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Phrasing 2 Theory

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Theory

Theory Intro

 1   Strokes

 2   Vowels

 3   Forming Outlines

 4   Circles

 5   Loops

 6   Hooks Intro

 7   Hooks R L

 8   Hooks N F V

 9   Shun Hook

10  Halving

11  Doubling

12  Hay Aspirate

13  W Forms

14  L Forms

15  R Forms

16  Imp/Imb

17  Ish

18  Prefixes

19  Suffixes General

20  Suffixes Contracted

Short Forms

SF Intro

SF List 1

SF List 2

SF List 3

SF List 4

Contractions

Contractions Intro

Contractions Main

Contractions Optional

Phrasing

1 Phrasing Intro & Contents list

2 Theory

3 Theory

4 Omission Part words

5 Omission Whole words

6 Miscellaneous

7 Miscellaneous

8 Intersections

Distinguishing Outlines

DO Intro

DO List 1 A-C

DO List 2 D-H

DO List 3 I-P

DO List 4 Q-Y

Vocabulary

Vocab Intro

Numbers

Punctuation

Word Lists

Text Lists from PDFs

 

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PAGE DATE 1 May 2016   Sounds/syllables/words omitted from a phrase are underlined

1. No change of form

2.  Change of form:
(a) Hooks   R   L     F/V   Shun Large   Shun Small
(b) Circles & Loops   Circle S   Ses   Sway   Stee
(c) Halving
(d) Doubling
(e) Suffixes

1. No change of form

The simplest phrase is one where two or more outlines are written in succession without lifting the pen and without any change in their form. Most phrasing opportunities that you will come across will be groups of short forms. Phrases follow the same rules as outline formation good angles and similar motion, easily read back and not too straggling (facility, legibility and lineality).

The examples given here are a tiny fraction of what is possible, as it is not practical to give a comprehensive list of the simple joinings. Once you understand the principles of good phrase formation and practised the basic ones, similar ones will easily suggest themselves in the course of your writing.

The first outline goes in its correct position, and the others follow on:

Pitman's New Era: it is, it is not, it was, it may be, it can have, it should be, it would not
it is, it is not, it was, it may be, it can have, it should be, it would not

Pitman's New Era: of it, of them, of that, of her, of me/my, of our, of course
of it, of them, of that, of her, of me/my, of our, of course

Pitman's New Era: to do, to this, to have, to meet, to send, to stay, to reply
to do, to this, to have, to meet, to send, to stay, to reply

Pitman's New Era: for this, for that, for you may, for many, for myself, for anyone
for this, for that, for you may, for many, for myself, for anyone

Pitman's New Era: if we can, if they may, if you can, if you would, if no-one
if we can, if they may, if you can, if you would, if no-one

Pitman's New Era: and they, and this, and we, and I, and is/his/as/has, and there is/has, and be seen, and have done
and they, and this, and we, and I, and is/his/as/has, and there is/has, and be seen, and have done

Pitman's New Era: should have, should be, should not be, should now, should there/their, should this, should we
should have, should be, should not be, should now, should there/their, should this, should we

Pitman's New Era: on his, on which, on many, on your, on our, on those, on that, on their/there
on his, on which, on many, on your, on our, on those, on that, on their/there

Pitman's New Era: but they, but we may, but must, but can we, but that, but that is, but this, but their/there
but they, but we may, but must, but can we, but that, but that is, but this, but their/there

Pitman's New Era: I have this, I had them, I do that, I shall be, I thank you, I think that you are, I know that we
I have this, I had them, I do that, I shall be, I thank you, I think that you are, I know that we

Pitman's New Era: you are, you would, you would be, you can/come, you go, you may, you should
you are, you would, you would be, you can/come, you go, you may, you should

Pitman's New Era: we can, we have, we shall be, we do/had, we may, we are
we can, we have, we shall be, we do/had
*, we may, we are

*If necessary, you can indicate that it is "had" by inserting Dot Hay and the A vowel, see Phrasing 7/had not

Pitman's New Era: he is/has, he is/has not, he was, he cannot be, he may have, he may be pleased, he is unable
he is/has, he is/has not, he was, he cannot be, he may have, he may be pleased, he is unable

Pitman's New Era: she is, she was, she may have, any more, any time, in any case
she is, she was, she may have, any more, any time, in any case

Pitman's New Era: they may be, they can be, they must, they thought we, they have, they do not, they just
they may be, they can be, they must, they thought we, they have, they do not, they just

Pitman's New Era: this can have, this can be, this could not, this may, this time, this does
this can have, this can be, this could not, this may
*, this time, this does

*This sharp change of direction only occurs in a few phrases; in normal outlines the circle goes outside the strokes, see Theory 19 Suffixes/pacifism

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Pitman's New Era: that it, that they, that this, that may, that has been, that is/has not, that is/has never
that it, that they, that this, that may, that has been, that is/has not, that is/has never

Pitman's New Era: there cannot, there are, there can be, there was, there would have, there is, there is no-one
there are, there cannot, there can be, there was, there would have, there is, there is no-one

Pitman's New Era: have his, have that, have they/them, have not, have never, have you been, have we seen
have his/as/us, have that, have they/them, have not, have never, have you been, have we seen

Pitman's New Era: which is/has, which has been, which has not been, which we now, which cannot, which should have, which may have
which is/has, which has been, which has not been, which we now, which cannot, which should have, which may have

Pitman's New Era: had you, do you, had they/them, do they/them, had that, do that, had we been, do we know
had you, do you, had they/them, do they/them, had that, do that, had we been, do we know

Pitman's New Era: how can they, how may we, how many, how long, how are
how can they, how may we, how many, how long, how are

Pitman's New Era: why it, why does, why they, why have we, whether it is/has, whether they, whether there are
why it, why does, why they, why have we, whether it is/has, whether they, whether there are

Pitman's New Era: who can, who gives, who was, who is/has, who would be, who must, who should have
who can, who gives, who was, who is/has, who would be, who must, who should have

Pitman's New Era: with it, with which, with us/his, with them, with these, with thanks, with that, with whom
with it, with which, with us/his, with them, with these, with thanks, with that, with whom

