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Phrasing 7 Miscellaneous

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Theory

Theory Intro

 1   Strokes

 2   Vowels

 3   Forming Outlines

 4   Circles

 5   Loops

 6   Hooks Intro

 7   Hooks R L

 8   Hooks N F V

 9   Shun Hook

10  Halving

11  Doubling

12  Hay Aspirate

13  W Forms

14  L Forms

15  R Forms

16  Imp/Imb

17  Ish

18  Prefixes

19  Suffixes General

20  Suffixes Contracted

Short Forms

SF Intro

SF List 1

SF List 2

SF List 3

SF List 4

Contractions

Contractions Intro

Contractions Main

Contractions Optional

Phrasing

1 Phrasing Intro & Contents list

2 Theory

3 Theory

4 Omission Part words

5 Omission Whole words

6 Miscellaneous

7 Miscellaneous

8 Intersections

Distinguishing Outlines

DO Intro

DO List 1 A-C

DO List 2 D-H

DO List 3 I-P

DO List 4 Q-Y

Vocabulary

Vocab Intro

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PAGE DATE 19 June 2016   Sounds/syllables/words omitted from a phrase are underlined

7. Position writing

8. When not to phrase

9. Contracted words that use an apostrophe

7. Position writing

The first outline of a phrase is written in its normal position, and the other outlines follow on. Sometimes a first position outline can be raised or lowered to enable the second outline of the phrase to also be written in position.

Pitman's New Era: with much, with which, with each, I saw, I say, I see
with much, with which, with each, I saw, I say, I see 
More examples in Phrasing2

When this cannot be done, a vowel sign may be needed to differentiate, especially with short forms or single stroke outlines. Where there are two similar outlines, only one of the pair needs to be vocalised. Vocalising the least common one leaves the fastest phrase for the more likely one, but you must be consistent in which one you decide to vocalise:

Pitman's New Era: for which person, for each person
for which person, for each person

Pitman's New Era: we saw, we say, we see, you can saw*, you can say, you can see
we saw, we say, we see, you can saw
*, you can say, you can see   *as in sawing wood

As "say" is probably the most common of these three, you could omit the vowel for that word, and always vocalise the other two.

See also Phrasing6/Distinguishing Pairs

A phrase can sometimes look like a compound word. In a phrase, the first outline is written in position. In a compound word (shown in red below), the whole outline is treated as one unit, with the first up or downstroke written in position, even if that stroke occurs in the second word of the pair. (Note that the longhand for compound words is written either as one word or with a hyphen):

He will make up a story. This shop sells makeup.
He will make up a story. This shop sells makeup.

Pitman's New Era: I shall cut out the shapes. Stick the cutouts onto the paper.
I shall cut out the shapes. Stick the
cutouts onto the paper.

Pitman's New Era: They got close up to the door. The photo is a close-up view.
They got close up to the door. The photo is a
close-up view.

In the first of each of the above sentences "make up, cut out, close up" could equally well and correctly be written as separate outlines instead of phrases, if the writer so chose.

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8. When not to phrase

A reminder of the rules of good phrasing any phrase should fulfil all four:

1. Words belong together if the words do not form a natural group or if there is any pause between them, do not phrase.

2. Good joins Even if words form a natural group, if a good join cannot be made, do not phrase.

3. Easy to read back A phrase that cannot be read back easily will invite errors in the transcript, and should be rejected.

4. Not overlong resist the temptation to form very long phrases, they do not save time and legibility is low. Many short and easily recognisable phrases is the ideal.

Negatives, or similar outlines with difference meanings To avoid clashes, one of the pair is not phrased. This is more extensively illustrated in Phrasing 6/Distinguishing Pairs:

Pitman's New Era: it is unnecessary, it is not necessary
it is unnecessary, it is not necessary

To avoid being misread for Tick The, "and" is never written at the end of a phrase, and in practice "should" only occurs finally after "you":

Pitman's New Era: you the/you should, for you should/for you the, if you should, I think you should
you the/you should, for you should/for you the, if you should, I think you should

"of" can be used at the end of a phrase, being the more frequent word, but "to" at the end is generally avoided:

Pitman's New Era: in the case of, because of, because of the, by means of, all sorts of
in the case of, because of, because of the, by means of, all sorts of

Pitman's New Era: I mean to, going to, we wish to, went to, went to the
I mean to, going to, we wish to, went to, went to the

There are many common phrases that omit "to" at the end, see Phrasing 5/to

"on" is never used at the end of a phrase, and often it can be shown using the N Hook:

Pitman's New Era: pin on, lean on, carry on, going on
pin on, lean on, carry on, going on

A pause, whether in speaking or in meaning, should not be phrased over. This will ensure your shorthand accurately reflects the words spoken, preserving the meaning and helping you read back fluently.

