
 2   Vowels
 3   Forming Outlines
 4   Circles
 5   Loops
 6   Hooks Intro
 7   Hooks R L
 8   Hooks N F V
 9   Shun Hook
10  Halving
11  Doubling
12  Hay Aspirate
13  W Forms
14  L Forms
15  R Forms
16  Imp/Imb
17  Ish
18  Prefixes
19  Suffixes General
20  Suffixes Contracted

Short Forms
Intro
SF List 1
SF List 2
SF List 3
SF List 4

Contractions
Contractions Intro
Contractions Main

Contractions Optional

Phrasing

1 Intro & Contents list
2 Theory
3 Theory
4 Omission
Part words
5 Omission
Whole words
6 Miscellaneous
7 Miscellaneous
8 Intersections

Distinguishing Outlines
DO Intro
DO List 1 A-C
DO List 2 D-H
DO List 3 I-P
DO List 4 Q-Y

Vocabulary
Intro
Numbers
Punctuation
Shorthand Dictionaries

Word Lists
Text Lists from PDFs

Yellow Teddy's page

Reading pages have moved to new website:
www.long-live-pitmans-shorthand-reading.org.uk


Long Live Pitman's Shorthand! logo web


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PAGE DATE 25 July 2015

In addition to using the full strokes Tee and Dee, the sounds of T and D can be indicated by halving the preceding stroke. This gives the two advantages of a briefer outline and an indication of presence or absence of vowels by the choice of method.

  • In most words of one syllable, thin strokes are halved to add T and thick strokes are halved to add D.

  • If there is a final hook, an attached diphthong, or 2 or more syllables in the word, the halving can generally signify either T or D and context is required to determine which is meant.

  • The above rules are not mutually exclusive, and which is used depends on how legible the resultant outline is.

  • The third position for a halved stroke is on the line (same as second position) and not through the line.

  • Em En Ell Ar Ing Imp/Imb behave slightly differently

  • Ler and Rer cannot be halved.

  • Halving is not used when there is a final vowel after the T or D.

  • The T or D is pronounced after a stroke's final hook (N F V Shun) but before a final Circle S, Stee Loop and "dot -ing".

  • Longhand spelling must be ignored, as many words ending in -ed are pronounced with a T sound e.g. "tripped"

Words of one syllable (monosyllables)
– Thin strokes
– Thick strokes
– Final hook
– Attached diphthong
Words of more than one syllable
– General rule
– Single stroke outlines
Ray
Hay
Way Yay
Extra care with straight strokes
Em En Ell Ar
Ing
Ler Rer
Compound words
Vowel placement
Order of reading final attachments
When not to use

For halving of Imp/Imb, see Theory 16 Imp/Imb page

Words of one syllable (monosyllables)

(a) Thin stroke is halved to add T sound:

Pitman's New Era: pat apt tapped wrapped spot sapped supped sipped prate plate sprint stopped swept
pat apt tapped wrapped spot sapped supped sipped prate plate sprint stopped swept

Pitman's New Era: taut tight teat treat straight strut street chat chit itched stitched switched
taut tight teat treat straight strut street chat chit itched stitched switched

Pitman's New Era: cat act sacked stacked staked stickered stroked skate scoot ached crate cleat
cat act sacked stacked staked stickered stroked skate scoot ached crate cleat

Pitman's New Era: pricked backed blocked tacked/tact tract/tracked racked docked mocked knocked
pricked backed blocked tacked/tact tract/tracked racked docked mocked knocked

Pitman's New Era: fat fight fought fraught fright flight float flit aft soft sift swift staffed fluffed
fat fight fought fraught fright flight float flit aft soft sift swift staffed fluffed

Pitman's New Era: thought threat throat east iced shot shoot brushed crashed fished light slight let lit
thought threat throat east iced shot shoot brushed crashed fished light slight let lit

Pitman's New Era: wilt welt wet wit yet yacht hat hot heat height quote quit squat
wilt welt wet wit yet yacht hat hot heat height quote quit squat

Use stroke Dee to add D sound to a thin stroke:

Pitman's New Era: pad paid prod pride/pried prayed sprayed played splayed plead plied
pad paid prod pride/pried prayed sprayed played splayed plead plied

Pitman's New Era: tad Ted toad tread trod stride strode strayed strewed/Strood chide chewed
tad Ted toad tread trod stride strode strayed strewed/Strood chide chewed

Pitman's New Era: code kid keyed clad cried skid skied cowed crowd screwed
code kid keyed clad cried skid skied cowed crowd screwed

Pitman's New Era: fad fade feed fried frayed freed Fred thud thread shade showed shred
fad fade feed fried frayed freed Fred thud thread shade showed shred

