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Theory Intro

 1   Strokes

 2   Vowels

 3   Forming Outlines

 4   Circles

 5   Loops

 6   Hooks Intro

 7   Hooks R L

 8   Hooks N F V

 9   Shun Hook

10  Halving

11  Doubling

12  Hay Aspirate

13  W Forms

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15  R Forms

16  Imp/Imb

17  Ish

18  Prefixes

19  Suffixes General

20  Suffixes Contracted

Short Forms

SF Intro

SF List 1

SF List 2

SF List 3

SF List 4

Contractions

Contractions Intro

Contractions Main

Contractions Optional

Phrasing

1 Phrasing Intro & Contents list

2 Theory

3 Theory

4 Omission Part words

5 Omission Whole words

6 Miscellaneous

7 Miscellaneous

8 Intersections

Distinguishing Outlines

DO Intro

DO List 1 A-C

DO List 2 D-H

DO List 3 I-P

DO List 4 Q-Y

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PAGE DATE: 16 July 2013

The shorthand dictionary gives many words that have a choice of full outline or optional contraction/alternative version. I have found no shorthand book that lists all these words and the following has been prepared by searching every page of the large shorthand dictionary.

Included in the list are some single stroke outlines which are better described as optional short forms, and some, being vocalised as normal, are alternative outlines rather than contractions. The list is mostly in alphabetical order but I have grouped some similar ones together. All the variations that use the contraction are given, but other derivatives are not, except for a few illustrative examples.

Sir Isaac Pitman intended his shorthand to suit a variety of uses, from the leisurely writing of diaries and letters to the faster writing of reporters and office workers. In those early days of shorthand, many short forms and contractions were given as alternatives to the full forms, to enable reporters to speed up. Since then, speed has become the main goal and many of the contractions became the standard outline, with the full forms being dropped from the dictionaries. Others contractions fell from use and their full outlines are now standard. In the last version of the large dictionary (1974) there remain some that still have a choice of outlines and these are given here.

It is not necessary to know all of these, but those for the commoner words are very well worth adopting. Providing you are at a comfortable place in your knowledge of shorthand theory, there is no reason to hang on to a longer version of an outline. Some are more specialised, and a few are obviously relics of topics prevalent in the 19th century when they were first created. Even these can be educational by observing their formation and applying the same methods to create new contractions for your particular line of work. Your own creations should always be recorded in a notebook and only adopted after very careful consideration as to possible clashes not advised for beginners. Efforts to recall an obscure seldom-used contraction will produce hesitation rather than speed.

Each contraction is in black ink, full outlines are in blue ink. The omitted part is shown in red text. Words represented by the same contraction are separated by a forward slash. Those marked with asterisk * have related outlines on the Contractions Main page.

Just like the Main Contractions, the suffix -ing is generally represented by a dot (even when the alternative full outline has stroke Ing), but those few contractions using the stroke are illustrated in the list.

Several placenames are given the end of the list.

I recommend the following as immediately useful as soon as your knowledge of shorthand theory covers them:

businessman, careful, development, electronic, extraordinarily, extraordinary, Great Britain, greatest, longest, New York, New York City, percent, possibility, question, strongest, unfortunate, unfortunately, United Kingdom, United States, United States of America, worthwhile, youngest, quarter, question

Amendments 16 July 2013: Several discrepancies have been found in the largest 1974 red dictionary, in comparison with the dictionaries produced before and after it, and so the outlines here have been corrected (see also Contractions Main page):

These should be in 2nd position on the line:
horticulture/al, horticulturist, hypothecate/d, inauspicious, inauspiciously, indescribable/ly, jurisprudence, machinery, scornful, scornfully, significancy, unscriptural, vice-chairman.

abnormality

Pitman's New Era: abnormality

Alternative outline, not contraction

ad valorem

Pitman's New Era: ad valorem

affidavit

Pitman's New Era: affidavit

agriculture/agricultural

Pitman's New Era: agriculture agricultural

agriculturist

Pitman's New Era: agriculturist

Full outlines required for:

