Long Live Pitman's Shorthand banner text

Completely devoted to New Era Shorthand

 

Theory 9 Shun Hook

Long Live Pitman's Shorthand! Free resources

Read my Blog written in shorthand

 

Search this website.
Results by
Freefind
Advanced

Or use my Search page.

Find that New Era outline on the Shorthand Dictionary page - free PDF downloads

Home   

Recent Additions & Corrections

About

Shorthand Everywhere

Why Learn?

Notes for Beginners

Pen and Paper

Pen & Pencil Reviews

Dictation

How To Practise

Downloads

Blog downloads and reading articles have moved to new website:
www.long-live-pitmans-shorthand-reading.org.uk

Links

Guestmap & Guestbook links page

Feedback Form

You Can Help

Books

Shorthand Books

Shorthand Dictionaries

Theory

Theory Intro

 1   Strokes

 2   Vowels

 3   Forming Outlines

 4   Circles

 5   Loops

 6   Hooks Intro

 7   Hooks R L

 8   Hooks N F V

 9   Shun Hook

10  Halving

11  Doubling

12  Hay Aspirate

13  W Forms

14  L Forms

15  R Forms

16  Imp/Imb

17  Ish

18  Prefixes

19  Suffixes General

20  Suffixes Contracted

Short Forms

SF Intro

SF List 1

SF List 2

SF List 3

SF List 4

Contractions

Contractions Intro

Contractions Main

Contractions Optional

Phrasing

1 Phrasing Intro & Contents list

2 Theory

3 Theory

4 Omission Part words

5 Omission Whole words

6 Miscellaneous

7 Miscellaneous

8 Intersections

Distinguishing Outlines

DO Intro

DO List 1 A-C

DO List 2 D-H

DO List 3 I-P

DO List 4 Q-Y

Vocabulary

Vocab Intro

Numbers

Punctuation

Word Lists

Text Lists from PDFs

 

Yellow Teddy's page


Long Live Pitman's Shorthand! logo web


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PAGE DATE 5 April 2010

The sounds "shun" and "zhun" are represented by a large hook written at the end of the stroke, regardless of the longhand spelling.

Inside curves
Straight strokes:

Balancing the outline
Away from the preceding vowel
After Tee, Dee or Jay
Small Shun Hook
Adding S
In middle of outline
On a halved stroke
Words with alternative pronunciations
When not to use

For vocalisation see Theory 2 Vowels/4. Shun Hook

Inside curves

As with other hooks to curves, the Shun Hook is always written inside the curve, never outside. It is written approximately one third the length of the stroke (the same size as the L hook on curved strokes):

Pitman's New Era: fashion fission fusion infusion confusion fruition Friesian
fashion fission fusion infusion confusion fruition Friesian

Pitman's New Era: vision television evasion invasion renovation innovation deprivation
vision television evasion invasion innovation renovation deprivation

Pitman's New Era: conservation starvation devotion elevation session concession botheration
conservation starvation devotion elevation session concession botheration

Pitman's New Era: association appreciation depreciation differentiation propitiation initiation emaciation
association
* appreciation depreciation differentiation propitiation initiation emaciation

*See alternative outline below

Pitman's New Era: mission permission submission motion emotion commotion promotion locomotion
mission omission permission submission motion promotion locomotion

Pitman's New Era: remission intermission animation transmission ambition impassion nation donation
remission intermission animation transmission
* ambition impassion nation donation

*N omitted

Pitman's New Era: attention intention ammunition diminution admonition explanation
attention intention ammunition diminution admonition explanation clinician

Pitman's New Era: function junction unction compunction distinction extinction sanction
function junction unction compunction distinction extinction sanction
(K sound omitted)

Pitman's New Era: lotion lesion convolution revolution revelation volition
lotion lesion convolution revolution revelation volition

Pitman's New Era: annihilation relation ablution erosion oration
annihilation relation ablution erosion oration

You cannot combine the large Shun Hook with N Hook, the full stroke N must be used:

Pitman's New Era: pension expansion mention mansion tension pretension contention detention
pension expansion mention mansion tension contention pretension detention