Pitman's New Era: when it, when do/had you, when they, when this, when that is/has, when have we, when we, when is/his/has
when it, when do/had you
*, when they, when this, when that is/has, when have we, when we, when is/his/has

*If necessary, you can indicate that it is "had" by inserting Dot Hay and the A vowel, see Phrasing 7/had not

Pitman's New Era: what it, what is/has, what does, what was, what have we, what may, what can they, what would be
what it, what is/has, what does, what was, what have we, what may, what can they, what would be

Pitman's New Era: would have, would never, would not be, would say, would respond, would go, would the, would his
would have, would never, would not be, would say, would respond, would go, would the, would his

Pitman's New Era: as/has it -- as it is/has -- is it -- as/has this, is this, as/has that, is/his that, as they may
as/has it -- as it is/has -- is it -- as/has this -- is this -- as/has that -- is/his that -- as they may

Pitman's New Era: please take, please have, please do not, take place, taking place, taking away
please take, please have, please do not, take place, taking place, taking away

If the first outline of the phrase is normally written above the line, it is sometimes possible to raise or lower the entire phrase to enable the next word to also be in position, saving you having to insert extra vowel signs. However, the first outline should still be clearly in its correct position:

Pitman's New Era: of those, of this, of these, in much, in which, in each, I talk, I take, I took
of those, of this, of these, in much, in which, in each, I talk, I take, I took

You can do this even if there are more outlines in the phrase than shown above:

Pitman's New Era: of those that have been, of this type of, of these who can, in much the same, in which you see, in each of them
of those that have been, of this type of, of these who can, in much the same, in which you may, in each of them

Some combinations would not be clear or even legible, so must be written separately:

Pitman's New Era: and of, and to, and should, we should, should I, I should
and of -- and to -- and should -- we should -- should I -- I should

As the second and subsequent words are generally out of position, a vowel sign may occasionally be necessary:

Pitman's New Era: at any time, at no time
at any time, at no time    See more on this in Phrasing 6/Essential Vowels/in any no

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2. Change of Form

It is possible to extend the use of abbreviating devices such as hooks, halving, doubling, circle and loops, which may not be possible or advisable if each outline were written separately. The phrase in its entirety contains more information than a single word, so remains legible despite the greater degree of abbreviation:

Pitman's New Era: at any time, at no time
I hope that you will be able to, in reply to your recent letter, you will have received

Pitman's New Era: and I have been there, we have only just, take into consideration the fact
and I have been there, we have only just, take into consideration the fact

Compare full outlines for these words:

Pitman's New Era: hope will reply letter received
hope will reply letter received

Pitman's New Era: there only consideration fact
there only consideration fact

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(a) Hooks

General

Final hooks can represent whole words e.g. N for "on, own, been", F/V for "of, off, have", Shun for "association".

R and L hooks can replace the full stroke to achieve a more compact outline or to enable a good join.

Occasionally an original hook is omitted to enable the phrase to be formed.

Pitman's New Era: yours truly, take care, in this way
Retain hook:
yours truly, take care, in this way

Pitman's New Era: it has been required, in this direction, vice chairman
Omit hook:
it has been required, in this direction, vice chairman There are only a small number of phrases that omit the hook

Reintroduce hook Sometimes a merged hook/circle is shown fully, to enable the phrase to be formed :

Pitman's New Era: I am surprised, I will consider, balance sheet, we are instructed, hair spring
I am surprised, I will consider, balance sheet, we are instructed, hair spring

Pitman's New Era: surprised consider balance instructed spring
Compare
surprised consider balance instructed spring

Pitman's New Era: our own, carried on, have been, take off, which have/of
Hook represents word: our own, carried on, have been, take off, which have/of

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If a hook is already being used at the end of an outline, you cannot use that hook to also represent a word in a phrase:

Pitman's New Era: representative of, irrespective of, objective of, proof of, turn on
representative of, irrespective of, objective
* of, proof of, turn on

*The outline for "objective" (a contraction) is the same as the phrase "object of"

In a single word outline, the normal order of reading is the hook first, and then the halving or doubling sound, but in a few phrases this is sometimes be overridden. The convenience gained outweighs this incursion into the main theory rule:

Pitman's New Era: part of, report of, in support of, sort of, some sort of
part of, report of, in support of, sort of, some sort of

Pitman's New Era: in spite of, instead of, state of the, present state of, high state of
in spite of, instead of, state of the, present state of, high state of

Pitman's New Era: raft, roofed, surfed, deserved, puffed, spoofed, draft/draught, tuft/toughed
Compare raft, roofed, surfed, deserved, puffed, spoofed, draft/draught, tuft/toughed

Pitman's New Era: later on/than, further on/than, rather than, shorter than
later on/than, further on/than, rather than, shorter than

Pitman's New Era: lender, fender, render, shunter
Compare
lender, fender, render, shunter

Mostly the order of reading the components is kept as normal i.e. Stroke + Hook + ther/ter/der:

Pitman's New Era: been there, will have been there, out of there/their, rid of their
been there, will have been there, out of there/their, rid of their

Pitman's New Era: binder, lavender, provender, dafter, drifter
Compare the nouns:
binder lavender dafter drifter

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Adding hooks to short forms: Phrases consisting of a short form plus hook are not always so instantly recognisable, because short forms do not contain all the consonants of the word. When the "missing" part is at the beginning, those are easier to read back, but when the missing part comes in the middle or end of the short form, phrasing them with a hook may be more confusing than helpful:

Pitman's New Era: going on, wipe off, go on, go off, put off
going on, wipe off
but go on, go off, put off

The following are acceptable, and of course you can also add a Circle S to the hook for "us, his" etc:

Pitman's New Era: people of, member of, number of, tell of/off, much of, which of/have, chair of
people of, member of, number of, tell of/off, much of, which of/have, chair of

Pitman's New Era: call of/off, equal of, school of, care of, ought (to) have, who have, you have
call of/off, equal of, school of, care of, ought to have, who have, you have

Pitman's New Era: had been, larger than, our own, rather than, more than, have been, very own, your own, their own, therefore been
had been, larger than, our own, rather than, more than, have been, very own, your own, their own, therefore been

The following should be used at your discretion, as the words have "missing" consonants immediately before the hook:

Pitman's New Era: speak of, principle of, liberty of,  truth of, doctor of, delivery of, usually been
speak of, principle of, liberty of,  truth of, doctor of, delivery of, usually been

Pitman's New Era: difference of, subject of, belief of, difficult subjective.
Separate outlines for difference of, subject of, belief of compare difficult subjective.
As the "belief" does not have its own F in the outline, an additional F Hook might cause confusion, as if the outline had been filled out because the correct short form was not known well enough.

