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Theory 16 – Imp Imb

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Theory

Theory Intro

 1   Strokes

 2   Vowels

 3   Forming Outlines

 4   Circles

 5   Loops

 6   Hooks Intro

 7   Hooks R L

 8   Hooks N F V

 9   Shun Hook

10  Halving

11  Doubling

12  Hay Aspirate

13  W Forms

14  L Forms

15  R Forms

16  Imp/Imb

17  Ish

18  Prefixes

19  Suffixes General

20  Suffixes Contracted

Short Forms

SF Intro

SF List 1

SF List 2

SF List 3

SF List 4

Contractions

Contractions Intro

Contractions Main

Contractions Optional

Phrasing

1 Phrasing Intro & Contents list

2 Theory

3 Theory

4 Omission Part words

5 Omission Whole words

6 Miscellaneous

7 Miscellaneous

8 Intersections

Distinguishing Outlines

DO Intro

DO List 1 A-C

DO List 2 D-H

DO List 3 I-P

DO List 4 Q-Y

Vocabulary

Vocab Intro

Numbers

Punctuation

Word Lists

Text Lists from PDFs

 

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PAGE DATE 3 March 2011

Stroke Imp/Imb is a thickened version of stroke Em:

  • Represents the compound sound of MP or MB

  • No vowel comes between the M and P, or M and B sounds

  • Can take N and Shun Hooks

  • Doubled, or R Hooked, for "imper/imber"

  • Never takes L Hook

  • Can be halved only when has a R or N Hook, plain form never halved

  • Lightly sounded P sound omitted and stroke M used e.g. "prompt" "prompter" "assumption"

  • Not used for silent longhand letters e.g. "lamb" "comb"

  • Used for short forms "important improve impossible" (List 4)

Stroke Imp/Imb
Hooks
Halving
Doubled or with R Hook
When not to use

Stroke Imp/Imb

Represents the compound sound of MP or MB, no vowel comes between, but can have a vowel either side:

Pitman's New Era: amp imp impish samp sump swamp swampy
amp imp impish samp sump swamp swampy

Pitman's New Era: stamp stump stumpy impose impostor imposture impetus
stamp stump stumpy impose impostor imposture impetus

Pitman's New Era: impetuous umpteen empathy sympathy impetigo humpty-dumpty
impetuous umpteen empathy sympathy impetigo humpty-dumpty

Pitman's New Era: impel impeller impelled impale impala ampoule

impel impeller impelled impale impala ampoule

Pitman's New Era: ampère amperage impair impure impurity empower
ampère amperage impair impure impurity empower

Pitman's New Era: umpire empire empirical emperor imperative
umpire empire empirical emperor imperative

Pitman's New Era: imperial imperious empanel impact Simpkin
imperial imperious empanel impact Simpkin

Pitman's New Era: impeach impinge impunity amputate imputed impudent impedance
impeach impinge impunity amputate imputed impudent impedance

Pitman's New Era: symposium Simpson Sampson Samson Thompson/Tompson
symposium Simpson Sampson
(compare Samson) Thompson/Tompson

Pitman's New Era: pump pumping pampas pompous pomposity pompom pumpkin
pump pumping pampas pompous pomposity pompom* pumpkin

*same as pompon = wool tassel; "pompom" & "pom-pom" is also a type of automatic cannon

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Pitman's New Era: Pompeiix2 Pompey plump primp
Pompeii (pronunciations vary) Pompey plump primp

Pitman's New Era: bump bumpkin bumptious blimp
bump bumpkin bumptious blimp

Pitman's New Era: temp tempo tempera temperance temperate temporary
temp tempo tempera temperance temperate temporary See temporal below

Pitman's New Era: timpanist Tampa tempest tempestuous trump trumpery tramp trampoline
timpanist Tampa tempest tempestuous trump trumpery tramp trampoline

Pitman's New Era: damp damp-proofing dump dumpling dumpster Dempster Dempsey
damp damp-proofing dump dumpling dumpster Dempster Dempsey

Pitman's New Era: camp decamp campus Kempsey campanula Kampala
camp decamp campus Kempsey campanula Kampala

Pitman's New Era: scampi skimp crimp scrimp clamp
scampi skimp crimp scrimp clamp

Pitman's New Era: clump gump grumpy gramps gazump
clump gump grumpy gramps* gazump   *Colloquial for "grandpa, grandfather"

Pitman's New Era: mumps mumpish chomp champ chimp jump jumpy
mumps mumpish chomp champ chimp jump jumpy

Pitman's New Era: lamp lumpy slump limp Limpsfield palimpsest
lamp lumpy slump limp Limpsfield palimpsest

