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Phrasing 5 Omission

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Intro
 1   Strokes
 2   Vowels
 3   Forming Outlines
 4   Circles
 5   Loops
 6   Hooks Intro
 7   Hooks R L
 8   Hooks N F V
 9   Shun Hook
10  Halving
11  Doubling
12  Hay Aspirate
13  W Forms
14  L Forms
15  R Forms
16  Imp/Imb
17  Ish
18  Prefixes
19  Suffixes General
20  Suffixes Contracted

Short Forms
Intro
SF List 1
SF List 2
SF List 3
SF List 4

Contractions
Contractions Intro
Contractions Main

Contractions Optional

Phrasing

1 Intro & Contents list
2 Theory
3 Theory
4 Omission
Part words
5 Omission
Whole words
6 Miscellaneous
7 Miscellaneous
8 Intersections

Distinguishing Outlines
DO Intro
DO List 1 A-C
DO List 2 D-H
DO List 3 I-P
DO List 4 Q-Y

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PAGE DATE 6 May 2013   Sounds/syllables/words omitted from a phrase are underlined

3. Omission

(d) Omitting whole words

This principal is a reliable one if you keep to these guidelines:

  • Only omit words that must be supplied for the sentence to make sense.

  • If different words could be supplied for the one omitted in the phrase, use the phrase only for the commonest version, and write the other version(s) in full.

  • Only use omission phrases that have been learned beforehand. If you make them up as you go along, you might find later that there are several different words that could fill the omission, with no way of knowing which one it was. There is also the possibility that you fail to hear the exact words used, in the eagerness to use a well-practised phrase.

  • If in doubt, always write in full, and check up on the viability of a possible phrase afterwards. If acceptable, then learn and drill, so that you can use it next time without hesitation.

In the following sentences, the phrase is used for the commoner version, and separate outlines for the less common one:

Pitman's New Era: We are in a position to double our sales.
We are in a position to double our sales.

Pitman's New Era: We are in position to double our sales.
We are in position to double our sales.

A final "of" or "to" is omitted in some phrases, and you would supply this during transcription only if it is required to make sense:

Pitman's New Era: The information was supplied in the form of a printed report.
The information was supplied in the form of a printed report.

Pitman's New Era: The information was supplied in the form of the requested documents.
The information was supplied in the form of the requested documents
.

Pitman's New Era: The information was in the form that he sent to us.
The information was in the form that he sent to us.

Pitman's New Era: The early part of his book is exciting. The early part is exciting.
The early part of his book is exciting. The early part is exciting.

Pitman's New Era: I sent an email in reply to this man. I sent an email in reply this morning.
I sent an email in reply to this man. I sent an email in reply this morning.

If you are not sure whether the final word of a phrase is omitted from the shorthand, it is better to actually write it in, than to hesitate in trying to recall the textbook phrase. You will still save time because you are taking action to avoid a hesitation, and in future, when you familiar enough with the phrase to be able to use it, you will be making the further time saving that it offers. This is a strategy to apply to all shorthand writing, both phrases and normal outlines.

Phrases that omit a final word are much easier to learn if you practise them with Tick The attached at the end, as shown on many of the examples.

Omission is only reliable when used for well-known word groupings. A new phrase that omits a word should be given careful consideration before adoption, and possible clashes sought out, and preferably be noted in your shorthand resource file, for future review and revision.

a/an

Pitman's New Era: as a rule, as a general rule, as a result, at a glance, at a loss, just a few
as a rule, as a general rule, as a result, at a glance, at a loss, just a few

Pitman's New Era: in such a way, in such a matter, in such matters
in such a way, in such a matter
compare in such matters

Pitman's New Era: for a moment, for a minute, for a few days, in a few days
for a moment, for a minute, for a few days, in a few days

*See also Phrasing 6/for the moment & at the time

Pitman's New Era: for a long time, for a time, after a time, at a time, at times
for a long time, for a time, after a time, at a time
*Note above compare at times

Pitman's New Era: there are a great many, we have a great number of, to a great degree
there are a great many, we have a great number of, to a great degree

Pitman's New Era: that is a question, that is the question
that is a question
* but that is the question*   *Optional contraction

Expressions of speed/measurement: different variations of phrasing are to be found, but I have rationalised them as follows omit the "a" but write "per" in full:

Pitman's New Era: words a minute, words per minute
words a minute
(2 choices), words per minute

Pitman's New Era: miles an hour, miles per hour, miles per gallon
miles an hour
(2 choices), miles per hour, miles per gallon