Pitman's New Era: led lead sled willed wild wide wade/weighed head yawed quad squad
led lead sled willed wild wide wade/weighed head yawed quad squad

Top of page

(b) Thick stroke is halved to add D sound:

Pitmamn's New Era: bad bed bid bride bread/bred braid/brayed breed blade sobbed stubbed swabbed
bad bed bid bride bread/bred braid/brayed breed blade sobbed stubbed swabbed

Pitman's New Era: dad dead did died dried jawed jade edged pledged staged caged
dad dead did died dried jawed jade edged pledged staged caged

Pitman's New Era: good God guide egged sagged tagged dogged nagged mugged swigged glowed
good God guide egged sagged tagged dogged nagged mugged swigged glowed

Pitman's New Era: grade/greyed/grayed void sieved staved bathed breathed clothed
grade/greyed/grayed void sieved staved bathed
* breathed clothed   *past tense of bathe

Pitman's New Era: seethed soothed smoothed swathed zed eased oozed
seethed soothed smoothed swathed zed eased oozed

Use stroke Tee to add T sound to a thick stroke:

Pitman's New Era: bat bought boat boot bright brought blight bloat bleat
bat bought boat boot bright brought blight bloat bleat

Pitman's New Era: dot debt date jet jut get goat gloat greet grate vet vote
dot debt date jet jut get goat gloat greet grate
* vet vote

*great is a short form, halved

Essentially, halving these short words keeps the light/unvoiced sounds together and the heavy/voiced sounds together. This occurs naturally in English when there is no vowel between e.g. "apt" and "ebbed". There are a great number of such short words in English and as these outlines contain minimal information when unvocalised, this rule provides a degree of differentiation. It might be easier to remember thus: halve for two thins or two thicks.

Top of page

(c) Final hook If there is a final hook, halving can signify either T or D, for both thin and thick strokes. This allows many past tenses to be formed without changing the form. The T or D is spoken after the hook sound:

Pitman's New Era: pint/pined, puffed paved, bent/bend, briefed braved, brand brunt, stand stint, zoned
pint/pined, puffed paved, bent/bend, briefed braved, brand brunt, stand stint, zoned

Pitman's New Era: tint/tinned, dint/dinned, dived daft, chant chained, joint/joined, cant/canned can't
tint/tinned, dint/dinned, dived daft, chant chained, joint/joined, cant/canned can't

Pitman's New Era: scanned/scant, cleaned Clint, gaunt gained, grant ground, graft grooved, fent/fend
scanned/scant, cleaned Clint, gaunt gained, grant ground, graft grooved, fent/fend

Pitman's New Era: font fond, fount found, vent/vend, shunt/shunned shined, learnt/learned learnθd
font fond, fount found, vent/vend, shunt/shunned shined, learnt/learned
Note: learnθd

(d) Final attached diphthong Halving can signify either T or D, for both thin and thick strokes:

Pitman's New Era: proud ploughed/plowed pout bowed browed tout trout doubt drought
proud ploughed/plowed pout bowed
* browed tout trout doubt drought
*rhyming with "loud" 

Pitman's New Era: cute/cued/queued skewed spewed spout viewed vowed stout Stroud
cute/cued/queued
  skewed spewed spout viewed vowed stout Stroud*

*Dictionary outline, but stroke D would be clearer if the place name is unfamiliar

In plurals, the vowel is no longer joined and so the outline reverts to rule (a) and (b) above, i.e. write both strokes if one is thick and one is thin:

Pitman's New Era: bout bouts doubt doubts drought droughts feud feuds
bout bouts doubt doubts drought droughts feud feuds

Outlines that represent "two thins or two thicks" can retain their halving in the plural, they are not relying on an attached diphthong to be allowed to halve:

Pitman's New Era: pout pouts sprout sprouts tout touts trouts mute mutes newt newts nude nudes
pout pouts
sprout sprouts tout touts trouts mute mutes newt newts nude nudes

Pitman's New Era: swerve swerved
Exception: swerve swerved because it would not be clear to write Circle Sway and a hook on the same side of a halved stroke.