Top of page

Straight strokes:

The Shun Hook can be written on either side of a straight stroke, according to the following rules. It is written approximately one third the length of the stroke (the same size as the hooks in Kwa and Gwa). Balancing the outline takes precedence over rules (b) and (c):

(a) Balancing the outline

The Shun Hook is written on the opposite side to an initial attachment (circle, loop or hook), to help the outline remain straight when written at speed. If the attachments at each end were on the same side, the stroke would tend to curve and become illegible:

Pitman's New Era: suppression conception reception completion compression
suppression conception reception, completion compression

Pitman's New Era: depletion depression implosion impression explosion expression
depletion depression, implosion impression, explosion expression

Pitman's New Era: station citation superstition sedation sedition consideration contrition
station citation superstition
* sedation sedition consideration contrition

*Dictionary has a U diphthong for "super" but this is no longer a common pronunciation

Pitman's New Era: secretion seclusion concretion conclusion accretion occlusion
secretion seclusion, concretion conclusion, accretion occlusion

Pitman's New Era: celebration conflagration incursion oppression appropriation refrigeration
celebration conflagration incursion oppression appropriation refrigeration

Pitman's New Era: abrasion hesitation intrusion extrusion Prussian Goshen
abrasion hesitation intrusion extrusion Prussian Goshen
*

*dictionary outline, some books give downwards stroke Ish for Goshen

Two straight strokes in the same direction also require their attachments balancing:

Pitman's New Era: probation approbation correction collection
probation approbation correction collection

A preceding curved stroke that makes no angle with the straight stroke requires to balanced, for the same reason, i.e. to to prevent outline becoming one long indeterminate and illegible curve:

Pitman's New Era: vacation invocation fiction affection confection infection affliction
vacation invocation fiction affection confection infection affliction

Pitman's New Era: location selection hypothecation
location selection hypothecation
* *slight but insufficient angle, therefore needs balancing

The strokes that have initial attachment as part of their basic form also need to observe balance, as there is the same tendency to curve the outline:

Pitman's New Era: persuasion cohesion adhesion equation
persuasion cohesion adhesion equation

Top of page

(b) Away from the preceding vowel

If there is no balancing required, then the direction of the Shun Hook is able to indicate the presence of a vowel, without actually writing it. The hook is written on the opposite side of the preceding vowel. Mnemonic: the hook "shuns" the vowel:

Pitman's New Era: option passion action occasion auction caution cushion defection deification
option passion potion, action occasion, auction caution cushion, defection deification

Pitman's New Era: portion Persian operation apparition abortion aberration aspersion aspiration
portion Persian operation apparition, abortion aberration, aspersion aspiration

Pitman's New Era: education diction induction indication election allocation allegation
education diction, induction indication, election allocation allegation

Pitman's New Era: direction attraction refraction reflection Egyptian adoption distribution libation
direction
* attraction refraction reflection Egyptian adoption distribution libation

*2 pronunciations

Pitman's New Era: contraction construction constriction complexion application inaction embrocation
contraction construction constriction complexion application inaction embrocation

Pitman's New Era: ration variation discolouration (discoloration) maceration laceration
ration variation discolouration (discoloration) maceration laceration

Pitman's New Era: Polynesian Melanesian Eurasian Caucasian decoction Australasian
Polynesian Melanesian Caucasian decoction Eurasian
but Australasian

"er-shun" uses Ray rather than Ar as it keeps the outline moving forward and is therefore quicker and more legible:

Pitman's New Era: insertion coercion immersion diversion inversion introversion Martian
insertion coercion immersion diversion inversion introversion
* Martian

* doubled "intro-" has no dot vowel, but "inter-" always does

Pitman's New Era: version marchioness
But
version marchioness

Top of page

(c) After Tee Dee Jay

As there is always a vowel between a Tee, Dee or Jay, and the Shun Hook, it is not necessary to indicate its presence, and therefore, if there is no balancing required, the Shun Hook is written on the right hand side (anticlockwise) in order to keep the outline moving forward:

Pitman's New Era: edition addition audition rotation notation annotation salutation
edition addition audition rotation notation annotation salutation

Pitman's New Era: tradition transportation erudition liquidation logician magician
tradition transportation* erudition liquidation logician magician *N omitted

Top of page

Small Shun Hook

The small Shun Hook can be used after a Circle S or En Hook+Circle S by continuing the motion of the circle. The end of the hook is level with the end of the stroke:

Pitman's New Era: composition compensation decision condensation
composition compensation decision condensation

Pitman's New Era: taxation vexation acquisition inquisition
taxation vexation acquisition inquisition

Pitman's New Era: cessation conversation musician incision sensation
cessation conversation musician incision sensation

Pitman's New Era: authorisation sterilisation pulsation canalisation
authorisation sterilisation pulsation canalisation

A preceding third place dot vowel or diphone is shown next to the small Shun Hook; second place vowels are not indicated; first place vowels do not occur between S-Shun:

Pitman's New Era: precession precision decision
precession precision decision

Pitman's New Era: pronunciation denunciation renunciation annunciation enunciation
pronunciation denunciation renunciation annunciation
but enunciation*

*To distinguish it from "annunciation"

Association Below is an advanced non-dictionary outline that reflects its alternative pronunciation "asso-SI-ashun", and its use is worth considering, as it is such a common word. Its representation in phrases is however normal theory that you will find in instruction books (although the Circle S in the phrases is representing the first S sound i.e. "so-shun"):

Pitman's New Era: association, regional association, medical association, political association
association, regional association, medical association, political association

Derivatives of this, as well as similar words and their derivatives (appreciation etc, see above) all use stroke Ish and this should be adhered to, as not all of them can be pronounced with the S sound as an alternative. To "convert" them all would create clashes, unreliability and ultimately hesitation. The S sound seems to be preferred when there are two SH's in the word, which can be awkward to say clearly.

See also Theory 4 Circles/Small Shun Hook

Top of page

Adding S

Circle S can be added to both large and small Shun Hooks:

Pitman's New Era: actions fashions decisions conversations
actions fashions decisions conversations

The Shun hooks do not take Stee or Ster loops, or any other hooks. The Circle S may end up slightly flattened into a small loop but should be kept small. The Shun Hook to should not be allowed to sprawl, to avoid mistaking it for a full stroke. Imagine these pairs written less than neatly and without vowels:

Pitman's New Era: actions anxious fashions fishes editions dishes
actions anxious, fashions fishes, editions dishes

Words written in longhand with double SS are still just plain Shun, do not be tempted by the longhand spelling to insert an additional Circle S:

Pitman's New Era: passion position impression imprecision
passion
compare position, impression compare imprecision

Top of page

In middle of outline

Medial Shun Hooks generally join well, although in some joins the large hook needs to be opened out slightly.

Pitman's New Era: optional sectional rational additional conditional traditional
optional sectional rational additional conditional traditional

Pitman's New Era: emotional promotional national notional occasional exceptional
emotional promotional national notional occasional exceptional

Pitman's New Era: affectionate extortionate confectioner commissioner conditioner probationer pensioner
affectionate extortionate confectioner commissioner conditioner
probationer pensioner*

*Ray is used in "shun-er" when it makes a better join than Ar

Pitman's New Era: dictionary revolutionary visionary cautionary discretionary confectionery missionary
dictionary revolutionary visionary cautionary discretionary confectionery missionary

Pitman's New Era: positional transitional conversational conversationalist sensational sensationalism
positional transitional conversational conversationalist sensational sensationalism

Pitman's New Era: actionable fashionable impressionable impressionism
actionable fashionable impressionable impressionism

The direction of the Shun Hook is maintained when it is used medially, but in a few words it changes sides in order to join the last syllable:

Pitman's New Era: station stationery stationary dispassion dispassionate
station
stationery* stationary* dispassion dispassionate

*How to remember the difference:
Stationery (=paper) ends in ER like paper
Stationary (=motionless) ends in AR like parked car

