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Phrasing 8 Intersections

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Theory Intro

 1   Strokes

 2   Vowels

 3   Forming Outlines

 4   Circles

 5   Loops

 6   Hooks Intro

 7   Hooks R L

 8   Hooks N F V

 9   Shun Hook

10  Halving

11  Doubling

12  Hay Aspirate

13  W Forms

14  L Forms

15  R Forms

16  Imp/Imb

17  Ish

18  Prefixes

19  Suffixes General

20  Suffixes Contracted

Short Forms

SF Intro

SF List 1

SF List 2

SF List 3

SF List 4

Contractions

Contractions Intro

Contractions Main

Contractions Optional

Phrasing

1 Phrasing Intro & Contents list

2 Theory

3 Theory

4 Omission Part words

5 Omission Whole words

6 Miscellaneous

7 Miscellaneous

8 Intersections

Distinguishing Outlines

DO Intro

DO List 1 A-C

DO List 2 D-H

DO List 3 I-P

DO List 4 Q-Y

Vocabulary

Vocab Intro

Numbers

Punctuation

Word Lists

Text Lists from PDFs

 

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PAGE DATE 27 September 2013   Sounds/syllables/words omitted from a phrase are underlined

An intersection is a stroke written through an outline, in order to represent a whole word, thus forming a phrase.

  • It is never vocalised.

  • It can take Circle S to form plurals/possessive.

  • If the intersection word comes before, it is written through or adjacent to the first stroke of the main outline. If the intersected word comes after, it is written through or adjacent to the last stroke. The strokes should still be written in the order that they are spoken, even if the intersection comes first.

  • Where both words in a phrase can be intersections, it is preferable to write the first as the full outline and intersect the second one, making it easier to place the intersection.

  • The position of the main outline or phrase is as normal, it is not influenced by the intersection.

  • The intersected stroke may be written in proximity when more convenient. When written in proximity, it is sometimes possible to also place it in position to indicate its vowel e.g. Bs through the line for "biz" = "business".

  • Two intersections can be written through each other, but these need to be very common or obvious phrases, as the resultant phrase will contain minimal information.

Those commonly given in instruction books are marked with an asterisk*. The others may be considered for adoption, depending on how useful you consider them to be in your line of work or interest. Sometimes a intersection is only useful for a single phrase e.g. House of Commons, bona fide.

New intersections can be made at will to suit your own requirements, preferably after completing your learning of the system and when your shorthand is being used in a real-life situation (rather than an exam) where the subject matter is likely to have its own set of common phrases or technical/jargon words. You should consider carefully whether a new intersection will remain legible and that no clashes are possible. It is helpful to keep them listed in your resource file so that you can review and revise from time to time.

There is no need to assimilate all of those shown, as many are of specialist use only, and unlikely to occur in a shorthand exam. In any case, the slower speeds in exams may require textbook shorthand, rather than personalised or advanced intersections and abbreviations. A seldom-used or half-remembered intersection is more likely to produce hesitation than time saving.

Intersections should not be used haphazardly as a way of avoiding consulting the dictionary and learning the correct outline, but in a difficult moment a hasty untried intersection or part of an outline is better than leaving a gap.

STROKE FULL OUTLINE INTERSECTION
P Pitman's New Era: party
party*
Pitman's New Era: policy
policy

Proximity only:
Pitman's New Era: per cent
per cent
Pitman's New Era: per annum
per annum

Pitman's New Era: political party, birthday party, Christmas party, office party
political party, birthday party, Christmas party, office party

Pitman's New Era: council policy, insurance policy
council policy, insurance policy

Pitman's New Era: 5 per cent, 10 per cent per annum
5 per cent, 10 per cent per annum

* "Per annum" on its own should be written in full, as the single Pee stroke is allocated to "per cent".