Top of page

Words of more than one syllable

(a) General rule is that halving can represent either T or D, regardless of whether the halved stroke is thick or thin. The more strokes or attachments that an outline has, the easier it is to read, and so there is less need for the restrictive rule that covers monosyllables:


inept tepid insipid reptile rapid abrupt morbid rabbit rabid abide debit

Pitman's New Era: seated seeded studied studded stated added wedded wetted
seated seeded studied studded stated added wedded wetted

Pitman's New Era: expedite credit budget budged offered suffered severed cravat
expedite credit budget budged offered suffered severed cravat

Pitman's New Era: method epithet complied complete supplied displayed

method epithet complied complete supplied displayed

Pitman's New Era: uttered ordered settled criticised ostracised measured treasured leisured
uttered ordered settled criticised ostracised measured treasured leisured

Pitman's New Era: complaint/complained, restraint/restrained, content/contend, system issued
complaint/complained, restraint/restrained, content/contend, system issued

Past tenses in "-ed" generally halve the last stroke, and therefore the outline will sometimes change slightly. You cannot just add stroke Dee to the end of the existing outline. As a rule outlines with similar sounds have similar outlines and do not show differences based on what part of speech it is (although some clashes do need to be dealt with by having distinguishing outlines):

Pitman's New Era: note noted intend intended respond responded waft wafted
note noted intend intended respond responded waft wafted

(b) Some two-syllable words obey the monosyllable rule:

Some to provide distinguishing pairs:

Pitman's New Era: sacred secret, applaud applied, asset assayed aside acid acidic acetic
sacred secret, applaud applied, asset assayed aside acid
Note also: acidic acetic

Some because, despite their 2 syllables, halving would produce an outline as short as the monosyllables, and so there is the same need for differentiation between T and D:

Pitman's New Era: afraid echoed stupid abate abut/abbot edit audit sedate
afraid echoed stupid abate abut/abbot edit audit sedate

Top of page

(c) An initial stroke halved generally follows the thin/T thick/D rule:

Pitman's New Era: protection protagonist pretext potable bedlam badminton

protection protagonist pretext potable bedlam badminton

The opposite combination uses full stroke:

Pitman's New Era: product prediction podium bottom bitumen detail deter deteriorate glutinous
product prediction podium bottom bitumen detail deter deteriorate glutinous

Pitman's New Era: academic schedule credulous
academic schedule
credulous

Pitman's New Era: between contradict detect detached determine
Exceptions:
between contradict detect detached determine

Top of page

Ray

Ray halved for T is never used standing alone, or alone with only a final Circle S, to avoid similarity with short forms "and" and "should", and a halved Chay (see also the Extra Care section below):

Pitman's New Era: rat rate rot rut right/rite/write/Wright rote/wrote writ writs/Ritz irate
rat rate rot rut right/rite/write/Wright rote/wrote writ writs/Ritz irate

Pitman's New Era: rights/rites/writes/Wright's rates roots, and is/and his, should his
rights/rites/writes/Wright's rates roots, and is/and his, should his

It may be halved if it has an initial circle or loop, a final hook or when joined to another stroke.

Pitman's New Era: sort concert round rant/Rand surround rift raved
sort concert round rant/Rand surround rift raved

Pitman's New Era: certain ascertain certify part parrot carrot curate accurate temperate
certain ascertain certify part parrot carrot curate accurate temperate

Pitman's New Era: artist article artifice artificial rationed apportioned
artist article artifice artificial rationed apportioned

If there is no final hook, use stroke Dee for a following D:

Pitman's New Era: ride road reed hurried horrid torrid lurid parade charade
ride road reed hurried horrid torrid lurid parade charade

Pitman's New Era: writing written righting rotten
Exceptions:
writing written compare righting rotten

Halved Ray is used finally for -art, also for -ard where stroke Ard cannot be joined:

Pitman's New Era: starred start paired part
starred start paired part

Pitman's New Era: gear geared, gore gored, colour coloured, tailor tailored
gear geared, gore gored, colour coloured, tailor tailored

Pitman's New Era: hazard mansard Hansard
hazard mansard Hansard

Top of page

Hay:

if there is only one stroke in the outline, use upward Hay halved for T. If hooked, halve for either T or D:

Pitman's New Era: hat hats hot height heat hint hunt honed hound haft heaved
hat hats hot height heat hint hunt honed hound haft heaved

If there is no hook, use stroke Dee:

Pitman's New Era: hide head heed haddock hewed/hued hew/hue
hide head heed haddock hewed/hued
* Note: hew/hue

*Despite the final joined diphthong in hew/hue, if halved the Hay would then be alone and unhooked, and therefore could only signify T, not D.

Retain the form in derivatives wherever possible:

Pitman's New Era: heat heating heated, hide hiding hidden, head heading headed
heat heating heated, hide hiding hidden, head heading headed

Pitman's New Era: hunt hunting hunted, hot hottest
hunt hunting hunted, hot hottest

Pitman's New Era: hatbox hat-trick hotbed hotness hateful
hatbox hat-trick hotbed hotness hateful

When there are other strokes in the outline, up or downward Hay halved may be used for either T or D as convenient:

Pitman's New Era: behind behaved heterodox heterogeneous cowhide go-ahead
behind behaved heterodox heterogeneous cowhide go-ahead

Overall, on an unhooked upward Hay, it is safe to halve for T and use stroke Dee for D. The two outlines "cowhide" and "go-ahead" seem to be the only examples of Hay being halved for D.