Pitman's New Era: kilometres/kilometers an hour, kilometres/kilometers per hour, kilometres
kilometres/kilometers an hour, kilometres/kilometers per hour
and a non-dictionary option for writing kilometres

The following, and similar measurement phrases, need extra caution, as they could make sense with or without the "a":

Pitman's New Era: in a position, half a million, half a pound
in a position, half a million, half a pound

To ensure there is no clash, write the "a"-less version unphrased:

Pitman's New Era:  position, half million, half pound, half metre/meter, half ton
in position, half million
*, half pound, half metre/meter, half ton

*Million can also be shown by writing an Em underneath, this will be covered on a future Numbers page.

When used as an adjective (describing another word), it is clear that there is no "a" between and therefore you can safely phrase the two words:

Pitman's New Era: a half-pound weight, a half-ton vehicle, a half-mile race
a half-pound weight, a half-ton vehicle, a half-mile race

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and

Pitman's New Era: black and white, board and lodging, body and soul, boys and girls
black and white, board and lodging, body and soul, boys and girls

Pitman's New Era: back and forth, backwards and forwards, land and sea, cause and effect
back and forth, backwards and forwards, land and sea, cause and effect
*

*Don't misread this for because of the fact/Phrasing 4

Pitman's New Era: Church and State, done and dusted, England and Wales, now and then, every now and then
Church and State, done and dusted, England and Wales
*, now and then, every now and then

*See also Distinguishing Outlines List 4/Wales Wells

Pitman's New Era: fair and reasonable, first and foremost, first and foremost, give and take
fair and reasonable, first and foremost, first and foremost
*, give and take

*Non-textbook version, vowel may be helpful, keep the F well curved so it does not look like "first place"

Pitman's New Era: grace and favour, heart and soul, heaven and earth, here and there
grace and favour, heart and soul, heaven and earth, here and there

Pitman's New Era: ladies and gentlemen, men and women, Mr and Mrs, north and south
ladies and gentlemen, men and women, Mr and Mrs, north and south

Pitman's New Era: over and above, over and over, over and over again, again and again, part and parcel

over and above, over and over, over and over* again, again and again, part and parcel

*The second VR is reversed to gain a good join with the last stroke

Pitman's New Era: profit and loss, present and future, pure and simple, pen and ink
profit and loss, present and future, pure and simple, pen and ink

Pitman's New Era:
terms and conditions, rough and ready, report and accounts, right and left

Pitman's New Era: safe and sound, signed sealed and delivered, spick and span, stocks and bonds, stocks and shares
safe and sound, signed sealed and delivered, spick and span, stocks and bonds, stocks and shares

Pitman's New Era: time and motion, trials and tribulations, up and down, ways and means
time and motion
*, trials and tribulations, up and down**, ways and means

*Insert the vowel, as it is similar to at the moment below.   **Compare upsidedown/Phrasing4

Include "and" where it joins well. These phrases would not be possible without it:

Pitman's New Era: there and then, hither and thither, then and now, east and west
there and then, hither and thither, then and now,
east and west

Pitman's New Era: far and wide, hard and fast, by and by, by the by
far and wide, hard and fast, by and by
compare by the by

by Pitman's New Era: step by step, side by side, year by year
step by step, side by side, year by year

"side to side" and "year to year" would be written in full, but see from year to year below. A suggestion might be to intersect for "year to year"

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for Pitman's New Era: word for word
word for word
in Pitman's New Era: bear in mind, borne in mind, keep in mind, cash in hand, stock in trade
bear in mind, borne in mind, keep in mind, cash in hand, stock in trade
into Pitman's New Era: take into account, took into account, taken into account, taking into account
take into account, took into account, taken into account, taking into account

Pitman's New Era: take/taken into consideration, took into consideration, take/taken into consideration the fact
take/taken into consideration, took into consideration, take/taken into consideration the fact

Care is needed with these two, don't join "under":

Pitman's New Era: taking into consideration, take under consideration
taking into consideration, take under consideration

Some alternatives:

Pitman's New Era: taken into consideration
taken into consideration
showing the N Hook and omitting R Hook, which distinguishes it from the "take" version above

Pitman's New Era: I have taken into consideration, we shall be taking into consideration, we shall be considering, I have considered
I have taken into consideration, we shall be taking into consideration
= even greater abbreviation, you can only do this with the noun consideration, not the verb, compare we shall be considering, I have considered