Pitman's New Era: agriculturalist agricultor

agriculturalist agricultor

antagonism/antagonist/antagonistic

Pitman's New Era: antagonism antagonist antagonistic

antitrinitarian

Pitman's New Era: antitrinitarian

applicable

Pitman's New Era: applicable

arbitrament*

Pitman's New Era: arbitrament

archbishop

Pitman's New Era: archbishop

archbishopric

Pitman's New Era: archbishopric

archiepiscopacy

Pitman's New Era: archiepiscopacy

architective*

Pitman's New Era: architective

aristocratic/aristocracy

Pitman's New Era: aristocracy aristocratic

astonish/astonished/astonishment

Pitman's New Era: astonish/astonished/astonishment
Safe for the noun "astonishment". Ensure the En is written clearly full length, to differentiate from "astound" (see Distinguishing Outlines List1)

astonishing

Pitman's New Era: astonishing
 

astonishingly

Pitman's New Era: astonishingly

astringency*

Pitman's New Era: astringency

atonement*

Pitman's New Era: atonement

Contraction is the same as attainment (Theory 20 Suffixes page)

aurora borealis

Pitman's New Era: aurora borealis

auspicious

Pitman's New Era: auspicious

auspiciously

Pitman's New Era: auspiciously

inauspicious


Pitman's New Era: inauspicious

inauspiciously

Pitman's New Era: inauspiciously

bandstand

Pitman's New Era: bandstand

Alternative outline, not contraction

banknote

Pitman's New Era: banknote

baptise/baptised/

Baptist/baptism

Pitman's New Era: baptise baptised Baptist baptism

rebaptise/rebaptised/rebaptism

Pitman's New Era: rebaptise rebaptised rebaptism

beforehand

Pitman's New Era: beforehand

Alternative outline, not contraction

Using short form "hand"

benevolence/benevolent

Pitman's New Era: benevolent benevolence

benevolently

Pitman's New Era: benevolently

benignant/benignity

Pitman's New Era: benignant benignity

benignantly

Pitman's New Era: benignantly

bondsman

Pitman's New Era: bondsman

Compare with these full outlines:

Pitman's New Era: bondman bondwoman bondmaid

bondman bondwoman bondmaid

brotherhood

Pitman's New Era: brotherhood

burdensome

Pitman's New Era: burdensome

burdensomeness

Pitman's New Era: burdensomeness

overburdensome

Pitman's New Era: overburdensome

Using short form "over"

businessman

 

Top of page

Pitman's New Era: businessman

Write the contraction clearly through the line, so that it does not look like "busman" or "postman".

cabinet

Pitman's New Era: cabinet

Calvinism

Pitman's New Era: Calvinism

captain

Pitman's New Era: captain

captainship

Pitman's New Era: captainship

In the full outline, the Ish is disjoined so that it does not look like the suffix "-cy":

Pitman's New Era: captaincy

captaincy

careful/carefully Pitman's New Era: careful carefully

This optional contraction is a suggestion, not in dictionary.

casual

Pitman's New Era: casual/casually

Full outlines required for:

Pitman's New Era: casuals

casually casuals (= a type of shoe)

Catholic

Pitman's New Era: Catholic

Roman Catholic

Pitman's New Era: Roman Catholic

charter-party

Pitman's New Era: charter-party

Chiltern Hundreds

Pitman's New Era: Chiltern Hundreds

chloroform

Pitman's New Era: chloroform

Pronunciation of the first vowel may vary

Christian/Christianity

Pitman's New Era: Christian Christianity

clearing house

Pitman's New Era: clearing-house

"Clearing" on its own has dot ing, as per normal rules

Cobdenism

Pitman's New Era: Cobdenism

controversy/controversial

Pitman's New Era: controversy/controversial

The full outline for "ConTROversy" with the accent on the second syllable would be above the line with a first place dash vowel

"Controversialist" is a full outline

co-religionist

Pitman's New Era: co-religionist

cosmopolitanism

Pitman's New Era: cosmopolitanism

counterclaim

Pitman's New Era: counterclaim

"Counter" on its own as per normal rules:

Pitman's New Era: counter

counter

covenant*

Pitman's New Era: covenant

Care needed with the Kay, keeping it thin, as these outlines are similar to govern and government

defendant

Pitman's New Era: defendant

delinquency

Pitman's New Era: delinquency

delinquent

Pitman's New Era: delinquent

democracy/democratic

Pitman's New Era: democracy democratic

undemocratic

Pitman's New Era: undemocratic

depreciate/depreciated

Pitman's New Era: depreciate/depreciated

depreciatory

Pitman's New Era: depreciatory

descriptive*

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Top of page

Pitman's New Era: descriptive

Full outline required for:

Pitman's New Era: descriptively

descriptively

dessertspoonful

Pitman's New Era: dessertspoonful

Keep the Ray short, otherwise the contraction will look like "disrespectful"

development

Pitman's New Era: development

The dictionary outline for the verb "develop" is in full only, but using the above contraction for that word presents no problem

dignify/dignified/dignity

Pitman's New Era: dignity dignify dignified

Full outline required for:

Pitman's New Era: indignity

indignity

undignified

Pitman's New Era: undignified

Compare indignant below

dilapidate/dilapidated/
dilap
idation

Pitman's New Era: dilapidate dilapidated dilapidation

discontentment*

Pitman's New Era: discontentment

See also contentment (Contractions Main page)

dissimilar

Pitman's New Era: dissimilar

divergency

Pitman's New Era: divergency

Pronunciation of the first vowel may vary: "dyve-" or "divv-

doctrine

Pitman's New Era: doctrine

doctrinaire

Pitman's New Era: doctrinaire

doctrinal

Pitman's New Era: doctrinal

Pronunciation of the second vowel may vary:
"doc-try-nal"

drunkenness

Pitman's New Era: drunkenness

dyspepsia/dyspeptic

Top of page

Pitman's New Era: dyspepsia dyspeptic

The full version of dyspepsia should always have the final diphone written in, to differentiate from "dyspepsy"

Full outline required for:

Pitman's New Era: dyspepsy

dyspepsy

ecclesiastic/ecclesiastical/
eccles
iastically

Pitman's New Era: ecclesiastic ecclesiastical ecclesiastically

"Ecclesiastes" (Bible book) is a full outline, but the contraction would be useful for noting Bible reference numbers

electron*

Pitman's New Era: electron

electronic*

Pitman's New Era: electronic

embankment

Pitman's New Era: embankment

enthronement/enthronement

Pitman's New Era: enthronement

Alternative outline, not contraction.

The first version seems to be more reliable, as the second one is very similar to "enthroning" which has the same meaning:

Pitman's New Era: enthroning

enthroning

episcopal/episcopalian/episcopalianism

Pitman's New Era: episcopal episcopalian episcopalianism

Esperanto

Pitman's New Era: Esperanto

evangelical

Pitman's New Era: evangelical

The pronunciation of the first syllable may vary: "eev-"

exchanger*

Pitman's New Era: exchanger

expectation*

Pitman's New Era: expectation

expeditiously*

Pitman's New Era: expeditiously

Full outline required for "expeditious"

extemporaneous

Pitman's New Era: extemporaneous

extemporaneously

Pitman's New Era: extemporaneously

extraordinary

Pitman's New Era: extraordinary

extraordinarily

Pitman's New Era: extraordinarily

extravagance/extravagant

/extravagantly

Pitman's New Era: extravagance extravagant extravagantly

favourable/favorable

Pitman's New Era: favourable/favorable

Full outline required for "unfavourably/unfavorably"

Compare:

Pitman's New Era: verbal verbally

verbal verbally

favourably/favorably

Pitman's New Era: favourably/favorably

finality

Pitman's New Era: finality

Alternative outline, not contraction

foundation-stone

Pitman's New Era: foundation-stone

fugitive

Pitman's New Era: fugitive

fulgency

Pitman's New Era: fulgency

Pronunciation of the first vowel may vary - when rhyming with "full", write the dash through the end of the Eff and outline in 3rd position

generation Pitman's New Era: generation

In phrasing, "J-Shun" can also be used to signify "objection"

degeneration

Pitman's New Era: degeneration

regeneration

Pitman's New Era: regeneration

ginger

Pitman's New Era: ginger

governor*

Pitman's New Era: governor

vice-governor

Pitman's New Era: vice-governor

governor-general*

*Using short form

Pitman's New Era: governor-general

governorship

 