Shun Hook cannot take a loop, therefore "-shun-ist" uses a halved Ess, either up or down:

Pitman's New Era: perfectionist revolutionist educationist revisionist
perfectionist revolutionist educationist revisionist

"-s-shun-ist" needs expanding to full strokes:

Pitman's New Era: succession successionist opposition oppositionist conversation conversationist
succession successionist opposition oppositionist conversation conversationist

Some endings have to be disjoined or use full strokes for the "shun":

Pitman's New Era: pensionable mentionable sanctionable
pensionable mentionable sanctionable

Small Shun Hook can be used medially in derivatives:

Pitman's New Era: positional positioned positioning requisitioned
positional positioned positioning requisitioned

Top of page

On a halved stroke

The Shun Hook is written about half the length of the halved stroke and the T or D is sounded last:

Pitman's New Era: actioned conditioned rationed fashioned motioned provisioned functioned
actioned conditioned rationed fashioned motioned provisioned functioned

Pitman's New Era: sanctioned impassioned affectioned
But sanctioned impassioned affectioned

With stroke En, halved stroke Ish is preferred, because the join between a full stroke and a halved En would have no angle and be illegible:

Pitman's New Era: pensioned tensioned mentioned
pensioned tensioned mentioned

Note that the halvings above only represent D, mostly past tenses. For the SH-NT sound, use Ish and not the Shun Hook, because they are not derivatives of any word that uses Shun:

Pitman's New Era: ancient omniscient prescient impatient patient passionate
ancient omniscient prescient
* impatient* patient* compare passionate which has a vowel before the T

*full Ish, because lack of sharp angle: halving would be acceptable (as it "brushed" "pushed") but with the hook as well the outline would become indistinct

Top of page

When not to use

After a triphone (mostly long U diphthong plus another vowel), the stroke Ish is used to provide distinguishing outlines:

Pitman's New Era: situation station evacuation vacation graduation gradation
situation station, evacuation vacation, graduation gradation

Pitman's New Era: continuation contention extenuation extension
continuation contention, extenuation extension

Pitman's New Era: tuition striation evaluation valuation
tuition striation
* evaluation valuation**   *upwards Ish to balance the outline **short form

The following words use the Shun Hook despite the triphone, in order to avoid a very long outline and as they are unlikely to clash with another word:

Pitman's New Era: punctuation fluctuation insinuation perpetuation infatuation accentuation superannuation
accentuation fluctuation infatuation insinuation perpetuation punctuation superannuation
*

*Dictionary has a U diphthong for "super" but this is no longer a common pronunciation

Shun Hook is used after diphones:

Pitman's New Era: radiation mediation aviation deviation alleviation
radiation mediation aviation deviation alleviation

Some words look like shun but on closer inspection they do not contain the SH sound:

Pitman's New Era: question exhaustion combustion bastion fustian suggestion
T sound (often slurring to CH):
question exhaustion combustion bastion fustian suggestion

Pitman's New Era: hessian Parisian Elysian
S or Z sound:
hessian Parisian Elysian

Shorthand pad Pitman's New Era: Shorthand inclination decision revision examination jubilation remuneration promotion satisfaction!

Shorthand inclination decision revision examination
jubilation remuneration promotion satisfaction!

Top of page

 

"Whatever is true, whatever is noble, whatever is right, whatever is pure, whatever is lovely, whatever is admirable if anything is excellent or praiseworthy think about such things." (Philippians 4:8)

Charlie's Fight - save this baby's life - https://www.facebook.com/Charliegardsfight

Guestbook     Guestmap     Feedback Form page

All original material, images and downloads on this website, on the shorthand reading website and on the Blogger sites is copyright Beryl L Pratt and is provided for personal non-commercial study use only, and may not be republished in any form, or reposted online, either in full or part. If you wish to share the content, please do so by a link to the appropriate page of the website.

Free Web Counter from www.statcounter.com
Free GuestMap, Guestbook & Feedback Forms www.bravenet.com

Use the space on your 404 page to help find missing people by embedding info from notfound.org     See my 404 page