Pitman's New Era: Are you busy? We are, you know, very busy.
Are you busy?
BUT We are, you know, very busy.

Pitman's New Era: Will you come? If you will, you can come to us
Will you come?
BUT If you will, you can come to us

Pitman's New Era: it will not, it will not only
it will not
but it will not only where the last two words belong together:

Pitman's New Era: It will not only be cold, but windy too.
It will not only be cold, but rainy too.

Pitman's New Era: It will not, only don't tell him.
It will not, only don't tell him.

Pitman's New Era: "I think," the man said. I think the man said something.
"I think," the man said. I think the man said something.

Phrases that may have several variations: you should phrase the commonest one, and phrase differently (or not phrase at all) the less common one(s). This keeps the fastest phrase for the one you are most likely to meet:

Pitman's New Era: balance of the order, balance of your order
balance of the order
but balance of your order

Pitman's New Era: in reply to your letter, in reply to your letter, in reply to the letter, in reply to a letter
in reply to your letter, in reply to your letter
but in reply to the letter, in reply to a letter

Pitman's New Era: all parts of the world economic situation, all parts of world economics
all parts of the world economic situation
but all parts of world economics

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9. Contracted words that use an apostrophe

These are words that have an alternative contracted form in informal speech e.g.

do not = don't

In longhand the missing part is indicated by using an apostrophe. In shorthand they are mostly written entirely phonetically as single outlines, not using the normal short forms:

isn't = "izzent", wasn't = "wozzent", you'll = "yool"

They should always be vocalised, as in many cases the shape of the outline is the same as the full phrased version. In the list below, these are marked in red italics =
she's, can't,
don't, didn't, doesn't, mayn't, they'll, she'd, they've, gotta

A few continue to use the short form, as being more convenient and legible than changing the outline to an entirely phonetic version, but they still require a vowel. These are marked with double lines = he's  we're  he'll  she'll

If you have already written the normal version e.g. "is + not" and realise you need to indicate that it is the contracted version that was spoken, just put a wavy line underneath the outlines to remind you. This is also useful if you are not sure of your outline or where to put the vowel sign.

 Pitman's New Era: I am, he is, she is
I am, he is, she is

Pitman's New Era: I'm, he's, she's
I'm,
he's, she's

Pitman's New Era: we are, you are, they are
we are, you are, they are

Pitman's New Era: we're you're they're
we're you're they're

Note that the noun "yore" is written on the line, with a second place vowel.

Pitman's New Era: who is, how is
who is, how is

Pitman's New Era: who's how's/house
who's how's/house

Pitman's New Era: is not, was not, are not
is not, was not, are not

Pitman's New Era: isn't wasn't aren't
isn't wasn't aren't

Pitman's New Era: were not, you were not, we were not
were not, you were not, we were not

*See also Phrasing2/you are not

Pitman's New Era: weren't, you weren't, we weren't
weren't, you weren't, we weren't

 

Pitman's New Era: will not, would not, shall not, should not
will not, would not, shall not, should not

Pitman's New Era: won't wouldn't shan't shouldn't
won't wouldn't shan't shouldn't

Pitman's New Era: cannot, could not
cannot, could not

Pitman's New Era: can't couldn't
can't
couldn't

Pitman's New Era: do not, did not, does not
do not, did not
*, does not

*The middle D is omitted, so the outline says "dint"

Pitman's New Era: don't didn't doesn't
don't
didn't* doesn't

*See note opposite

Pitman's New Era: we do not, we did not
we do not, we did not*

*This is best unphrased, as inserting the vowel to distinguish turns it into the apostrophied "we didn't". Compare this with "had not" below.

Pitman's New Era: we don't, we didn't
we don't, we didn't

Pitman's New Era: have not, we have not
have not, we have not

Pitman's New Era: haven't, we haven't
haven't, we haven't

 

Pitman's New Era: had not, we had not
had not
*, we had not*

*The dots (Dot Hay and vowel dot) are optional, but they distinguish it from "do not". You can use one or two dots, the instructions books vary in this. It is much quicker and more reliable to just not phrase at all, and only insert the dots if you have already written the phrase, in order to clarify.