Top of page

Pitman's New Era: governorship

grand-juror

Pitman's New Era: grand-juror

Ensure the two Rays are long and clear, to prevent confusion with "grand-jury"

grand-jury

Pitman's New Era: grand-jury

Advisable to insert the final dot

greatest

Pitman's New Era: greatest

Using the short form "great"

habeas corpus

Pitman's New Era: habeas corpus

haphazard

Pitman's New Era: haphazard
"haphazardly" is a full outline, but using the contraction with a joined upward Ell would work just as well

harbinger

Pitman's New Era: harbinger

henceforth*

Pitman's New Era: henceforth

See henceforward (Contractions Main page)

thenceforth*

Pitman's New Era: thenceforth

See thenceforward (Contractions Main page)

high-pressure

 

Top of page

Pitman's New Era: high pressure
Some older dictionaries retain the I diphthong after the Hay on the contraction

horticulture/horticultural

Pitman's New Era: horticulture horticultural

Full outline required for:

Pitman's New Era: horticultor

horticultor

horticulturist

Pitman's New Era: horticulturist

hypothecate/hypothecated

Pitman's New Era: hypothecate hypothecated

The full outline for "hypothecate" does not use a halved Kay because the angle with the Ith would be insufficient for it to be clear

imperialism

Pitman's New Era: imperialism

See also Methodism which is similar

impregnable/impregnably

Pitman's New Era: impregnable impregnably

indefatigable/indefatigably

Pitman's New Era: indefatigable

indescribable/indescribably

Pitman's New Era: indescribable, indescribably

indignant/indignation

Pitman's New Era: indignant indignation

Compare undignified above

indignantly

Pitman's New Era: indignantly

indiscriminate

Pitman's New Era: indiscriminate

indiscriminately

Pitman's New Era: indiscriminately

indoctrinate

Pitman's New Era: indoctrinate

indoctrinated

Pitman's New Era: indoctrinated

indoctrination

Pitman's New Era: indoctrination

inflationary

Pitman's New Era: inflationary

disinflationary

 

Pitman's New Era: disinflationary

infinitesimal Pitman's New Era: infinitesimal

inspector-general

Pitman's New Era: inspector-general

Using short form "general". Full outline required for "inspector" (Contractions Main page)

insularity

Pitman's New Era: insularity

Alternative outline, not contraction - dictionary is missing the initial dot on the first version

intelligencer*

Pitman's New Era: intelligencer

intelligential*

Pitman's New Era: intelligential

intelligibility*

Pitman's New Era: intelligibility

intemperance

Pitman's New Era: intemperance

ironmaster*

Pitman's New Era: ironmaster

See also ironmonger (Contractions Main page)

ironmould*

Pitman's New Era: ironmould

Alternative outline, not contraction

journalism

Pitman's New Era: journalism

journalist

Pitman's New Era: journalist

journalistic

Pitman's New Era: journalistic

jurisprudence*

 

 

Top of page

Pitman's New Era: jurisprudence

Full outline required for "jurisprudent"

juxtaposition

Pitman's New Era: juxtaposition

Full outline required for "juxtapose"

lance-corporal

Pitman's New Era: lance-corporal

"Corporal" is the contracted part, therefore "lance" keeps its vowel sign

landmark

Pitman's New Era: landmark

Alternative intersection, not contraction

life assurance

Pitman's New Era: life assurance

The intersection for "insurance" is En+Circle S

locomotive

Pitman's New Era: locomotive

longest

Pitman's New Era: longest

longitude

 

Pitman's New Era: longitude

= measurement east/west from the Greenwich Meridian. Latitude is north-south measurement from the equator.

lordship

Pitman's New Era: lordship

Combination of short form "lord" and contracted suffix "ship"

machinery

Pitman's New Era: machinery

malignant/malignancy

Pitman's New Era: malignant malignancy

Full outline required for:

Pitman's New Era: malignantly

malignantly

man-of-war

Pitman's New Era: man-of-war

Full vocalised outline for:

Pitman's New Era: man-o'-war

man-o'-war (suggested outline, not in dictionary) If using this, you should insert the dash vowel after the En for clarity

melancholy

Pitman's New Era: melancholy

Full outline required for:

Pitman's New Era: melancholia

melancholia

merchantman

Pitman's New Era: merchant-man

sergeant-major

Pitman's New Era: sergeant-major

Methodism

Pitman's New Era: Methodism

See also "imperialism" which is similar

microscopic

Pitman's New Era: microscopic

millionth

Pitman's New Era: millionth

Not recommended, although given as above in the biggest dictionary. The stroke Em is used for "million" when written with numerals, and you cannot add an Ith because that is used for "thousand". This will be discussed in a future Phrasing page.

mineralogy

Pitman's New Era: mineralogy

misdemeanour

Pitman's New Era: misdemeanour

motherhood

Pitman's New Era: motherhood

mother-of-pearl

Pitman's New Era: mother-of-pearl

mythology

Pitman's New Era: mythology

neighbourhood/neighborhood

Pitman's New Era: neighbourhood/neighborhood

Keep the halved BR stroke short, so it does not look like "neighbour/neighbor"

nitrogen

Pitman's New Era: nitrogen

non-commissioned officer

Pitman's New Era: non-commissioned officer

nonconformist

Pitman's New Era: nonconformist

nonconformity

Pitman's New Era: nonconformity

obnoxious

(i.e. = ob+shus)

Pitman's New Era: obnoxious

obnoxiously

(i.e. = ob+shusly)

Pitman's New Era: obnoxiously

obscurity

Pitman's New Era: obscurity

observation

Pitman's New Era: observation

orthodox/orthodoxy

Pitman's New Era: orthodox orthodoxy

parallelogram

Pitman's New Era: parallelogram

parliamentarian*

Pitman's New Era: parliamentarian

particularise

Pitman's New Era: particularise

The short form "particular" is written above the line

particularised

Pitman's New Era: particularised

particularising

Pitman's New Era: particularising

particularism

Pitman's New Era: particularism

The "particular" part matches the short form which is also written above the line

percent

 

Top of page

Pitman's New Era: percent

The contraction is written close to the preceding outline or numeral

philanthropic/philanthropy

Pitman's New Era: philanthropy philanthropic

philanthropist

Pitman's New Era: philanthropist

phonographer

Pitman's New Era: phonographer

phonographic

Pitman's New Era: phonographic

The normal outline "phonic" is similar:

Pitman's New Era: phonic

phonic

phonography

Pitman's New Era: phonography

plenipotentiary

Pitman's New Era: plenipotentiary

possibility

Pitman's New Era: possibility

practitioner*

Pitman's New Era: practitioner

preferential/preferentially

Pitman's New Era: preferential/preferentially

"Preference" uses N Hook/Circle S

Presbyterian/Presbyterianism

Pitman's New Era: Presbyterian

preservation

Pitman's New Era: preservation

priesthood

Pitman's New Era: priesthood

The full outline omits the lightly-sounded T

Privy Council

Pitman's New Era: Privy Council

Alternative intersection, not contraction

projection*

 

Top of page

Pitman's New Era: projection

Protestantism

Pitman's New Era: Protestantism

Note the vowel sign for the "e" cannot be shown in the vocalised outline, as there is nowhere to place it

publican*

Pitman's New Era: publican

pungency

Pitman's New Era: pungency

qualification

Pitman's New Era: qualification

Compare "cultivation" which is similar:

Pitman's New Era: cultivation

 

cultivation

quarter

Pitman's New Era: quarter

Full outline required for:

Pitman's New Era: quartering

quartering

See also Vocabulary Numbers/quarter for a brief method when used with numbers

question*

Pitman's New Era: question

Full outline required for:

Pitman's New Era: questioning questioningly

questioning questioningly

question-mark

 

Pitman's New Era: question-mark

Alternative intersection, not contraction

You could also use the intersection with the contracted version of "question", but it might be easier (but not strict theory) to write the Em in proximity

quotation-marks

 