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R Hook

Pitman's New Era: appear, to appear, it will appear, it appears that, they appeared
appear = to appear, it will appear, it appears that, they appeared

Pitman's New Era: park, car park, Central Park, local park
park = car park, Central Park, local park

Pitman's New Era: board, electricity board, medical board, local board, your board, board of directors
board = electricity board, medical board, local board, your board, board of directors

Pitman's New Era: part, in/any part (of), in all parts (of), small part (of), for my part, on your part
part = in/any part of, in all parts of, small part of, for my part, on your part

Pitman's New Era: large part of the, on our part, various parts (of), taking part (of), taking apart, set apart
large part of the, on our part, various parts of, taking part of
Note taking apart, set apart need the vowel sign to distinguish them

Pitman's New Era: far, so far, so far as, insofar as, too far, how far
far = so far, so far as, insofar as, too far, how far

Pitman's New Era: very far, is it far, by far the most, by far the worst
very far, is it far, by far the most, by far the worst

Pitman's New Era: force, into force
force = into force

Pitman's New Era: forth, set forth, so forth, put forth
forth = set forth, so forth, put forth
See also Phrasing 8 Intersections/forth

Pitman's New Era: assure, to assure us, I assure you, we can assure you
assure = to assure us, I assure you, we can assure you

Pitman's New Era: please be assured, we are assured, you may rest assured
please be assured, we are assured, you may rest assured

Pitman's New Era: corps/core, army corps, air corps, diplomatic corps
corps/core = army corps, air corps, diplomatic corps

Pitman's New Era: medical corps, medical care, corps/cores

medical corps needs the vowel (or write in full) to distinguish it from medical care. Note corps/cores the plural is spelled the same and pronounced "corz".

See also Phrasing 8 Intersections/corporation

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Pitman's New Era: corpus corpuses corpora corpse corpses
Note also corpus corpuses* corpora*, corpse corpses

*Alternative plurals of "corpus", depending on the meaning.

"per" in a phrase is written with R Hook or Ray, whichever joins best:

Pitman's New Era: per, per minute, per month, per mile, per kilogramme
per = per minute, per month, per mile, per kilogramme

Pitman's New Era: per cent, per annum, per dozen
per cent
*, per annum, per dozen

*also an Intersection; the longhand can also be written as one word "percent" and comes from Latin "centum" = hundred

See also Phrasing 5/miles per hour, miles an hour

Pitman's New Era: order: order, in order, in order that, it is in order that, seems to be in order
order:
Doubled: in order, in order that, it is in order that, seems to be in order

Pitman's New Era: in order to, in order to have, in order to be, in order to be
Halved:
in order to, in order to have, in order to be, in order to be*

*If you have already written the doubled version of "in order", you would then proceed to write the next outline "be" separately, rather than attempting to replace with the textbook phrase.

"in order to" is easier to remember if you think of the halving as representing the "to" part

Pitman's New Era: rate, at any rate, downright, generate, venerate
rate, at any rate
compare downright, generate, venerate

Circle S is occasionally reversed in mid-outline to indicate an R Hook, the same as occurs in a few normal outlines:

Pitman's New Era: occur, agree, it has occurred, it has occurred to me, it occurs to me, it has occurred to us
occur, agree = it has occurred, it has occurred to me, it occurs to me, it has occurred to us

Pitman's New Era: it is/has agreed, purchase agreement, disagree discourse discourage
it is/has agreed, purchase agreement
compare disagree discourse discourage

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L Hook

Pitman's New Era: all, at all, at all costs, by all means, by all accounts but by all counts
all = at all, at all costs, by all means, by all accounts
but by all counts

Keep the L Hook on the En large so that it doesn't look like R Hook "in our":

Pitman's New Era: in all events, in all cases, in all circumstances, in all instances, in all respects
in all events, in all cases, in all circumstances, in all instances, in all respects

Pitman's New Era: in all ways, in all their ways, in all other ways, on all sides, on all occasions
in all ways, in all their ways
, in all other ways, on* all sides, on* all occasions

*Here the short form for "on" is not used, and the word is represented phonetically by stroke En. If you adopt these two phrases, you cannot then use them for "in all sides" or "in all occasions", both of which would be much less likely.

Pitman's New Era: only, if only, it is/has only, we have only, I have only just, I am only speaking
only = if only, it is/has only, we have only, I have only just, I am only speaking

Pitman's New Era: it may only, can only be, I can only assume, will only be, my only objection
it may only, can only be, I can only assume, will only be, my only objection

Pitman's New Era: unless, unless we have, unless and until, until and unless,  unless there is
unless = unless we have, unless and until, until and unless,  unless there is

Pitman's New Era: fellow, fellow members, fellow students, fellow citizens, fellow creatures
fellow = fellow members, fellow students, fellow citizens, fellow creatures
*

*See Distinguishing Outlines List 1/creator creature curator

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N Hook

on, own*, than, been:    *adjective only, do not use for the verb

Pitman's New Era: take on, taking on, carry on, carrying on, carried on, going on
take on, taking on, carry on, carrying on, carried on, going on

Pitman's New Era: your own, our own, their own, her own, his own, my own, mine
your own, our own, their own, her own
compare his own, my own, mine

Pitman's New Era: more than, any/in more than, no more than, little more than, higher than, wider than, better than
more than, any/in more than, no more than, little more than, higher than, wider than, better than

Pitman's New Era: bigger than, greater than, larger than, fewer than, lower than, smaller than
bigger than, greater than, larger than, fewer than, lower than, smaller than