Pitman's New Era: hadn't, we hadn't
hadn't, we hadn't

Pitman's New Era: may not, might not
may not, might not
*

*Do not join "might not", although they are the same length the outline would be unclear

Pitman's New Era: mayn't mightn't
mayn't
mightn't

(1st is archaic, 2nd not commonly used)

Pitman's New Era: I will, he will, she will
I will, he will, she will

Pitman's New Era: I'll  he'll  she'll
I'll 
he'll  she'll

Pitman's New Era: it will, we will, there will
it will, we will, there will

Pitman's New Era: it'll we'll there'll
it'll we'll
there'll

Pitman's New Era: you will, they will, who will
you will, they will, who will

Pitman's New Era: you'll they'll who'll
you'll
they'll who'll

Pitman's New Era: I would, he would, she would, we would
I would, he would, she would, we would

Pitman's New Era: I had, he had, she had, we had
I had, he had, she had, we had

Pitman's New Era: I'd he'd she'd we'd
I'd he'd she'd we'd

Pitman's New Era: you would, they would, who would
you would, they would, who would

Pitman's New Era: you had, they had, who had
you had, they had, who had

Pitman's New Era: you'd they'd who'd
you'd they'd who'd

Pitman's New Era: I have, we have, you have, they have
I have, we have, you have, they have

Pitman's New Era: I've we've you've they've
I've we've
you've they've

Pitman's New Era: am not, has not, is not, are not, have not
am not, has not, is not, are not
*, have not

*See also Phrasing 2/are not

Pitman's New Era: ain't isn't
ain't
* isn't

*This is lax/colloquial, and not acceptable in formal writing.

Pitman's New Era: that is, what is, what is it, who is it
that is, what is, what is it, who is it

Top of page

Pitman's New Era: that's, what's, whatsit, whosit
that's, what's, whatsit
*, whosit*

*Used when the speaker cannot remember, or wishes to avoid, the word or name

Pitman's New Era: it is/it has, its, itself
it is/it has
Note also: its* itself*

*Both these are short forms; "its" is possessive, like "my" or "his"

Examples:

Pitman's New Era: It is cold. It's cold.
It is cold. It's cold.

Pitman's New Era: The cat ate its food then cleaned itself.
The cat ate its food then cleaned itself.

Pitman's New Era: it's
it's

Normally stands for "it is". The only time this stands for "it has" is in a past tense (i.e. "is" would not make sense):

It's being delivered = It is being delivered

It's been delivered = It has been delivered
It's taken all day = It has taken all day
It's got to go = It has got to go

 

Pitman's New Era: going to, want to
going to, want to

Pitman's New Era: gonna wanna
gonna wanna

These are lax/colloquial, and not acceptable in formal writing.

Pitman's New Era: do not know, got to
do not know, got to

Pitman's New Era: dunno gotta
dunno
gotta

These are lax/colloquial, and not acceptable in formal writing.

Pitman's New Era: you, all
you, all

Pitman's New Era: y'all you's
y'all you's
*

*The apostrophe in "you's" is for easing the flow of reading, not because there are any letters missing. Otherwise "yous" might suggest "yooce".

These are regional/colloquial, not used in the UK, and transcription should follow the accepted norm for your area.

Pitman's New Era: Mr Smith is here
Mr Smith is here

Pitman's New Era: Jones here does all the work.
Jones here does all the work.

 

No special treatment is needed for the following, as the sense indicates where apostrophes should go, although you should remain alert when dealing with names that already end in "s":

Pitman's New Era: Mr Smith's here
Mr Smith's here

Pitman's New Era: Joan's here to do the work.
Joan's here to do the work.

Possessive does not need indicating:

Pitmans' New Era: Mr Smith's car, Joan's desk
Mr Smith's car, Joan's desk

Pitmans' New Era: the man's name, children's toys
the man's name, children's toys

Pitmans' New Era: St James, St James's Park
St James
*, St James's Park

*Names beginning with "St" are more conveniently treated one word, here putting the Jay on the line, and not the "St"

You will have to use your best judgement as to how you represent these in your transcript. Shorthand exams have always required a completely verbatim transcript, as they are testing your ability to record and reproduce the words exactly as they are spoken. You should find out beforehand the exact requirements of any transcript or exam that you plan to undertake.

The exact version might also have to be preserved when producing a transcript of a conversation, a play or script, a well-known phrase, a play on words, or a joke. In employment it may be necessary to convert casually spoken words to more formal written English for a report, minutes or a business letter. If you know for certain that you will be expected to convert the conversational tone to formal written English, then you may decide you can safely write the normal phrases, and not use the apostrophied versions.

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