Pitman's New Era: quotation-marks

Alternative intersection, not contraction

If the person says "quote marks" a non-theory suggestion would be to write Em in proximity to "quote"

recognizance

Pitman's New Era: recognizance

The pronunciation can be either "recog-" or
"recon-" and is related to the word recognise. The latter pronunciation is identical to "reconnaissance" below:

Pitman's New Era: recognise reconnoitre reconnaissance

recognise reconnoitre reconnaissance

recognizance = a legal obligation

reconnoitre reconnaissance = carry out a preliminary geographical or military survey.

referring

Pitman's New Era: referring

reformation

Pitman's New Era: reformation

See also reform (Contractions Main page)

registrar

Pitman's New Era: registrar></p>
<p>
<img border=

religion

Pitman's New Era: religion

Alternative short form, not contraction

religious

Pitman's New Era: religious

Alternative short form, not contraction

religiously

Pitman's New Era: religiously

Alternative short form, not contraction

repugnant/repugnance

Pitman's New Era: repugnant repugnance

repugnantly

Pitman's New Era: repugnantly

requesting*

 

Top of page

Pitman's New Era: requesting

resignation

Pitman's New Era: resignation

resurrection

Pitman's New Era: resurrection

reverend

Pitman's New Era: reverend

The contraction is for "reverend" but the full outline also represents "reverent"

revivalism

Pitman's New Era: revivalism

Saviour/saviour

Pitman's New Era: Saviour

Compare:

Pitman's New Era: saver

saver

scornful

Pitman's New Era: scornful

scorn is written with Hook N

scornfully

Pitman's New Era: scornfully

scripture

Pitman's New Era: scripture

Alternative short form, not contraction

scriptural

Pitman's New Era: scriptural

unscriptural

Pitman's New Era: unscriptural
The contraction is shown incorrectly on the line in the 1974 dictionary

antiscriptural

Pitman's New Era: antiscriptural

search-party

Pitman's New Era: search-party

Alternative intersection, not contraction

ship-builder

Pitman's New Era: shipbuilder

significancy

Pitman's New Era: significancy
The contraction is shown incorrectly on the line in the 1974 dictionary

solicitor-general

Pitman's New Era: solicitor general

Using short form "general"

stag-party

Pitman's New Era: stag-party

Alternative intersection, not contraction

stenographer

Pitman's New Era: stenographer

stenography

Pitman's New Era: stenography

stepping-stone

Pitman's New Era: stepping-stone

"Stepping" on its own uses dot ing

stock-in-trade

Pitman's New Era: stock-in-trade

Using short form "trade"

strongest

Pitman's New Era: strongest
Alternative outline, not contraction - unlike "longest", the dictionary shows a vowel in both versions

stumbling-block

Pitman's New Era: stumbling-block

subjectivism

Pitman's New Era: subjectivism

subjectivity

Pitman's New Era: subjectivity

superscribe/superscribed

Pitman's New Era: superscribe superscribed

Compare subscribe/d on Contractions Main page

superscription

Pitman's New Era: superscription

Compare subscription on Contractions Main page

surreptitious

Pitman's New Era: surreptitious

surreptitiously

Pitman's New Era: surreptitiously

suspicious*

Pitman's New Era: suspicious

suspiciously

Pitman's New Era: suspiciously

unsuspicious

Pitman's New Era: unsuspicious

unsuspiciously

 

Top of page

Pitman's New Era: unsuspiciously

tabernacle

Pitman's New Era: tabernacle

testatrix

Pitman's New Era: testatrix

third-party

Pitman's New Era: third-party

Alternative intersection, not contraction

thumb-mark

Pitman's New Era: thumbmark

Alternative intersection, not contraction

tidemark

Pitman's New Era: tidemark

Alternative intersection, not contraction

tinsmith

Pitman's New Era: tinsmith

In the full outline, note the Circle S is inside the Em, as it belongs with that syllable.

town-council

Pitman's New Era: town-council

townsman

Pitman's New Era: townsman

In the full outline, note the Circle S is inside the En, as it belongs with that syllable.