Pitman's New Era: longer than, stronger than, sooner than, sharper than, poorer than, clearer than
longer than, stronger than, sooner than, sharper than, poorer than, clearer than

Pitman's New Era: further than, farther than, later than, no later than, quicker than
further than, farther than, later than, no later than, quicker than

There are several ways to represent "been" and "have been" in phrases, in addition to the normal Short Form:

Hook where convenient:

Pitman's New Era: I have been, we have been, would not have been, they have been, there will have been
I have been, we have been, would not have been, they have been, there will have been

Pitman's New Era: have been expecting, have been known, have been received, may have been, it has never been, has it ever been
have been expecting, have been known, have been received, may have been, it has never been, has it ever been

Pitman's New Era: we had been, already been, only been, recently been, definitely been, certainly been
we had been, already been, only been, recently been, definitely been, certainly been

Compare these to similar outlines "definitely not, certainly not" below

Full short form:

Pitman's New Era: it has been, it has not been, he has been, she has been, there has been, you have been
it has been, it has not been, he has been, she has been, there has been, you have been

Omit the N Hook on the short form "been" to enable the next outline to join:

Pitman's New Era: been received, been required, it has been said, it has been delivered, it has been suggested
been received, been required, it has been said
*, it has been delivered, it has been suggested

*See also variations on this Phrasing 4/has to be said

Pitman's New Era: she has been able to, he has been able to, which has been made, which have been made, you have been made
she has been able to, he has been able to, which has been made, which have been made, you have been made

For "have been" where the Bee joins better than the Vee, omit the "have":

Pitman's New Era: seems to have, seems to have been, must have, must have been
seems to have, seems to have been, must have, must have been

Pitman's New Era: would have, would have been, they would have been
would have, would have been,
note also they would have been where there is no advantage in omitting the "have"  See also Phrasing 3/would happen

If you omit the "have", don't omit the N hook on "been" as well in the same phrase, because that would represent "be":

Pitman's New Era: it must have been, it must have been said, it must be said
it must have been, it must have been said
compare it must be said

Pitman's New Era: it would have been said, it would be said
it would have been said
compare it would be said

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N Hook with halving = not:

Pitman's New Era: will not, I will not, you will not, it will not be, he will not be, which will not, they will not
will not, I will not, you will not, it will not be, he will not be, which will not, they will not

Pitman's New Era: they will not be, this will not, definitely not, certainly not, almost certainly not
they will not be, this will not, definitely not
*, certainly not*, almost certainly not*

*Keep the halved Ell short, so that these do not look like "definitely been" etc above

Pitman's New Era: definitely not been, certainly not been
Note
definitely not been, certainly not been where you cannot use the N Hook for "been" as it is already used for the "not".

Pitman's New Era: I am not, I am not quite sure, may not, you may not be, it may not be, they may not be, which may not
I am not, I am not quite sure, may not, you may not be, it may not be, they may not be, which may not
See also Phrasing 6/Distinguishing Pairs/may might

Pitman's New Era: you will not, you are not, you are not
you will not, you are not
is possible but you are not in full is preferable, as it is less likely to be misread as "you will not". Are not on its own, or starting a phrase, should always be in full.

Pitman's New Era: were not, you were not, or not, whether it is or not, whether or not
were not, you were not, or not, whether it is or not
Note: whether or not

Pitman's New Era: has it not, has it not been, is it not, would it not, would it not be
has it not, has it not been, is it not, would it not, would it not be

Pitman's New Era: they are, they are not, and they are not, but they are not, for they are not, I think they are not
they are = they are not, and they are not, but they are not, for they are not, I think they are not

The following are clearer in full, and this also enables them join better, making many other phrases possible:

Pitman's New Era: are not, have not, was not, shall not

are not, have not, was not, shall not

Pitman's New Era: we shall not, I shall not, shall not be, shall not have, shall not find
we shall not, I shall not, shall not be, shall not have, shall not find

Pitman's New Era: we have not, they have not, you may have not, he may have not
we have not, they have not, you may have not, he may have not

Where any halving would be invisible, write in full:

Pitman's New Era: we are not, we were not, they were not, many were not
we are not, we were not, they were not, many were not

Pitman's New Era: hand, on either hand, on the other hand
hand = on either hand
compare on the other hand which also omits the R

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F/V Hook

Pitman's New Era: out of, photo of, plenty of, quality of the, side of the, inside of the, member of the
of = out of, photo of, plenty of, quality of the, side of the, inside of the, member of the

Pitman's New Era: rid of the, right of/off, route of, rate of interest, rate of exchange
rid of the, right of/off, route of, rate of interest, rate of exchange

Pitman's New Era: state of affairs, state of things, top of the, group of the, pack of the, take care of
state of affairs, state of things, top of the, group of the, pack of the, take care of

Pitman's New Era: much of the, which of the, each of the, which of them, each of these, each of those
much of the, which of the, each of the, which of them, each of these, each of those

Pitman's New Era: sleep off, set off, get off, better off, paid off, take off, check off, log off
off = slip/sleep off, set off/stay off, get off, better off, paid off, take off, check off, log off

Pitman's New Era: you have, you have not, you have been, for you have, do you have, which you have, when you have
have = you have, you have not, you have been, for you have, do you have, which you have but when you have "You" when tilted does not take this hook

Pitman's New Era: that you have, who have, those who have not, those who have never been
that you have, who have, those who have not, those who have never been

Pitman's New Era: ought to have, ought to have been, ought to have done, ought to have seen, which have, we have
ought to have, ought to have been, ought to have done, ought to have seen, which have
but we have is clearer in full and needs to be able to join to many other outlines.