 

Pr Pitman's New Era: professor
professor
Pitman's New Era: Professor Smith, professor of music, music professor
Professor Smith, professor of music, music professor
Pl Pitman's New Era: application
application
Pitman's New Era: to make application, many applications, enclosed application
to make application, many applications, enclosed application
Pn Pitman's New Era: punishment
punishment
Pitman's New Era: corporal punishment, school punishment, necessary punishment
corporal punishment, school punishment, necessary punishment
Ps Pitman's New Era: purpose
purpose
Pitman's New Era: apparatus
apparatus
Pitman's New Era: for this purpose, primary purpose, for many purposes, for what purpose
for this purpose, primary purpose, for many purposes, for what purpose

Pitman's New Era: for the purpose, for the purposes
for the purpose*, for the purposes*

*No need to intersect in these phrases. You could use two of stroke P, as shown above, if you felt that was clearer, to distinguish from "possible"

Pitman's New Era: heating apparatus, electrical apparatus, scientific apparatus
heating apparatus, electrical apparatus, scientific apparatus

sPr Pitman's New Era: superintendent
superintendent
Pitman's New Era: chief superintendent, railway superintendent
chief superintendent, railway superintendent

Pitman's New Era: superintendent of works, superintendent of police
superintendent of works, superintendent of police

PM Pitman's New Era: period of time
period of time
Pitman's New Era: for some period of time, during this period of time, various periods of time
for some period of time, during this period of time, various periods of time
B Pitman's New Era: bank
bank*
Pitman's New Era: bill
bill
Pitman's New Era: bishop
bishop

 

 

 

 

 

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Pitman's New Era: national bank, bank charges, river bank, Thames Embankment
national bank, bank charges, river bank, Thames Embankment

Pitman's New Era: Parliamentary Bill, Finance Bill

Parliamentary Bill, Finance Bill

Pitman's New Era: Bishop of York, Bishop of London
Bishop of York, Bishop of London

(See Contractions Optional for archbishop)

Bs Pitman's New Era: business
business*

See Phrasing 4/Omission/business for other joined versions

Pitman's New Era: daily business, business contact, any business, any other business
daily business, business contact, any business, any other business

Pitman's New Era: printing business, terms of business, business references, business practice
printing business, terms of business, business references, business practice

T Pitman's New Era: attention
attention*
Pitman's New Era: for your attention, paying attention, immediate attention, careful attention
for your attention, paying attention, immediate attention, careful attention, undivided attention

Pitman's New Era: draw your attention, draw your immediate attention to the matter, call attention to the matter
draw your attention, draw your immediate attention to the matter, call attention to the matter

Pitman's New Era: urgent attention, my attention has been called, your best attention
urgent attention, my attention has been called, your best attention

Tr Pitman's New Era: alternative
alternative
Pitman's New Era: there is no alternative, do we have any alternative, we have no alternative
there is no alternative, do we have any alternative, we have no alternative

Pitman's New Era: alternative sources, alternative energy, alternative plans
alternative sources, alternative energy, alternative plans

Use full outline for "alternate" to avoid ambiguity.

alternative = a second choice, option or possibility available
alternate = every other one, every second one

This comes from Latin "alter" = other, one of two

Tl Pitman's New Era: telephone
telephone
Suggested intersection, based on the common longhand abbreviation "Tel" :
Pitman's New Era: telephone message, answer the telephone, telephone call

telephone message, answer the telephone, telephone call
Tv/Tf Pitman's New Era: telelvision
television
Suggested intersection:
Pitman's New Era: television screen, television signal, television cable, cable television
television screen, television signal, television cable, cable television

If the person says "TV" or "telly" then you would write that in full:

Pitman's New Era: television aerial, TV screen, telly
television aerial
but TV* screen, telly

*Suggest separate T and V strokes, clearer than joining them.