Pitman's New Era: overheat overhead dead-heat dead-head
overheat overhead dead-heat dead-head

Top of page

Way Yay

Halve for T; if hooked, halve for either T or D:

Pitman's New Era: white wait want/wand went/wend wind wind waft waved
white wait want/wand went/wend wind wind waft waved/waived yet yacht yawned

If there is no hook, use stroke Dee:

Pitman's New Era: wide wade weed wood you'd yawed
wide wade weed wood you'd yawed

The endings "-ward- wart -wort -yard" are described on Theory 20 Contracted Suffixes page.

Top of page

Extra care with straight strokes:

If written perfectly, at the correct angle and length, there is no clash between the following pairs, but at speed this small distinction may suffer and it is important to be aware of the necessity to maintain accurate outlines:

Pitman's New Era: rinds, as the/has the, rounds, is the/his the, hat, chats
rinds
similar to as the/has the – rounds similar to is the/his the – hat similar to chats

Pitman's New Era: spot, as to/as of, pots, of us/of his, pits, to us/to his
spot
similar to as to/as of – pots similar to of us/of his – pits similar to to us/to his

Pitman's New Era: tights, on us/on his
tights
similar to on us/on his

Rising strokes such as "and" "should" Ray and Hay must keep their shallow angle. As the examples above are different parts of speech, that helps greatly in reading back, but similar pairs that are the same parts of speech present the greatest danger of misreading. If you write extremely small outlines, the distinctions will be more difficult to maintain.

Top of page

Em En Ell Ar

These strokes in their plain unhooked form are halved as normal for T:

Pitman's New Era: mat meet moat omit emit summit smote remit remote permit promote
mat meet moat omit emit summit smote remit remote permit promote

Pitman's New Era: not/knot note neat ant scent present pleasant descent intellect internal
not/knot note neat ant scent
* present pleasant descent intellect internal

*"sent" is a short form, above the line, to distinguish it from "send"

Pitman's New Era: pelt bolt tilt dealt jolt kilt gilt/guilt fault felt volt
pelt bolt tilt dealt jolt kilt gilt/guilt fault felt volt

Pitman's New Era: melt moult smelt knelt insult little lilt ultimate halt hilt
melt moult smelt knelt insult little lilt ultimate halt hilt

Pitman's New Era: art artful heart/hart hurt hurts/Hertz desert/dessert
art artful heart/hart hurt hurts/Hertz desert/dessert

When halved for D in their plain unhooked form, these strokes are thickened, in order to provide a more distinctive outline:

(a) Em and En

M-D and N-D strokes are not compound consonants, as they can have a vowel inbetween:

Pitman's New Era: mad mode mood amid middle timid seemed steamed hemmed gummed
mad mode mood amid middle timid seemed steamed hemmed gummed

Pitman's New Era: slimmed armed rhymed roamed roomed assumed presumed framed
slimmed armed rhymed roamed roomed assumed presumed framed

Pitman's New Era: need nod end owned annoyed sand send sound stoned stained swooned
need nod end owned annoyed sand send sound stoned stained swooned


renewed defend/deafened designed thousand recommend command commend

ST-N-T/D: for root words, use the formation as in "stand"; for past tenses, keep the original form:

Pitman's New Era: stand stunt stunted stone stoned stain stained
stand, stunt stunted, stone stoned, stain stained

When a halved M or N is also hooked, this can signify either T or D, as do all hooked thin strokes, and no thickening is required (thickened hooked form belongs to Imp/Imb/Ing):

Pitman's New Era: manned mend/meant mint cement summoned
manned mend/meant mint cement summoned

Pitman's New Era: remind demand lament payment lenient
remind demand lament payment bemoaned anoint renowned lenient

Pitman's New Era: simmered hammered rumoured mannered honoured innards tunnelled channelled
simmered hammered rumoured mannered honoured innards tunnelled channelled

Top of page

(b) Eld Ard

The strokes Eld and Ard are compound consonants, they do not have a vowel inbetween. They are always written downwards, as no thick stroke is ever written upwards:

Pitman's New Era: old ailed pulled pooled boiled tiled retailed detailed doled
old ailed pulled pooled boiled tiled retailed detailed doled

Pitman's New Era: chilled jailed galled killed skilled failed field fields
chilled jailed galled killed skilled failed field fields