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Afternoon evening: keep the final hook clear, as these two are similar:

Pitman's New Era: afternoon, Monday afternoon, yesterday afternoon
afternoon = Monday afternoon, yesterday afternoon

Pitman's New Era: evening, Sunday evening, yesterday evening
evening = Sunday evening, yesterday evening

Pitman's New Era: this afternoon, that afternoon, this evening, tomorrow evening
this afternoon, that afternoon, this evening, tomorrow evening where the full form joins well    "Morning" is stroke M intersected

Pitman's New Era: event, at all events, in such events, in which events
event = at all events, in which event, in such events    
See also Phrasing 5/in the event of

Pitman's New Era: effect, into effect, take effect, right effect
effect = into effect, take effect, right effect
"Kt" can also stand for "fact"/Phrasing 4 Omission

Pitman's New Era: side-effect
side-effect
in full   See Distinguishing Outlines List2/defect

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Part of, number of When "part" is written with a halved Per stroke, it does not use the F/V Hook for "of" because that would look too much like "number of". Instead, the "of" is omitted:

Pitman's New Era: part, part of, part of the, great part of, great part of the
part, part of, part of the
but great part of, great part of the

Pitman's New Era: small part of the, take part of the, latter part of the, major part of the
small part of the, take part of the, latter part of the, major part of the

Pitman's New Era: number, number of, number of the, great number of the, small number of the
number, number of, number of the, great number of the, small number of the

The "of" can be omitted after "number" to achieve a join, but only if it cannot be mistaken for "part":

Pitman's New Era: large number of cases, large number of men
large number of cases
but large number of men

Where the word ends in S or Dot Ing, you can't use a final hook to represent a word in a phrase:

Pitman's New Era: take on/taken, taken on, takes on, set off, sets off, setting off
take on/taken, taken on, takes on, set off, sets off, setting off

Pitman's New Era: parts of speech, numbers of people, numbering of people
parts of speech, numbers of people, numbering of people

Circle S for "as has is his us" can be added to the hook, because the normal order is to read the S last of all:

Pitman's New Era: you have us/his, who have us/his, ought to have us/his, which have us/his, take of/off his, number of us/his, member of his
you have us/his, who have us/his, ought to have us/his, which have us/his, take of/off his, number of us/his, member of his

Pitman's New Era: head office, Dave's, Davis
Advanced phrase head office also sounds the S last. In normal outlines you would never use a hook with Circle S if there was a vowel sounded between them e.g. Dave's Davis

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Shun Hook - Large:

Pitman's New Era: ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, Arctic Ocean
ocean = Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, Arctic Ocean  
See also Phrasing 4/Atlantic Coast

Pitman's New Era: information, for your information, further information
information = for your information, further information

See also Phrasing 8 Intersections/communication

The direction of Shun hook may change to balance the phrase's outline, as it does in normal outlines, and you may need to put in an occasional vowel sign to prevent errors in reading back:

Pitman's New Era: section, in this section, in my section, occasion, on which occasion, on this occasion
section, in this section, in my section, occasion, on which occasion, on this occasion

Shun Hook Small:

"Association" is the textbook recommended use of the small shun hook. There are others available to choose from, and they need some thought as to the safest combinations in which to use them. They seem mostly interchangeable, i.e they could all make sense in the same sentence, so it would be better to settle on a few very common unvarying phrases for each of them, and so avoid misreadings:

Pitman's New Era: association, political association, medical association, football association, Articles of Association
association
=
political association, medical association, football association, Articles of Association*

*Note that the two S sounds are represented by one circle, as "Articles" is always plural in this phrase

Pitman's New Era: session, this session, next session
session
=
this session, next session  Two S sounds represented by one circle

Pitman's New Era: conversation, telephone conversation, confidential conversation, Skype conversation, Internet conversation
conversation
=
telephone conversation, confidential conversation, Skype conversation, Internet conversation*

*The circle + small shun hook combination is never used on a halved or doubled stroke for normal outlines, only in a phrase where it represents a word.

Pitman's New Era: taxation, direct taxation
taxation
= direct taxation, indirect taxation   See note above

Pitman's New Era: season, summer season, autumn season
season
= summer season, autumn season

Pitman's New Era: decision, final decision, financial decision, unanimous decision
decision = final
decision, financial decision, unanimous decision

The following is a quicker alternative to the fuller phrase:

Pitman's New Era: Position, in a position, I am not in a position, untenable position
p
osition = in a position, I am not in a position, untenable position*

*See also Phrasing 5/in a position and Distinguishing Outlines List 4/undeniable untenable

When used with a simple word like "your" or "their", which provides no context, extra care is needed. It is often helpful to write the first occurrence in full and use an abbreviation for subsequent occurrences within the same piece, so that you have the full form to refer back to:

Pitman's New Era: your association/decision/conversation/position, their association/decision/ conversation/position, financial position/decision
your association/decision/conversation/position
their association/decision/ conversation/position
financial position/decision
Out of context you have no way of knowing which is meant

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(b) Circles & Loops

Circle S

= us, as, has, is, his. For simplicity, only one of these is shown in the text with each example, but you should vary these when you are practising them:

Pitman's New Era: of us, to us, and is, should his, on his, but his, with us, when is, what is, would his
of us, to us, and is, should his, on his, but his, with us, when is, what is, would his

Pitman's New Era: for us, take us, to give us, let us see, before us, above us
for us, take us, to give us, let us see, before us, above us

Pitman's New Era: tell us, they want us, please inform us, please let us have, please let us know
tell us, they want us, please inform us, please let us have, please let us know

Pitman's New Era: as fast as, foster his, against us, just as, missed us
as fast as, foster his, against us, just as, missed us

Pitman's New Era: such as it is, inasmuch as, as near as possible, as many as, as far as
such as it is, inasmuch as, as near as possible, as many as, as far as

Pitman's New Era: you can say that, we can say that, I would say that, we would say that, asked to say that
say  =
you can say that, we can say that, I would say that, we would say that, asked to say that

Pitman's New Era: to say a few words, I am sorry to say that, very sorry to have to say that, to say the least
to say a few words, I am sorry to say that, very sorry to have to say that, to say the least

"Should" can be represented by the Circle S in a few phrases, which allows phrases to be made when the normal short form cannot be joined:

Pitman's New Era: we should be, we should not be, we should have
we should be, we should not be, we should have

Do not use the circle for "should" where it could be read for "is":

Pitman's New Era: it should be, it is to be, it has to be, if it should be, if it is to be, if it has to be
it should be
* it is to be, it has to be, if it should be, if it is to be, if it has to be

*The short form joins well here anyway

Pitman's New Era: at once, upon us, depend upon us
With N Hook:
at once, upon us, depend upon us

Pitman's New Era: as per, as promised, as permitted, as directed
With R Hook:
as per, as promised, as permitted, as directed

As with forming normal outlines, an initial Circle S may change its direction when it comes in the middle of a phrase:

Pitman's New Era: it is, it is important, please take, please make, speaker, Mr Speaker
it is, it is important, please take, please make, speaker, Mr Speaker

Pitman's New Era: certain, to certain, secretary, general secretary, home secretary
certain, to certain, secretary, general secretary, Home Secretary
In the last two examples, the Circle S has become medial and therefore its direction cannot be thought of as signifying an R Hook.