Pitman's New Era: Olympia Olympic Olympiad ramp rampage rump
Olympia Olympic Olympiad ramp rampage rump

Pitman's New Era: reimpose reimport frump flump vamp revamp thump
reimpose reimport frump flump vamp revamp thump

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Pitman's New Era: shampoo shrimp wimp wampum mugwump
shampoo shrimp wimp wampum mugwump

Pitman's New Era: hump hemp hempseed Hampshire humpback Humboldt
hump hemp hempseed Hampshire humpback Humboldt

Pitman's New Era: imbue umbo samba embus emboss embossed
imbue umbo samba embus emboss embossed

Pitman's New Era: umbel umbilical ambulance embolism embellish
umbel umbilical ambulance embolism embellish

Pitman's New Era: ambush ambitious embassy embezzle imbecile embarrass embark
ambush ambitious embassy embezzle imbecile embarrass embark

Pitman's New Era: embog ambiguous ambivalent imbibe imbiber
embog ambiguous ambivalent imbibe
* imbiber*   *Note the first B is part of the stroke Imb

Pitman's New Era: embody ambassador ambidextrous Timbuctoo/Timbuktu plumbum plumbago
embody ambassador ambidextrous Timbuctoo/Timbuktu plumbum plumbago

Pitman's New Era: bombe bamboo bamboozle Bombay bumbo bimbo
bombe
* bamboo bamboozle Bombay bumbo bimbo

*= ice cream dessert, the B is pronounced, derived from French

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Pitman's New Era: bambino bombast bombastic bombyx brumby
bambino bombast bombastic bombyx brumby

Pitman's New Era: tambour tambourine tombola Dombey disembowel
tambour tambourine tombola Dombey disembowel

Pitman's New Era: jumbo jamboree Chimborazo akimbo camboose
jumbo jamboree Chimborazo akimbo camboose

Pitman's New Era: cambium cambial Kimbolton Abercrombie cambistry
cambium cambial Kimbolton Abercrombie
* cambistry  *Vowel may vary "crum" or "crom"

Pitman's New Era: Cambodia gamba Gambia gumbo gamboge
Cambodia gamba Gambia gumbo gamboge

Pitman's New Era: limbo lambaste Lambeth lumbago Colombo alembic

limbo lambaste Lambeth lumbago Colombo* alembic   *Vowels may vary according to speaker

Pitman's New Era: mamba Mombasa Mozambique embalm embalmed
mamba Mombasa Mozambique embalm embalmed

Pitman's New Era: nimbus nimby namby-pamby mumbo-jumbo
nimbus nimby namby-pamby mumbo-jumbo

Pitman's New Era: Zambia Zambezi Zimbabwe zombie
Zambia Zambezi Zimbabwe
* zombie   *Note the first B is part of the stroke Imb

Pitman's New Era: rumba rhomb rhombus rhombic rambutan rumbustious
rumba rhomb
* rhombus rhombic rambutan rumbustious   *The B is pronounced

Pitman's New Era: flambeau flambé framboesia/frambesia thrombosis symbiosis symbiotic
flambeau flambé framboesia/frambesia thrombosis symbiosis
* symbiotic*

*Suggested outlines, not in dictionary

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Comparison with the words they are derived from (or related to) shows how the stroke Imp replaces the plain stroke Pee:

Pitman's New Era: pulse impulse polite impolite potent impotent
pulse impulse polite impolite potent impotent

Pitman's New Era: port import porter importer pervious impervious
port import porter importer pervious impervious

Pitman's New Era: passive impassive pasta impasto pediment impediment
passive impassive pasta impasto pediment impediment

Pitman's New Era: pose impose position imposition pertinent impertinent poverty impoverish
pose impose position imposition pertinent impertinent poverty impoverish

Pitman's New Era: pass impasse passable impassable partial impartial
pass impasse passable impassable partial impartial

Pitman's New Era: patience impatience patient impatient
patience impatience patient impatient
*   *See Distinguishing Outlines List 3 impassioned/impatient

Pitman's New Era: part impart impartation impartment
part impart impartation
but impartment*   *For ease of joining "-ment"

Pitman's New Era: piety impiety pious impious impiously
piety impiety pious
* impious* impiously*  *"pious" has different vowels from the other two

Pitman's New Era: pecuniary impecunious peccable impeccable
pecuniary impecunious peccable impeccable

Pitman's New Era: bay embay embayment bale embale
bay embay embayment bale embale

Pitman's New Era: battle embattle bank embank bug humbug
battle embattle bank embank bug humbug