Trf Pitman's New Era: traffic
traffic
Pitman's New Era: motorway traffic. traffic warden, traffic problems
motorway traffic, traffic warden, traffic problems
D Pitman's New Era: department
department*
Pitman's New Era: sales department, training department, Department of the Environment
sales department, training department, Department of the Environment

Pitman's New Era: department manager, departmental manager
department manager, departmental manager

Do not use the intersection for "departmental" as the meanings are almost identical

Dr Pitman's New Era: director
director
Pitman's New Era: company director, director's report
company director, director's report

Pitman's New Era: board of directors x2
board of directors
Attach, if intersecting is not practical

Use full outline for "director" if you think you might misread it as "doctors"

Dv Pitman's New Era: dividend
dividend
Pitman's New Era: division
division

 

 

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Pitman's New Era: declare a dividend, long division, division of labour
declare a dividend, long division, division of labour

Pitman's New Era: cellular division, political division. first division, second division
cellular division, political division, first division, second division

Ch Pitman's New Era: charge
charge*
Pitman's New Era: Chancery
Chancery
*

*This was included when intersections were first introduced, as it was assumed reporters would very often be reporting government business.

Pitman's New Era: electrical charge, free of charge, in charge, take charge
electrical charge, free of charge, in charge, take charge

Pitman's New Era: extra charges, surcharge, Chancery report
extra charges, surcharge
, Chancery report

 

J Pitman's New Era: journal
journal
Pitman's New Era: daily journal, medical journal, financial journal, copy of the journal
daily journal, medical journal, financial journal, copy of the journal

See Contractions Optional for "journalist"

Jnr Pitman's New Era: engineer
engineer
Pitman's New Era: electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, civil engineer
electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, civil engineer

Pitman's New Era: mechanical engineering department, electrical engineer, electrical knowledge
mechanical engineering department, electrical engineer
but electrical knowledge*

*Don't use plain N-J as an abbreviation for "engineer", as that is the short form for "knowledge". In fact, the latter is not a good phrase, as its components are not immediately recognisable, and is only shown here as a warning.

K Pitman's New Era: company
company*
Pitman's New Era: council
council*
Pitman's New Era: capital
capital
Pitman's New Era: captain
captain
*

*Choice of full outline or optional contraction

Pitman's New Era: manufacturing company, ballet company, company report
manufacturing company, ballet company, company report

Pitman's New Era: from the company, of the company, to the company, in the company
from the company, of the company, to the company, in the company

Pitman's New Era: county council, city council, council of reference
county council, city council
*, council of reference

Pitman's New Era: capital city, capital expenditure, capital gains
capital city
*, capital expenditure, capital gains

*Compare the position of the intersections in "city council" and "capital city"

Pitman's New Era: Captain Jones, Captain Grant, Captain Pitt
Captain
Jones, Captain Grant, Captain Pitt

This intersection best only used with personal names

Kr Pitman's New Era: corporation
corporation
Pitman's New Era: colonel
colonel

The pronounced R of "colonel" is shown in the shorthand instead of the first L of the spelling

Pitman's New Era: broadcasting corporation, publishing corporation
broadcasting corporation, publishing corporation

Pitman's New Era: Colonel James, Lieutenant Colonel
Colonel James, Lieutenant Colonel

See also Phrasing 2/corps where the Kr is joined, not intersected

As K = captain, and Kr = colonel, this leaves "corporal" having to be written in full, although a non-textbook suggestion might be to intersect Kr+P = "Corp".

K+L Pitman's New Era: company limited
company limited
Pitman's New Era: Speedy Company Limited, Design Company Ltd
Speedy Company Limited, Design Company Limited

If you wanted to signify the shortened version "Co Ltd" you could vocalise the Kay.

G Pitman's New Era: government
government*
Pitman's New Era: local government, government policy
local government, government policy

If necessary, expand to "gov" G+V to distinguish from "company".

Pitman's New Era: company report, government report
company report, government report

"Gov" is a good non-textbook substitute, quicker than the full outline, and more reliable than the Gay intersection. "Gov" alone is also the short form for govern/governed.