Pitman's New Era: revealed mould/mold moulding/molding mailed mildly pummelled nailed kneeled
revealed mould/mold moulding/molding mailed mildly pummelled nailed kneeled

Pitman's New Era: lulled cancelled excelled puzzled bustled bristled tasselled jostled
lulled cancelled excelled puzzled bustled bristled tasselled jostled

Pitman's New Era: rolled world whirled overhauled behold foothold withhold
rolled world whirled overhauled behold foothold withhold

Stroke Eld cannot have any attachments if standing alone, and such words need full strokes. It can be joined in a phrase/compound word:

Pitman's New Era: sold sailed styled oldest hold/holed healed wild but Oldham, old age, oldwife
sold sailed styled oldest hold/holed healed wild
but Oldham, old age, oldwife

Use full strokes if Eld cannot be written:

Pitman's New Era: muzzled whistled embezzled shield shelled assailed hustled
muzzled whistled embezzled shield shelled assailed hustled

Pitman's New Era: scheduled quarrelled swirled unfurled
scheduled quarrelled swirled unfurled

Stroke Ard is used when there is a vowel before, and no final vowel after:

Pitman's New Era: aired erred card cord coward hard hardly hardest hoard heard unheard arduous
aired erred card cord coward hard hardly hardest hoard heard unheard arduous

Pitman's New Era: ordeal ordain ordinal ordinary extraordinary spared
ordeal ordain ordinal ordinary extraordinary spared

Pitman's New Era: prepared shared stared required afford conferred
prepared shared stared required afford conferred

Pitman's New Era: deplored marred pondered slandered standard standardise
deplored marred pondered slandered standard
Note: standardise

Pitman's New Era: assured assuredly assuredness
Exception: assured retains its form in assuredly assuredness, these two are the only instances where there is a vowel between, although it is very lightly sounded.

Ard is able to take an initial Sway Circle, Stee Loop or W-sign, and Circle S either end:

Pitman's New Era: ward wired sired sword swords sward stored stirred steered
ward wired sired sword swords sward stored stirred steered

Sometimes Ray is used for the -erd sound where it makes for a quicker outline or where Ard does not join easily:

Pitman's New Era: referred preferred deferred answered censored wondered wintered
referred preferred deferred answered censored wondered wintered

If there is a vowel between L & D and R & D sounds, compound consonants are inappropriate and full strokes are used:

Pitman's New Era: laid lid load followed valued allowed allayed relayed unload truckload
laid lid load followed valued allowed allayed relayed unload truckload

Pitman's New Era: red/read reed/read arid married narrowed queried salaried
red/read reed/read arid married narrowed queried salaried

Top of page

Ing

These strokes cannot be halved in their plain form, as those shapes are used for the halved and thickened versions of Em En Ell Ar, where they are of more use because of their greater frequency.

Ing plus T or D needs to have the full stroke added, as the halved form is unavailable, being allocated to N-D. The lightly sounded K sound that comes inbetween the two is omitted:

Pitman's New Era: distinct instinct adjunct banged wronged
distinct instinct adjunct banged wronged

Pitman's New Era: longed belonged prolonged hanged
longed belonged prolonged hanged*

*Some regional British accents pronounce a hard G at the end of such words as "long" "hang" but this is not shown in Pitman's Shorthand.

Pitman's New Era: ink inked wink winked
Note: ink inked wink winked show the K because it is part of the original outline.

Ing may be halved if hooked for R, and the light K or G sound is omitted:

Pitman's New Era: anchored/angered blinkered tankard drunkard fingered lingered hungered/hunkered
anchored/angered blinkered tankard drunkard fingered lingered hungered/hunkered

Top of page

Ler Rer

These are never halved, such combinations use full strokes:

Pitman's New Era: coloured tailored mirrored reared lured leered
coloured tailored mirrored reared lured leered

Compound words

(a) Second word of the compound begins with T or D The first word of the compound does not use halving to indicate the T or D of the following word, as this would obscure where the syllables naturally split. Keeping both words in their normal form is more legible:

Pitman's New Era: tabletop half-tone half-dozen half-time full-time write-up
tabletop
* half-tone half-dozen half-time full-time write-up

*Disjoining would also be acceptable, to avoid invading line below

Some common words override this rule to make a briefer outline:

Pitman's New Era: beforetime beforehand sometimes
beforetime beforehand sometimes

Some phrases also use halving for a T or D that rightly belongs to the next word, or even a whole word like "it" and "to". They can do this because phrasing is a matter of choice and you would only use it if you felt it was readable and convenient:

Pitman's New Era: at one time, considerable time, if it is possible, I am unable to
at one time, considerable time, if it is possible, I am unable to

(b) Either word of the compound ends in T or D The compound word as a whole is treated the same as a word of more than one syllable. One of the words may end up halved, and so be written differently than when standing alone:

Pitman's New Era: copy right copyright  up right upright right angle right-angle
copy right
but copyright,  up right but upright, right angle but right-angle

Pitman's New Era: brush wood brushwood go ahead go-ahead cow hide cowhide
brush wood
but brushwood, go ahead but go-ahead, cow hide but cowhide

Top of page

Vowel placement

Vowels are placed to the stroke as normal, and read before or after that stroke. The three places of the vowels are closer together along the stroke, so that more care is needed when inserting them.