Pitman's New Era: bosom embosom boldest embolden unbalanced imbalance
bosom embosom boldest embolden unbalanced imbalance
*  * "balance" is a short form (List 1)

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Hooks

N Hook:

Pitman's New Era: pompon Pompeian pumpion plumpen tympan tampon trombone
pompon
* Pompeian pumpion plumpen tympan tampon trombone   *same as pompom

Pitman's New Era: dampen champion chimpanzee champagne campaign campion crampon
dampen champion chimpanzee champagne campaign campion crampon

Pitman's New Era: lumpen lampoon Olympian rampion Grampian
lumpen lampoon Olympian rampion Grampian

Pitman's New Era: sampan impugn impawn impen hempen
sampan impugn impawn impenhempen  *enclose in a pen

Shun Hook:

Pitman's New Era: ambition impassion imposition reimposition
ambition impassion imposition reimposition

Where there is no vowel before the Shun Hook, the lightly sounded P is omitted and stroke Em is used:

Pitman's New Era: exemption presumption resumption consumption assumption redemption gumption
exemption presumption resumption consumption assumption redemption gumption

R Hook is described together with Doubling below, as both methods represent the same sound = imper/imber

Never takes L Hook, use either stroke Ell or compound consonant Pel Bel.

Pitman's New Era: impel ample
impel (more above) ample (more below)

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Halving

Basic Imp/Imb cannot be halved, as that form is already allocated to MD. Only the hooked form can be halved.

1. When no vowel follows, the P is hardly sounded. It is therefore omitted and a halved Em is used to represent the M(P)T sound. This reflects the pronunciation and produces a shorter outline. Do not be misled by the final "-ed" in the longhand spelling, the pronunciation is always the T sound. The compound sound MBD (i.e. with no vowels between) does not occur, which is why the halved and thickened Em stroke was allocated to the sound of MD.

Pitman's New Era: pumped plumped prompt pre-empt bumped tempt tramped dumped
pumped plumped prompt pre-empt bumped tempt tramped dumped

Pitman's New Era: champed chomped jumped camped encamped unkempt decamped
champed chomped jumped camped encamped unkempt decamped

Pitman's New Era: cramped crimped clamped skimped scrimped exempt
cramped crimped clamped skimped scrimped exempt

Pitman's New Era: lumped slumped limped gazumped revamped thumped romped shrimped
lumped slumped limped gazumped revamped thumped romped shrimped

Pitman's New Era: humped stamped stomped swamped sumptuary
humped stamped stomped swamped sumptuary

Pitman's New Era: empty temptation temptress impromptu presumptuous
empty temptation temptress impromptu presumptuous
have a vowel after the T sound, so would require a stroke anyway, to write the vowel against. With such words you could use stroke Imp if you wanted, but your outline would not match the theory book or the dictionary. You cannot however use a thickened halved Em, because that is not available, being already used to represent plain MD.

Compare the following pairs: MT which represents M(P)T, and MD:

Pitman's New Era: bumped bummed tempt tamed dumped deemed
bumped bummed tempt tamed dumped deemed

Pitman's New Era: ramped rammed cramped crammed stumped stemmed
ramped rammed cramped crammed stumped stemmed

Note the halved Em behaves as per normal halving rules, it can have a vowel between the M and the T sounds:

Pitman's New Era: prompt promote prompter promoter limped limit
prompt promote prompter promoter limped
(="limt") limit

Names and place names must remain clear, as context cannot help, so stroke Imp is used, even though the P sound may be spoken just as lightly as the above words:

Pitman's New Era: Ampthill Hampden Hampton Hampstead Hamstead
Ampthill Hampden Hampton Hampstead
compare Hamstead

Pitman's New Era: Compton Crompton Bampton Frampton Southampton
Compton Crompton Bampton
Frampton Southampton*

*correct with one longhand H, no aspirate is pronounced or required in the outline

Speakers will vary according to how much they pronounce the light P sound, and some may leave it out altogether, but the shorthand outlines should remain constant. What people say when they are speaking carefully may be entirely different from their pronunciation in actual fast usage.