Take care with:

Pitman's New Era: United States Government, United States of America
United States Government, United States of America

Here again, "gov" would be more reliable, or you could place the intersection through or above the Ses Circle (non-textbook suggestion)

Gn Pitman's New Era: beginning
beginning*
Pitman's New Era: at the beginning, in the beginning, small beginnings
at the beginning, in the beginning, small beginnings

Pitman's New Era: at the beginning of the year, beginning of the book, from the beginning, from the beginning to the end, from beginning to end
at the beginning of the year, beginning of the book, from the beginning, from the beginning to the end, from beginning to end

Please note "from the beginning" has been corrected with the "tick the" (27 Sep 2013)

F Pitman's New Era: form formed
form*
formed*
Pitman's New Era: faithfully
faithfully*

Pitman's New Era: official

official

Pitman's New Era: federal
federal
Pitman's New Era: forth
forth

 

 

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Pitman's New Era: application form, necessary forms, we have just formed
application form, necessary forms, we have just formed

Pitman's New Era: in one form or another, some other form
in one form or another, some other form

Pitman's New Era: yours faithfully, faithfully yours
yours faithfully, faithfully yours

Pitman's New Era: official papers, official reason
official papers, official reason, official opening

Pitman's New Era: federal reserve, federal offices, federal army
federal reserve, federal offices, federal army
= You need to be perfectly sure of the context, because "official" would make sense in all of these.

Pitman's New Era: call forth, go forth, come forth
call forth, go forth, come forth

See also forth Phrasing2/forth

V Pitman's New Era: valuation
valuation

short form
 

Pitman's New Era: very low valuation, valuation of the property, valuation department
very low valuation, valuation of the property, valuation department
*

*The second version is quicker

Vn Pitman's New Era: convenience convenient
convenience*
convenient*
Pitman's New Era: it will be convenient, it is convenient, if convenient, convenient time
it will be convenient, it is convenient, if convenient, convenient time

Pitman's New Era: at your convenience, at your earliest convenience, public convenience
at your convenience, at your earliest convenience, public convenience

Don't use this intersection through "not" "no" or "any" because that would clash with "inconvenient":

Pitman's New Era: inconvenient, it is inconvenient, it is not convenient, it is no convenience
inconvenient
*, it is inconvenient, it is not convenient, it is no convenience

*Contraction

Ith Pitman's New Era: authority
authority*
Pitman's New Era: month
month*
Pitman's New Era: local authority, military authority, we have the authority
local authority, military authority, we have the authority

Pitman's New Era: railway authority
railway authority

Pitman's New Era: many months, for months, few months
many months, for months, few months

Pitman's New Era: some months, some months ago, summer months
some months, some months ago, summer months

Pitman's New Era: month of March, twelve months, in a month's time
month of March, twelve months, in a month's time

Pitman's New Era: from month to month, several months compare seven months
from month to month, several months, seven months

See also Phrasing 4 Omission/month where the stroke Ith is joined

S Pitman's New Era: society
society*
Pitman's New Era: scientific
scientific
Pitman's New Era: Australia
Australia
Pitman's New Era: musical society, agricultural society, drama society
musical society, agricultural society, drama society

Pitman's New Era: society of musicians, musicians' society*, building society, artists' society
society of musicians, musicians' society*, building society, artists' society

*Writing the intersection alongside makes it clear that that word comes last.

Pitman's New Era: scientific research, scientific papers, scientific experiments
scientific research, scientific papers, scientific experiments

Pitman's New Era: government of Australia, Northern Australia, Western Australia
government of Australia, Northern Australia, Western Australia

Sn Pitman's New Era: Australian
Australian
Pitman's New Era: Australian English, Australian customs, Australian government
Australian English, Australian customs, Australian government
Ish+s Pitman's New Era: assurance
assurance*
Pitman's New Era: life assurance, life assurance policy compare life insurance
life assurance, life assurance policy
compare life insurance
M Pitman's New Era: mark
mark*

Pitman's New Era: market
market
Pitman's New Era: morning
morning*
Pitman's New Era: manager
manager*
Pitman's New Era: minister
minister
Pitman's New Era: major
Major
Pitman's New Era: America
America
Pitman's New Era: mentioned
mentioned

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Pitman's New Era: trade mark, water mark, dirty marks, mark of respect
trade mark, water mark, dirty marks, mark of respect

Pitman's New Era: financial markets, market conditions, farmers' market, cattle market
financial markets, market conditions, farmers' market, cattle market

Pitman's New Era: this morning, yesterday morning, tomorrow morning, Monday morning
this morning, yesterday morning, tomorrow morning, Monday morning
See also Phrasing 2/afternoon evening

Pitman's New Era: sales manager, general manager, team manager, club manager
sales manager, general manager, team manager, club manager

Pitman's New Era: Minister for Defence, Education Minister, minister of religion
Minister for Defence, Education Minister, minister of religion

Pitman's New Era: Major Brown, Pipe Major, Drum Major
Major Brown, Pipe Major, Drum Major

"Major General" should be in written full, as an intersection would be the same as "general manager" above, and writing the stroke Em over the top would look too much like "majority".