  • A vowel spoken before the T or D is placed against the halved stroke

  • A vowel sounded after the T or D is written against the following stroke

When you have such a medial T or D, or a medial circle or hook, you must remember that the vowel sound cannot "jump" over it. Each vowel sign must stay with its own stroke, and so the rule regarding putting a third-place vowel against the next stroke does not apply here:

Pitman's New Era: Pitman goodness goodwill biddable cottage potato
Pitman goodness goodwill biddable cottage potato

First up or downstroke of outline is halved The first up or downstroke is the one that is placed in position to match the vowel, and it continues to do so even if halved. Any downstrokes following it may end up going through the line, but that is irrelevant, only the first up or downstroke needs to be in position. Do not raise the outline up further to get other strokes off the line:

Pitman's New Era: ostensible creditable inestimable
ostensible creditable inestimable

Top of page

Order of reading final attachments

  • The stroke and any final hook are read together

  • Next read the T or D sound

  • Next read Circle S

  • "Dot -ing" is last of all

Pitman's New Era: pan pant pants dancing renting rantings
pan pant pants dancing renting rantings

Loops after halving occur in only a few words:

Pitman's New Era: midst amidst bidst didst
midst amidst bidst didst

For comparison, note that if the S or ST comes before the T or D, the formation is entirely different:

Pitman's New Era: pots post/posed posted
pots
but post/posed posted

Pitman's New Era: boats boating boast boasted boasting
boats boating
but boast boasted boasting

Pitman's New Era: meets meetings midst mist misted misting
meets meetings midst
but mist misted misting

This order of reading always applies within outlines, but in some phrases it is overridden because of their great usefulness. Note that the hook is being used to indicate another complete word, not a sound within a word:

Pitman's New Era: part of, sort of, in spite of, instead of, state of
part of, sort of, in spite of, instead of, state of

Top of page

When not to use

(a) Final Vowel When a final vowel follows the T or D sound, a full stroke T or D is necessary in order to place the vowel sign, thus indicating the existence of a final vowel without actually writing it:

Pitman's New Era: pit pity bud buddy tat tatty dad daddy
pit pity bud buddy tat tatty dad daddy

Pitman's New Era: chat chatty Jude Judy kit kitty good goody fat fatty
chat chatty Jude Judy kit kitty good goody fat fatty

Pitman's New Era: avid video meat meaty mid media knot knotty need needy
avid video meat meaty mid media knot knotty need needy

Pitman's New Era: lot Lottie late latte wit witty hat Hattie
lot Lottie late latte wit witty hat Hattie

The presence of the full Tee or Dee stroke at the end of an outline does not always mean that a vowel follows, because the monosyllable rule above sometimes requires a full stroke for other reasons. In such cases inserting the last vowel should be considered, and always inserted in names:

Pitman's New Era: pad Paddy bat batty Ted Teddy dot dotty

pad Paddy bat batty Ted Teddy dot dotty

Pitman's New Era: jet jetty cad caddy get Getty fad faddy
jet jetty cad caddy get Getty fad faddy

Pitman's New Era: Fred Freddy shade shady lad laddie
Fred Freddy shade shady lad laddie

Pitman's New Era: red ready wood woody head heady
red ready wood woody head heady

(b) Allowing full vocalisation Halving is not used where this would prevent the full vocalisation of the outline. This generally occurs where a medial T or D sound is followed by a Circle S, which itself cannot be vocalised, thus requiring a stroke against which to write the vowel that comes after the T (underlined):

Pitman's New Era: anticipate antiseptic reticent criticism
anticipate antiseptic reticent criticism

Pitman's New Era: absolutism conservatism egotism participle catastrophe
absolutism conservatism egotism participle catastrophe

Most outlines are constructed to enable full vocalisation, and abbreviation methods generally take a lower priority. The lack of somewhere to put a vowel sign would imply that there is no vowel to place, thus reducing legibility. Exceptions are made on an individual basis to gain a more facile outline, so long as it remains readable (unwritable vowels underlined):