trademark

Pitman's New Era: trademark

Alternative intersection, not contraction
Using short form "trade"

transatlantic

Pitman's New Era: transatlantic

transform/transformed

Pitman's New Era: transform transformed

transformation

Pitman's New Era: transformation

Compare "transfer" which omits the N:

Pitman's New Era: transfer transferrer

transfer transferrer

transformer

Pitman's New Era: transformer

transubstantiate/transubstantiation

Pitman's New Era: transubstantiation transubstantiate

The full outline also omits the N

transubstantiated

Pitman's New Era: transubstantiated

A Dee may be written to any contraction or short form if felt necessary to increase clarity, but this appears to be the only word where it is part of the dictionary outline. Other contractions are perfectly legible without it. Adding the Dee is not part of normal theory (unlike Pitman 2000 which does use it regularly).

tribunal

Pitman's New Era: tribunal

unconstitutional/unconstitutionally

Pitman's New Era: unconstitutional unconstitutionally

under-secretary

Pitman's New Era: under-secretary

Using short form "under"

unfortunate

Pitman's New Era: unfortunate

Compare this with the optional contraction for "phenomena" below. The only way to differentiate is to write the Eff towards the end of the stroke En, to show it was written second. "Unfortunate" is a much more useful contraction, if you were going to choose only one of these two to adopt.

unfortunately

Pitman's New Era: unfortunately

phenomena

Pitman's New Era: phenomena

This is the same as the optional contraction for "unfortunate" above. The only way to differentiate is to write the En more towards the right of the Eff, to show it was written second.

See also inconvenient (Contractions Main page) which is similar

phenomenon

Pitman's New Era: phenomenon

Union Jack

Pitman's New Era: Union Jack

unionism

Pitman's New Era: unionism

unionist

Pitman's New Era: unionist

trades-unionism

Pitman's New Era: trades-unionism

Using short form "trade"

Compare:

Pitman's New Era: trade-union trades-union
trade-union trades-union

Pitman's New Era: trades-unionism
trade-unionism union

unrealizable

Pitman's New Era: unrealisable

urgency*

Pitman's New Era: urgency

utilitarianism

Pitman's New Era: utilitarianism

vegetarian

Pitman's New Era: vegetarian

vegetarianism

Pitman's New Era: vegetarianism

vice-chairman

Pitman's New Era: vice chairman

vice versa

Pitman's New Era: vice versa

watermark

Pitman's New Era: watermark

Alternative intersection, not contraction

way-mark

Pitman's New Era: way-mark

Alternative intersection, not contraction

The full outline uses the R hook rather than Ray, in order to achieve a better join with the Way.

worthwhile

Pitman's New Era: worthwhile

youngest

Pitman's New Era: youngest

Using short form

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Placenames:

 

Antarctic

Pitman's New Era: Antarctic

Birmingham Pitman's New Era: Birmingham
British version: omits the H sound
US version: use Dot Hay

Ensure you keep the two Ems, as in UK locals sometimes refer to their city as "Brum", from "Brummagem" the alternative name used in that area.

Great Britain

Pitman's New Era: Great Britain

Using short form "great"

Jodrell Bank

Pitman's New Era: Jodrell Bank

Alternative intersection, not contraction

(=Jodrell Bank Astrophysics Centre, UK)

Johannesburg

Pitman's New Era: Johannesburg

"Jo'burg" would be a full outline

San Francisco

Pitman's New Era: San Francisco
The abbreviation " 'Cisco " would be just the last part of the full outline

Liverpool

Pitman's New Era: Liverpool

Middlesex

Pitman's New Era: Middlesex

New York

Pitman's New Era: New York

New York City

Pitman's New Era: New York City

Transylvania

Pitman's New Era: Transylvania

United Kingdom

Pitman's New Era: United Kingdom
Use only when the words are spoken in full

United States

Pitman's New Era: United States
Use only when the words are spoken in full

United States of America

Pitman's New Era: United States of America
Use only when the words are spoken in full

The full outline phrase omits "of"

 

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nnnnnnnn

 

"Whatever is true, whatever is noble, whatever is right, whatever is pure, whatever is lovely, whatever is admirable if anything is excellent or praiseworthy think about such things." (Philippians 4:8)

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