See also sergeant major in Contractions Optional

Pitman's New Era: South America, North and South America but United States of America
South America, North and South America
but United States of America

Pitman's New Era: above-mentioned, I have mentioned, it was mentioned, it has been mentioned
above-mentioned, I have mentioned, it was mentioned, it has been mentioned

Pitman's New Era: it should be mentioned, before-mentioned, afore-mentioned
it should be mentioned, before-mentioned, afore-mentioned

s+M Pitman's New Era: similar
similar*
Pitman's New Era: similar reactions, similar reasons, very similar, or similar
similar reasons, similar reaction, very similar, or similar

Must be clearly intersected, and not written adjacent, so it does not look like "some" or "same".

Pitman's New Era: same reasons, some reasons
same reasons, some reasons
These could also be phrased

See also Contractions Optional/dissimilar

N
Pitman's New Era: enquire enquired enquiry
enquire
enquired
enquiry
(also spelled inquiry, with third place dot)

Pitman's New Era: national
national*

Pitman's New Era: industry
industry

Pitman's New Era: I will enquire, we have enquired, we have made enquiries
I will enquire, we have enquired, we have made enquiries

Pitman's New Era: for your enquiry, in reply to your enquiry
for your enquiry, in reply to your enquiry

Pitman's New Era: national newspapers, national affairs, national production
national newspapers, national affairs, national production

Pitman's New Era: national importance, unimportant
But national importance in full, compare unimportant

Pitman's New Era: heavy industry, steel industry, iron and steel industry, rural industry
heavy industry, steel industry, iron and steel industry
*, rural industry

*The Circle S looks looped, but that is because it is written  between curved strokes. A Stee Loop would never occupy such a position.

Ns Pitman's New Era: insurance
insurance*
Pitman's New Era: insurance papers, insurance policy
insurance papers, insurance policy

Pitman's New Era: life insurance, necessary insurance, fire insurance company, third party insurance
life insurance, necessary insurances, fire insurance company, third party insurance

N+Shun Pitman's New Era: communication
communication
Pitman's New Era: in/any communication, regular communication, communication system, communication difficulties
in/any communication, regular communication, communication system, communication difficulties

Must be clearly intersected, and not written adjacent, so that it does not look like the short form "information".

Pitman's New Era: regular information, information system
regular information, information system

See also Phrasing 2/information

Ing Pitman's New Era: angle
angle
Pitman's New Era: sharp angle, wide angle, obtuse angle
sharp angle, wide angle, obtuse angle

Pitman's New Era: right angle, at right angles, angle of attack
right angle, at right angles, angle of attack

See also Phrasing 2/right angle

L Pitman's New Era: limited
limited*
Pitman's New Era: liberal
liberal

Pitman's New Era: lieutenant x2
lieutenant
(English and American pronunciations respectively)

Pitman's New Era: limited company, And Sons Limited, Dance Company Limited
limited company
, And Sons Limited, Dance Company Limited

Pitman's New Era: Liberal candidate, Liberal manifesto, Liberal Party
Liberal candidate, Liberal manifesto, Liberal Party

As these two words above have opposite meanings, it is probably best to use the "liberal" intersection for political terms only. Non-textbook suggestion: for greater safety you could interesect L+B instead.