After "this, these, those" the original direction is kept, as being more legible that reversing the circle:

Pitman's New Era: this man, this may have, these matters
this man, this may have, these matters  However, in single-word outlines the circle is written outside, see Theory 19 Suffixes General/change of curve direction.

Here Circle S replaces stroke Ess in order to gain a convenient phrase:

Pitman's New Era: aside, set aside, take aside, take sides
aside = set aside
but not in take aside compare take sides

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Circle Ses

Medially, mostly replacing two Circle S signs:

Pitman's New Era: this is, this is the, this is it, this is no doubt, this is where, this has been, this has to be/this subject
this is, this is the
, this is it, this is no doubt, this is where, this has been, this has to be/this is to be/this subject

S + S in separate words is often pronounced as one S, but Pitman's Shorthand generally shows both, to aid legibility:

Pitman's New Era: this city, this statement, enclosed statement, state statement
this city
*, this statement, enclosed statement Note state statement

*Same outline as "this is it" above, insert final vowel if felt necessary

Pitman's New Era: this century, this side, this suggestion, this circumstance, these circumstances
this century, this side, this suggestion, this circumstance, these circumstances

Pitman's New Era: it is certain, it is certainly, there is certainly, which is certainly
it is certain, it is certainly, there is certainly, which is certainly

Pitman's New Era: there is as much, there is something, there is sometimes, there is certainly
there is as much, there is something, there is sometimes, there is certainly

Pitman's New Era: it must seem, it is simple, because it is sometimes, because it sometimes
it must seem, it is simple, because it is sometimes
compare because it sometimes

Pitman's New Era: it is said, it is seen, it is soon, it is something, it is someone, it is such
it is said, it is seen, it is soon, it is something, it is someone, it is such

Pitman's New Era: it is sufficient, it is suggested, it is satisfactory, it is satisfying, it is supposed
it is sufficient, it is suggested, it is satisfactory, it is satisfying, it is supposed

Pitman's New Era: sometimes seems, for his suggestion, for his sake, for the sake of
sometimes seems, for his suggestion, for his sake
compare for the sake of

Pitman's New Era: it appears as though, it appears that, because such, will you please send, yes sir, which is as follows
it appears as though
compare it appears that, because such, will you please send, yes sir, which is as follows

Pitman's New Era: most serious, most suitable, most satisfactory, almost certain, there is still
Omitting T in the middle: most serious, most suitable, most satisfactory, almost certain, there is still

Pitman's New Era: system, school system, heating system, plumbing system, writing system
system = school system, heating system, plumbing system, writing system

If Ses cannot be written, it may be acceptable to only use one S, as long as the sense remains clear:

Pitman's New Era: chairman's statement, chairman's speech
chairman's statement, chairman's speech
(Unlikely to be "chairman's peach", but if it was, you would write separate outlines)

Can't use Ses Circle if there are three S's:

Pitman's New Era: this is/themselves, this satisfactor, this is satisfactory
this is/themselves, this satisfactory
but this is satisfactory

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Ses initially

Large Circle at the beginning is normally Sway, but the following phrases are common enough to be worthwhile using it for S + S:

Pitman's New Era: as soon as, as said, as satisfactory, as suggested
as soon as, as said, as satisfactory, as suggested

Alone: In longhand terms, the following are phrases because they are two words, but in shorthand they are counted as short forms because they do not consist of outlines joined together:

Pitman's New Era: as is, is as etc
1. as/has followed by any other: as, has, is, his
2. is/his followed by any other: as, has, is, his

Pitman's New Era: as is the, his is the, as has been, as is being, as is known
as is the/as has the --- his is the/is as the --- as has been --- as is being --- as is known

See also Phrasing 6/Distinguishing pairs/as is, as we

Circle Sway

As with normal outlines, Sway Circle is only used at the beginning of an outline or phrase:

As we:

Pitman's New Era: as we are, as we can, as we cannot be, as we may, as we have, as we have not
as we are, as we can, as we cannot be, as we may, as we have, as we have not*

*In full, not halved

Pitman's New Era: as we have said, as we have been, as we have been there, as we have received, as we shall be, as we wish
as we have said, as we have been, as we have been there
, as we have received, as we shall be, as we wish

Pitman's New Era: as we know, as we think, as we think there is, as we do, as we generally, as we just
as we know, as we think, as we think there is, as we do, as we generally, as we just

Pitman's New Era: as we do not, as we did not, as we do not think, as we do not have, as we cannot, as we need

as we do not, as we did not, as we do not think, as we do not have, as we cannot, as we need

Pitman's New Era: as we trust, as we promised, as we produced, as we permitted compare as promised, as produced, as permitted
as we trust, as we promised, as we produced, as we permitted
compare as promised, as produced, as permitted

As well, as will:

Pitman's New Era: as well/as will, as well as, as well as can be, as well as our, as well as most
as well/as will, as well as, as well as can be, as well as our, as well as most

Pitman's New Era: as will be seen, as will be appreciated, as will have been
as will be seen, as will be appreciated, as will have been

Sway is not used if it cannot join:

Pitman's New Era: as we understand, as we would, as we went, as we considered, as we instructed
as we understand
*, as we would, as we went, as we considered, as we instructed

*The Ses could possibly join, like "as we need" above, but there is not enough room for it to be clear.