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2. If there is vowel after the MP/MB, add stroke Tee or Dee:

Pitman's New Era: impute trumpet strumpet strombite crumpet ambit gambit
impute trumpet strumpet strombite crumpet ambit gambit

Pitman's New Era: wombat limpet limpid embayed imbued impede
wombat limpet limpid embayed imbued impede

Pitman's New Era: stampede sambaed mamboed ombudsman rhomboid flambéed shampooed
stampede sambaed mamboed ombudsman rhomboid flambéed shampooed

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3. Halved if Hooked Can be halved if it has an R Hook or N Hook:

Pitman's New Era: hampered rampart whimpered Lambert slumbered cambered clambered scampered
hampered rampart whimpered Lambert slumbered cambered clambered scampered

Pitman's New Era: impend/impenned impugned impound impawned ambient impended impounded
impend/impenned
* impugned impound impawned ambient Note: impended impounded

*impenned = past tense of impen, to enclose in a pen

Pitman's New Era: dampened championed campaigned lampooned lambent rampant flamboyant
dampened championed campaigned lampooned lambent rampant flamboyant

4. Not halved when it has Shun Hook, use halved Ish+N Hook:

Pitman's New Era: ambitioned impassioned impassionate
ambitioned* impassioned** impassionate

*adjective = full of ambition, suggested outline, not in shorthand dictionary. A lone stroke, thickened, halved and with shun hook is too indistinct to be reliable. See also Theory 9 Shun Hook/halved stroke page.

**See Distinguishing Outlines List 3 impassioned/impatient

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Doubled or with R Hook

Pitman's New Era: imper imper

The sound of imper/imber (with the accent on the first syllable and a slurred second vowel) is represented both by doubling and by using the R Hook. The two strokes shown above represent identical sounds, and which to use depends on the convenience of the join.

See also the Quick Reference Table on Theory 11 Doubling page

Use the doubled stroke when it is the only stroke in the outline, or after a downstroke or Em:

Pitman's New Era: amber ember umber sombre/somber simper stamper
amber ember umber sombre/somber simper stamper

Pitman's New Era: pamper pumper plumper bumper Bamber
pamper pumper plumper bumper Bamber

Pitman's New Era: tamper tamperer temper temperament temporal
tamper tamperer temper temperament temporal
*   *This is exceptional, as the vowel after the P is "or" not "er", but doubling is used to prevent similarity with temporary/temporarily, see above

Pitman's New Era: temperature distemper damper dumper
temperature distemper damper dumper

Pitman's New Era: chomper chamber jumper September December November
chomper chamber jumper September December
but November (contraction)

Pitman's New Era: mumper thumper Northumberland
mumper thumper Northumberland

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Use the hooked form in all other cases i.e. after upstrokes and straight horizontals (the doubled stroke would join perfectly well to a horizontal, but the hooked form is preferable so that it can be halved for past tenses):

Pitman's New Era: camper/camber scamper Camberwell Camberley Cumberland
camper/camber scamper Camberwell Camberley Cumberland

Pitman's New Era: cucumber Stogumber whimper romper reimburse
cucumber Stogumber whimper romper reimburse

Pitman's New Era: hamper humper/Humber lumper/lumber/lumbar slumber limper/limber Lamberhurst
hamper humper/Humber lumper/lumber/lumbar slumber limper/limber Lamberhurst

If the Imp has an N hook, the doubling adds -der (these 4 words are the only examples):

Pitman's New Era: imponderable imponderability imponderous impounder ponderable ponderous
imponderable
imponderability imponderous impounder  Note: ponderable ponderous

Past tenses: the doubled form changes to Em and halved Per/Ber:

Pitman's New Era: tampered tempered timbered simpered chambered pampered
tampered tempered
timbered simpertinentimpered chambered pampered

As doubling of stroke Imp only adds -er, to add the sound of -eter, stroke Tee with R Hook is used:

Pitman's New Era: trumpeter embitter imputer Lampeter
trumpeter embitter imputer Lampeter

If there is no central vowel, then the P sound is only lightly sounded and need not be represented: use Em doubled, which adds the -ter sound as per normal doubling rules:

Pitman's New Era: prompt prompted prompter tempt tempted tempter
prompt prompted prompter tempt tempted tempter

Pitman's New Era: Plumptre x2
Plumptre (plump-ter & plum-ter) The dictionary gives no final vowel for the first outline. Isaac Pitman's Phonographic & Pronouncing Dictionary of 1894 gives the name "Plumptree" same as the first outline but with a heavy final vowel to match the spelling. This is a town-derived surname = place of plum trees.