Pitman's New Era: despotism protestation pragmatism patriotism favouritism scepticism rheumatism
despotism protestation pragmatism patriotism favouritism scepticism rheumatism

(c) Joining strokes of differing lengths Strokes of differing lengths must show a clear angle of join. If no clear angle can be made, halving is avoided and other methods must be used:

Use full strokes:

Pitman's New Era: popped propped propound bobbed bribed blabbed churched judged
popped propped propound bobbed bribed blabbed churched judged

Pitman's New Era: cooked cracked fact liked select conflict
cooked cracked fact liked select conflict

Pitman's New Era: milked thicket gagged aggregate segregate navigate
milked thicket gagged aggregate segregate navigate

Pitman's New Era: quaked squeaked entirety patina fatigue integer nightmare
quaked squeaked entirety
* patina fatigue integer nightmare

*Dictionary gives no vowel for the second "e", as it is barely spoken

Pitman's New Era: rotary notary territory tonight intimate
rotary notary territory tonight intimate

Pitman's New Era: award abhorred adhered dwarfed
award abhorred adhered dwarfed

Pitman's New Era: obstinate platypus dominate discriminate minute animate
obstinate platypus dominate discriminate minute animate

Pitman's New Era: mashed smashed famished ambushed polished abolished
mashed smashed famished ambushed polished abolished

Use disjoining. Note that it is the last stroke that is halved. In everyday shorthand the vowels are omitted and so the disjoined strokes can be written closer to the rest of the outline:

Pitman's New Era: dated dieted attitude credited dictated agitated devastated facilitated
dated dieted attitude credited dictated agitated devastated facilitated

Pitman's New Era: frustrated gravitated hesitated illustrated imitated incapacitated
frustrated gravitated hesitated illustrated imitated incapacitated

Pitman's New Era: necessitated maltreated situated mis-stated overstated stated restated
necessitated maltreated situated mis-stated overstated
but stated restated

Pitman's New Era: precipitated rehabilitated reinstated rotated irritated stratify
precipitated rehabilitated reinstated rotated irritated stratify

Pitman's New Era: traded intruded protruded tightened detained deadened
traded intruded
* protruded* tightened detained deadened

*Examples of how the disjoined strokes are closer when the outlines are not vocalised, this applies to all.

Pitman's New Era: aptness badness madness boldness broadness candidness multitudinous
aptness badness madness boldness broadness candidness multitudinous

A change of thickness may provide a reasonable angle with halved curves, but not with a succession of straight strokes:

Pitman's New Era: discard arrived named conferred interfered veered mediate intermediate
discard arrived named conferred interfered veered
* mediate intermediate

*This does have a change of thickness, because curved strokes are only thick in the middle.

Pitman's New Era: denote badinage bleeped biped probate probed
denote badinage bleeped biped probate probed

Pitman's New Era: clogged evict vacate revoked
clogged evict vacate revoked

Sometimes the angle has to be made a little sharper on purpose to show up the join:

Pitman's New Era: assuage death-bed sausage Thebes Wedgwood
assuage
death-bed (compare with the smoother join in sausage Thebes) Wedgwood

Two half length strokes may be joined as long as there is a clear angle, otherwise use full strokes or disjoin:

Pitman's New Era: protect altitude latitude dedicate deduct indicate integrate
protect altitude latitude dedicate deduct indicate integrate

Pitman's New Era: aptitude platitude meditate medicate intent intend estimate
aptitude platitude meditate medicate intent intend estimate

Pitman's New Era: chit-chat catgut bedpost litigant
Compare
chit-chat catgut bedpost litigant

The sounds of -NT -ND would normally be achieved by adding N hook and halving the preceding stroke, but in the following words that would not produce any angle of join. There is no choice but to use a halved stroke En, and its use does not therefore always indicate a vowel between the N and the T or D:

Pitman's New Era: definite defend toughened tenant pennant
Medial hook to produce a join:
definite defend toughened tenant pennant

Pitman's New Era: prevent profound convenient
Medial hook for better join:
prevent profound convenient

Pitman's New Era: likened quickened thickened vacant inherent
Other halved strokes:
likened quickened thickened vacant inherent

Pitman's New Era: accountant redundant abundant dependant
For two lots of medial nt/nd, halve both: accountant redundant abundant dependant

Top of page

(d) Shun Hooks & Circle Ses With the large Shun Hook, the stroke is halved as normal, but after the small Shun Hook and Circle Ses, use stroke D:

Pitman's New Era: actioned fashioned positioned requisitioned exercised emphasized
actioned fashioned positioned requisitioned exercised emphasized