Sway is not used if the outline already starts with Circle S the large circle signifies SW, and cannot also include S that follows:

Pitman's New Era: as we said, as we stated, as we started, as we suggest, as we supposed
as we said, as we stated, as we started, as we suggest, as we supposed

Sway is not used within phrases, just as it is not used in the middle of a normal outline:

Pitman's New Era: as we can, as soon as we can, as soon as we are able, you may as well
as we can
but as soon as we can, as soon as we are able, you may as well

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Stee Loop

Stee Loop can remain in the phrase only if it makes a good join (but see also Phrasing 4/Omitting consonant for examples of where the T is left out) :

Pitman's New Era: last year, last few years, in the last few days, just now, just in case, best wishes
last year, last few years, in the last few days, just now, just in case, best wishes
*, first time *Note upward Ish for convenience

Pitman's New Era: at first, at first appearance, very first, February first, at first hand, first hand, first thing
at first, at first appearance, very first, February first, at first hand but first hand, first thing

Pitman's New Era: Monday next, Wednesday next, October next, February next
With N Hook = next =
Monday next, Wednesday next, October next, February next

As with normal outlines, an initial Stee Loop may change when it becomes medial:

Pitman's New Era: foundation, stepping, stone, foundation stone, stepping stone
foundation, stepping, stone = foundation stone, stepping stone

Pitman's New Era: state, stated, statement, to state, they state, they stated
state, stated, statement = to state, they state, they stated

Pitman's New Era: we stood, we stayed*, we state, we stated, I regret to state, stay, stayed/staid, stood
we stood
, we stayed*, we state, we stated, I regret to state compare single outlines: stay, stayed/staid, stood

*It is prudent to write "stayed" with full strokes in the phrase, as the meaning is similar to "stood" and a vowel would not distinguish it, because that would look like "state".

Pitman's New Era: present state, in all states, also state, his own statement, recent statement, in that statement
present state, in all states, also state, his own statement, recent statement, in that statement

Pitman's New Era: stock, stick, in stock, walking stick
stock, stick = in stock, walking stick

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(c) Halving

Pitman's New Era: it, if it, if it is, as if it were, from it, from its, till it, till it can
it = if it, if it is, as if it were, from it, from its, till it, till it can

Pitman's New Era: I think it was, I thought it was, I wish it to be, I wish it would be, I wish it were not, depend upon it, make it clear
I think it was
(compare I thought it was), I wish it to be, I wish it would be, I wish it were not, depend upon it, make it clear

Pitman's New Era: in which it is/has, in which it has been, by which it may, under which it would, with which it would, will it, will it not
in which it is/has, in which it has been, by which it may, under which it would, with which it would, will it
but will it not*

*This is more distinctive than halving the Wel for "it" and adding the normal outline "not", but if you have already written the phrase "will it" you should then continue with the normal outline for "not"

Pitman's New Era: able to, I am able to, you are able to, we are able to, you were able to, unable to, he is unable to
to = able to, I am able to, you are able to, we are able to, you were able to, unable to, he is unable to   See also Phrasing 6/Distinguishing Pairs/unable

Pitman's New Era: out, set out, get out, brought out, carried out, ride out, inside out
out = set out, get out, brought out, carried out, ride out, inside out

Pitman's New Era: fade out, hide out, hold/held out, help out, drop out, wipe out, cop out, throughout
fade out, hide out
, hold/held out, help out, drop out, wipe out, cop out but throughout

It is clear from the above that this will not work for past tenses that already end in "ded" or "ted", but for "point out" and "pointed out" it is worth having special phrases, as they are very common expressions:

Pitman's New Era: point out, pointed out, pointed out, tout trout
point out, pointed out
* in full it would be pointed out compare tout trout

*this in effect says "pointed ow" (i.e. omitting the last T) with the diphthong being treated as a separate item, like the F/V Hook in "part of"

Halving to represent T in the next syllable:

Pitman's New Era: some time, for some time to come, at some time or other, at the same time, at one time
some time
(= "sumt-ime"), for some time to come, at some time or other, at the same time, at one time

Pitman's New Era: at all times, my time, more time, lunch time, at which time, at such times
at all times, my time, more time, lunch time, at which time, at such times

Pitman's New Era: modern times, proper time, reasonable time, spare time, extra time
modern times, proper time, reasonable time, spare time, extra time

Pitman's New Era: valuable time, available time, before time, considerable time, most suitable time
valuable time, available time, before time, considerable time, most suitable time

Pitman's New Era: from time to time, from time immemorial
from time to time, from time immemorial

The following has three versions with varying degrees of abbreviation, the first one is textbook, the other two are more advanced:

Pitman's New Era: for some considerable time, for some considerable time, for some considerable time
for some considerable time, for some considerable time, for some considerable time

Pitman's New Era: little time, several times, in due time, in day time
These are clearer in full:
little time, several times, in due time compare in day time

See also Phrasing 3/Imp/for some time past

Pitman's New Era: short time ago, second time, hard times
The T of "time" is omitted in these: short time ago, second time, hard times and the halving is considered as doing duty for both D and T sounds.

Pitman's New Era: text, my text, the words of my text, from my text
text = my text, the words of my text, from my text
*

*These phrases were first created before mobile phone texting existed, and originally would have referred to the text of a letter or report.

Single words that do not use halving may be able to do so within a phrase, because there is extra information in the outline, thus keeping it legible:

Pitman's New Era: afraid, we are afraid, right, right angle
afraid, we are afraid, right, right angle  
See also Phrasing8 Intersections/right angle

Pitman's New Era: date, earliest possible date, brought, brought forward
date, earliest possible date, brought, brought forward

Pitman's New Era: bet alphabet boat lifeboat rate birth-rate date mandate
Compare the nouns: bet alphabet boat lifeboat rate birth-rate

You cannot use halving to represent a word if it is already in use in the outline, or if the basic outline is avoiding halving (as in "edit"):

Pitman's New Era: fit it, fitted it, watched it, doubt it, doubted it, edit it
fit it, fitted it, watched it, doubt it, doubted it, edit it

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(d) Doubling

= other, there, their, dear (For convenience the text captions show only one of the pair there/their) See also Phrasing 6/Distinguishing Pairs/N+ther

The rules for doubling are the same as for single words i.e. do not double a single straight stroke that has no attachments:

Pitman's New Era: be there, been there, we can be there, out there but take out their, out of their, take out of their
be there
but been there, we can be there; out there but take out their, out of their, take out of their

A final S is read after the doubling, as in normal outlines:

Pitman's New Era: catch their, in which there is, catches their, catching their
catch their, in which there is, catches their, catching their

Pitman's New Era: enjoy their, enjoys their, enjoying their
enjoy their, enjoys their, enjoying their

Pitman's New Era: acknowledge their, acknowledges their, acknowledging their
acknowledge their, acknowledges their, acknowledging their

Pitman's New Era: hope there, hope there is, hopes there is, hoping there is
hope there, hope there is, hopes there is, hoping there is

Other:

Pitman's New Era: some other, by some other means, in other directions, in other ways
some other, by some other means, in other directions, in other ways


 

Pitman's New Era: one or other, one or another, one or the other


one or other, one or another
compare one or the other which omits the R

Pitman's New Era: somehow or other, somehow or another, for some reason or other
somehow or other, somehow or another, for some reason or other

"any other, no other" omit the R Hook, so that they do not clash with any of the above. Vocalise the "no" when it is out of position within a phrase:

Pitman's New Era: any other, no other, for any other, for no other, in other, another also every other way
any other, no other, for any other, for no other, every other way

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There/their:

Pitman's New Era: upon there, help their, wipe their, above their, cannot be there
upon there, help their, wipe their, above their, cannot be there

Pitman's New Era: into there, out of their, get there, carried on their, get rid of their
into there, out of their, get there, carried on their, get rid of their

Pitman's New Era: take their, make their way, practise their, how can there be
take their, make their way, practise their, how can there be

Pitman's New Era: seek their opinion, in connection with their, bigger than their, we had gone there
seek their opinion, in connection with their
*, bigger than their, we had gone there

*This combination of doubling and Shun is only used in phrasing, never in an ordinary outline.

Pitman's New Era: in which there, in which there are, which have their, enjoy their, engage their, acknowledge their
in which there, in which there are, which have their, enjoy their, engage their, acknowledge their

Pitman's New Era: join their, imagine their, if there was, I do not know if there is, for there was, for there is
join their, imagine their, if there was
, I do not know if there is but for there was, for there is to distinguish them.

Pitman's New Era: I have there, will have their, over there, from their last letter
I have there, will have their, over there, from their last letter

Pitman's New Era: more than their, whenever there is, whatever there is, wherever there is
more than their, whenever there is, whatever there is, wherever there is

Pitman's New Era: wherefore there is, wherefore, I think there is, I think there was
wherefore there is
(Note wherefore), I think there is, I think there was

Pitman's New Era: we think there may, then their, then there is, through their, through their own
we think there may, then their, then there is, through their, through their own

Pitman's New Era: although there has been, though there have been, though there was, though there were
although there has been, though there have been, though there was, though there were

Pitman's New Era: I was there, he was there, when he was there, I am sure there is, be sure there is, shall there, shall there be
I was there, he was there, when he was there, I am sure there is, be sure there is, shall there, shall there be

Pitman's New Era: I know there is, taking their, making their way, including their
I know there is, taking their, making their way, including their

Pitman's New Era: as a rule there is, until there has been, will there, will there be, while there is
as a rule there is, until there has been, will there, will there be, while there is

Pitman's New Era: follow their instructions, or there, or there is, hear their, here and there
follow their instructions, or there/order, or there is/orders, hear/here their
compare here and there

Pitman's New Era: in their, in their case, in their view, in their interest
in their, in their case, in their view, in their interest

Pitman's New Era: in their opinion, in their hands, in their time, in their own way
in their opinion, in their hands, in their time, in their own way

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Dear:

Pitman's New Era: my dear sir, my dear madam, my dear friends, my very dear friend
my dear sir, my dear madam, my dear friends, my very dear friend

Therefore:

If the original form joins well, that should be used:

Pitman's New Era: I have therefore, we think therefore, will therefore
I have therefore, we think therefore, will therefore

If the original does not join well, use doubling for the "there" part:

Pitman's New Era: I shall therefore, we shall therefore, I was therefore, I was there for a week
I shall therefore, we shall therefore, I was therefore
compare I was there for a week i.e.  "therefore", whether normal outline or in a phrase, is not used to represent "there for"

You cannot use doubling to create a phrase, if the outline for the word is already doubled or halved:

Pitman's New Era: after their, further their, order their, and therefore there
after their, further their, order their, and therefore there

Pitman's New Era: I thought there would be, it is not their, we have considered their, we have received their
I thought there would be, it is not their, we have considered their, we have received their

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(e) Suffixes

Many suffixes are words in their own right and these can be usefully combined in phrases. They are written in proximity, the same as when they are used as suffixes, and not joined or intersected:

Pitman's New Era: ability = best of my ability, best of our ability, best of their ability, in his ability
ability = best of my ability, best of our ability, best of their ability, in his ability

Pitman's New Era: reality, in reality, facing reality, artificial reality
reality = in reality, facing reality, artificial reality

Pitman's New Era: mentality, high mentality, low mentality, superior mentality, criminal mentality
mentality = high mentality, low mentality, superior mentality, criminal mentality

Pitman's New Era: of this mentality, average mentality, of such mentality, of such a mentality
of this mentality, average mentality, of such mentality
but of such a mentality

Pitman's New Era: amount, certain amount
amount = certain amount
This is copying the suffix "-ment" that omits the M

Pitman's New Era: logical, it is logical, it is not logical, it may be logical, it cannot be done logically, it is illogical
logical = it is logical, it is not logical, it may be logical, can be done logically
but full outline for it is illogical

Pitman's New Era: ship, shipment, many ships, abandoned the ship, with this shipment, received the shipment
ship, shipment = many ships, abandoned the ship, with this shipment, received the shipment

Pitman's New Era: fullness, in the fullness of time
fullness = in the fullness of time  
As a suffix, it is spelt "-fulness"

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"Whatever is true, whatever is noble, whatever is right, whatever is pure, whatever is lovely, whatever is admirable if anything is excellent or praiseworthy think about such things." (Philippians 4:8)

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