Pitman's New Era: Lieutenant Brown, Lord Brown
Lieutenant Brown
compare Lord Brown

Best only used with a personal name

Ar Pitman's New Era: arrange arranged arrangement
arrange*
arranged*
arrangement*
Pitman's New Era: I have arranged, make arrangements, will you please arrange the matter
I have arranged, make arrangements, will you please arrange the matter

Pitman's New Era: necessary arrangements, formal arrangements, wedding arrangements
necessary arrangements, formal arrangements, wedding arrangements

Ray Pitman's New Era: require required requirement
require*
required*
requirement*

Pitman's New Era: railway
railway
Pitman's New Era: royal
royal

Pitman's New Era:
already

Pitman's New Era: recollection
recollection

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Pitman's New Era: I will require, you may require, we have required
I will require, you may require, we have required

Pitman's New Era: I know the requirements, their requirements, they are required, they are requiring
I know the requirements, their requirements, they are required, they are requiring

Pitman's New Era: railway station, railway carriage, railway lines, railway authority
railway station, railway carriage, railway lines, railway authority
*   *See also authority above

Pitman's New Era: royal family, royal throne, royal jewels
royal family, royal throne, royal jewels

Don't use this for "royal carriage", as it may be misread "railway carriage"

The "already" intersection is best used attached to a following verb:

Pitman's New Era: we have already seen, we have already done, it has already been
we have already seen, we have already done, it has already been

Pitman's New Era: which is already being, I have already found, I have already said
which is already being, I have already found, I have already said

Pitman's New Era: I have already referred, I have already received, I have referred, I have received
I have already referred
*, I have already received*
compare I have referred, I have received

*Note the intersected Ray represents "already" and not the R of "referred" or "received"

Pitman's New Era: best of my recollection, best of our recollection, best of your recollection
best of my recollection, best of our recollection, best of your recollection

Rf Pitman's New Era: referring
referring
Pitman's New Era: referring to your letter, referring to your call, referring to my recent report
referring to your letter, referring to your call, referring to my recent report
s+Ray Pitman's New Era: conservative
conservative
Pitman's New Era: conservative estimate, conservative figure, conservative total
conservative estimate, conservative figure, conservative total

Pitman's New Era: Conservative Party
Conservative Party

Hay

Way

Wel

  Hay, Way and Wel, like all strokes, can be used for any term that you are dealing with on a regular basis within a particular field of work/interest. These few suggestions are given to illustrate the general method, but you would not use them in a shorthand exam as there would be insufficient context and reading back would be approaching guesswork:

Pitman's New Era: hypodermic needle, hydraulic pump, hydrogen peroxide, helicopter pilot
 

hypodermic needle, hydraulic pump, hydrogen peroxide, helicopter pilot

Pitman's New Era: walking club, wedding dress, weather forecast, welfare support
walking club, wedding dress, weather forecast, welfare support

Yay Pitman's New Era: yield
yield
Pitman's New Era: united
united

Pitman's New Era: unanimous unanimously
unanimous
unanimously

Pitman's New Era: higher yield, average yield, regular yield, yield per annum
higher yield, average yield, regular yield, yield per annum

Pitman's New Era: United Nations, United Dairy Company Limited
United Nations, United Dairy Company Limited

See Contractions Optional for "United Kingdom, United States"

Pitman's New Era: carried unanimously, unanimous vote, unanimous decision
carried unanimously, unanimous vote, unanimous decision
*   *See also Phrasing 2/unanimous

As the meaning is similar to "united", only use for well-known "unanimous" phrases.

One-offs  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Pitman's New Era: leader of the opposition, speaking from memory, vote of thanks
leader of the opposition, speaking from memory, vote of thanks

Pitman's New Era: bona fide, in the fullness of time, pro forma
bona fide, in the fullness of time
*, pro forma

*Not to be confused with for the first time/Phrasing 5

Pitman's New Era: public library, hire purchase, by return of post
public library, hire purchase, by return of post

Pitman's New Era: House of Commons, House of Lords, in the House of Commons, in the House of Lords
House of Commons, House of Lords, in the House of Commons, in the House of Lords

Note that these do not show the final S

 

"Whatever is true, whatever is noble, whatever is right, whatever is pure, whatever is lovely, whatever is admirable if anything is excellent or praiseworthy think about such things." (Philippians 4:8)

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