(e) Derivatives generally retain their original form, which increases legibility:

Pitman's New Era: paid unpaid repaid but rapid, played replayed replied replete rippled
paid unpaid repaid
but rapid, played replayed but replied replete rippled

Pitman's New Era: decked bedecked abdicate induct
decked bedecked
but abdicate induct

Pitman's New Era: pitiful decode encode undivided undefeated rowboat overrate overcrowd
pitiful decode encode undivided undefeated rowboat overrate overcrowd

Pitman's New Era: outspread rightness haughtiness weightiness greediness flightiness
outspread rightness haughtiness weightiness greediness flightiness

Pitman's New Era: beautify beautiful undefiled indebted subdivide
Exceptions for brevity:
beautify beautiful undefiled indebted subdivide

Top of page

(f) A final syllable that is accented or has a very clearly pronounced vowel may use full stroke T or D:

Pitman's New Era: part parade, bricked bracket brocade, blocked blockade, decked docket decade
part parade, bricked bracket brocade, blocked blockade, decked docket decade

Pitman's New Era: arced arcade orchid, rabbit rebut rebate, stooped stupid, hotly hotel
arced arcade orchid, rabbit rebut rebate, stooped stupid, hotly hotel

Pitman's New Era: flannelled flannelette, leathered leatherette, casket cascade, knocked naked
flannelled flannelette, leathered leatherette, casket cascade, knocked naked

Pitman's New Era: passioned passionate, kitchen kitchenette, need Enid, sinned Synod
passioned passionate, kitchen kitchenette, need Enid, sinned Synod

Pitman's New Era: bicycle bicyclette
Exception:
bicycle bicyclette*   *= Dictionary, but stroke Tee would give a more reliable distinction

(g) After triphones the full stroke T or D is used. The past tense is shown also with each example:

Pitman's New Era: accentuate/d, infatuate/d insinuate/d perpetuate/d
accentuate/d, infatuate/d insinuate/d perpetuate/d

Pitman's New Era: fluctuate/d punctuate/d situate/d graduate/d
fluctuate/d punctuate/d situate/d graduate/d

Pitman's New Era: statuette diadem avowedly quiet diet suet
statuette diadem avowedly quiet diet suet

Normally halvaing for past tenses occurs on the last stroke, but outlines like "accentuate" have pushed the halving back onto the stroke before, in order to have a full stroke T to accompany the triphthong. This also allows derivatives to match.  Compare with:

Pitman's New Era: accent accented unfit unfitted
accent accented unfit unfitted

(h) Diphones Halving proceeds as normal after most diphones:

Pitman's New Era: abbreviate obviate affiliate appreciate appropriate create delineate humiliate infuriate
abbreviate obviate affiliate appreciate appropriate create delineate humiliate infuriate

Pitman's New Era: luxuriate permeate nauseate negotiate radiate repudiate fluid superfluous
luxuriate permeate nauseate negotiate radiate repudiate fluid superfluous
*

*Dictionary has diphthong "U" for the first vowel, but that pronunciation has become less common

Pitman's New Era: expiate poet poetic conciliate silhouette
expiate but poet poetic, conciliate but silhouette

Top of page

An R sound following a T or D may require the use of an R Hook on a stroke Tee or Dee, thus making unnecessary any halving of the preceding stroke:

Pitman's New Era: patron retrograde hydrogen hydraulic
patron retrograde hydrogen hydraulic

Names sometimes use full strokes in preference to using abbreviating devices. This improves legibility, although the outlines may be slightly slower to write. This is especially important as context cannot help. Vocalisation is often easier, and avoids ambiguities, such as whether a halving means T or D, or a hook means F or V:

Pitman's New Era: Margate Margaret Highgate McLeod Rutland Bedale
Margate Margaret Highgate McLeod Rutland Bedale

Pitman's New Era: Pendennis Dudley Thetford Shetland
Pendennis Dudley Thetford Shetland

Top of page

 
 

"Whatever is true, whatever is noble, whatever is right, whatever is pure, whatever is lovely, whatever is admirable – if anything is excellent or praiseworthy – think about such things." (Philippians 4:8)

Guestbook     Guestmap     Feedback Form page

All original material, images and downloads on this website, on the shorthand reading website and on the Blogger sites is copyright © Beryl L Pratt and is provided for personal non-commercial study use only, and may not be republished in any form, or reposted online, either in full or part. If you wish to share the content, please do so by a link to the appropriate page of the website.

Free Web Counter from www.statcounter.com
Free GuestMap, Guestbook & Feedback Forms www.bravenet.com

Use the space on your 404 page to help find missing people by embedding info from notfound.org     See my 404 page