Pitman's New Era: pumpernickel sempervirent shrimper shrimp
Note: pumpernickel* sempervirent* shrimper** shrimp

*For ease of joining   **Not doubled, to provide added distinction from "shrimp" as both are nouns

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When not to use

1. Vowel between: not used if there is vowel between the M and the P/B sounds:

 

Pitman's New Era: map mapped mope moped moped maypole myopia
map mapped mope moped
(past tense of mope) moped (bike) maypole myopia

Pitman's New Era: mob mobbed mobber mobile Namibia
mob mobbed mobber mobile Namibia

Pitman's New Era: amoeba/ameba demob somebody homebody
amoeba/ameba demob somebody homebody

2. Con/com dot: the representing of con/com/cum, either by the initial dot or by disjoining, includes the M sound, so only the following P or B stroke needs to be written:

Pitman's New Era: compel compare complain comprise recompense encumber
compel compare complain comprise recompense encumber

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3. MBL: If no vowel between, or only a slurred unaccented vowel, use plain Em and Pel/Bel:

Pitman's New Era: ample amply amplify employ imply implication
ample amply amplify employ imply implication

Pitman's New Era: implore implode amble umbles Embleton emblem
implore implode amble umbles Embleton emblem

Pitman's New Era: emblazon pimple preamble bumble bramble
emblazon pimple preamble bumble bramble

Pitman's New Era: temple Templeton template tumble tremble dimple
temple Templeton template tumble tremble dimple

Pitman's New Era: Campbell gamble/gambol crumple crumble scramble
Campbell (pronounced  "camble") gamble/gambol crumple crumble scramble

Pitman's New Era: jumble fumble thimble assembly shambles shambolic
jumble fumble thimble assembly shambles shambolic*

*not in dictionary, suggested outline based on "symbolic" below

Pitman's New Era: sombrous sombrero sample example simple
sombrous sombrero sample example simple

Pitman's New Era: stumble symbol/cymbal symbolic symbology
stumble symbol/cymbal symbolic but symbology

Pitman's New Era: mumble nimble ensemble resemble rumble
mumble nimble ensemble* resemble rumble   *Anglicised pronunciation

Pitman's New Era: humble Hambleton wimple Wembley Wimbledon
humble Hambleton wimple Wembley Wimbledon

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4. MPR MBR with no vowel between, use plain Em and Per/Ber:

Pitman's New Era: empress impress impression imprint imprison
empress impress impression imprint imprison

Pitman's New Era: improper improvise imprudent lamprey
improper improvise imprudent lamprey

Pitman's New Era: embryo embrace Ambrose ambrosia embrasure
embryo embrace Ambrose ambrosia embrasure

Pitman's New Era: embroil umbrella imbroglio umbrage
embroil umbrella imbroglio umbrage

Pitman's New Era: Flamborough Northumbria Cumbria Hambrook
Flamborough Northumbria Cumbria Hambrook

Pitman's New Era: Hamburg Cambourne Wimborne
Note also Hamburg Cambourne Wimborne

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5. Derivatives starting Im+per and Im+pl

1. If the word is derived from one that uses a hook i.e. PR PL BR BL, retain that form and use stroke Em before it:

Pitman's New Era: person impersonate personal impersonal perfect imperfect
person impersonate personal impersonal perfect imperfect
*   *Contraction

Pitman's New Era: permanence impermanence perforated imperforated
permanence impermanence perforated imperforated

Pitman's New Era: permeable impermeable permissible impermissible
permeable impermeable permissible impermissible

Pitman's New Era: placate implacable placement emplacement plausible implausible
placate implacable placement emplacement plausible implausible

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6. Compound words: not used where the M and P/B belong to different words:

Pitman's New Era: timepiece tomboy dumb-bell homebred homebrewed
timepiece tomboy dumb-bell homebred homebrewed

Pitman's New Era: bumboat gumboot gumboil hymn-book
bumboat gumboot gumboil hymn-book

Pitman's New Era: time-bomb plum-pudding stormbound lamp-post
time-bomb plum-pudding stormbound lamp-post
*   *choice of full outline or contraction (this contraction is ignoring the rule, as the outline is sufficiently distinctive)

7. PH: Not used where the longhand P is part of PH = F sound:

Pitman's New Era: triumph lymph nymph galumph
triumph lymph nymph galumph

Pitman's New Era: amphitheatre amphibian amphora samphire
amphitheatre amphibian amphora samphire

Pitman's New Era: pamphlet emphasise symphony emphysema
pamphlet emphasise symphony emphysema

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8. Silent B: A longhand silent B has no place in shorthand and the M is treated as normal:

Pitman's New Era: aplomb plumber bomb bombing tomb dumb
aplomb
* plumber bomb bombing tomb dumb   *Anglicised pronunciation (from French)

Pitman's New Era: comb succumb climb crumb
comb succumb climb crumb

Pitman's New Era: lamb limb thumb womb numb number
lamb limb thumb womb numb
number (= more numb, pronounced "nummer")

Pitman's New Era: lambed limbed thumbed combed climbed
lambed limbed thumbed combed climbed

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