Pitman's New Era: ought to be taken into consideration, ought to have been taken into consideration
ought to be taken into consideration, ought to have been taken into consideration

of Pitman's New Era: course of events, normal course of events
course of events, normal course of events

Pitman's New Era: in the ordinary course of events x2
in the ordinary course of events
OR in the ordinary course of events

Pitman's New Era: in course of time, in the course of time, in the course of the year
in course of time, in the course of time
but in the course of the year

Pitman's New Era: as a matter of urgency, as a matter of course, some other course
as a matter of urgency, as a matter of course
compare some other course

Pitman's New Era: as a matter of principle, as a matter of opinion, next of kin, years of age, length of time
as a matter of principle, as a matter of opinion, next of kin, years of age, length of time

Pitman's New Era: end of next week, end of next month, first of all, loss of life, word of mouth
end of next week, end of next month, first of all, loss of life, word of mouth

Pitman's New Era: difference of opinion, expression of opinion, to give an expression of opinion, short space of time
difference of opinion, expression of opinion, to give an expression of opinion, short space of time

Pitman's New Era: standard of living, standards of living, cost of living, cost of wages
standard of living, standards of living, cost of living, cost of wages

Pitman's New Era: cost of production, costs of production, burden of proof, parcel of land
cost of production
but costs of production, burden of proof, parcel of land

Pitman's New Era: best of my belief, out of place, point of view, points of view, point in view
best of my belief, out of place, point of view, points of view
but point in view

Pitman's New Era: waste of time, waste of time and effort, waste of time and energy
waste of time, waste of time and effort, waste of time and energy

Pitman's New Era: waste of time and money, waste of money, waste of life compare waste/waist wasted/waisted
waste of time and money, waste of money
*, waste of life compare waste/waist wasted/waisted

*Sometimes a Stee loop is replaced by a Circle S + Tee in a phrase or compound word, but here that would be misleading, as we already have the Tee being used for "time" in the other phrases.

waste = squander, avoidable loss     waist = narrowest part of the torso, top of trousers or skirt

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Pitman's New Era: some of you, some of them, all sorts of difficulties, all sorts of trouble but all sorts of
some of you, some of them, all sorts of difficulties, all sorts of trouble
but all sorts of

Pitman's New Era: right of way/right away*, statement of account, Church of England, Word of God, Kingdom of God
right of way/right away
*, statement of account, Church of England, Word of God, Kingdom of God

*For "right away" the A vowel could be inserted before the Way if necessary

Pitman's New Era: House of Israel, House of Representatives, House of Lords, Houses of Parliament, Secretary of State
House of Israel, House of Representatives, House of Lords, Houses of Parliament, Secretary of State

Pitman's New Era: Act of Parliament, Member of Parliament, Members of Parliament, Court of Appeal, courts of law
Act of Parliament, Member of Parliament, Members of Parliament, Court of Appeal, courts of law

Pitman's New Era: City of London, City of Melbourne, City of Berlin
City of London, City of Melbourne, City of Berlin

Pitman's New Era: City of New York, City of Delhi, City of Tokyo
Retain the F/V Hook for "of" where it is helps to make a good join: City of New York, City of Delhi, City of Tokyo

Pitman's New Era: in consequence of, in place of, early part of, in the form of
in consequence of, in place of, early part of, in the form of

Pitman's New Era: in the manner of, in the matter of, on account of, on account of the, on account of your
in the manner of, in the matter of, on account of, on account of the, on account of your

Pitman's New Era: in the presence of, for the sake of, by reason of, at the request of
in the presence of, for the sake of, by reason of, at the request of

Pitman's New Era: in the name of, in the hands of, in the event of
in the name of, in the hands of, in the event of
*

*Grammar of the sentence prevents any clash, as shown below:

Pitman's New Era: in the event of him coming back, in the event he comes back
in the event of him coming back
compare in the event he comes back

If in doubt, it is better to write the "of" outline separately, but if you do, you must take care not to read the "of" as "all":

Pitman's New Era: by reason of our actions, by reason of all our actions
by reason of our actions
compare by reason of all our actions

After such phrases, it might even be safer to always write both outlines "of all" rather than omit one and then misread the other.

of the Pitman's New Era: one of the most, one of the most important, end of the world
one of the most, one of the most important, end of the world

Pitman's New Era: some other part of the world, in all parts of the country, many parts of the globe
some other part of the world, in all parts of the country, many parts of the globe

Pitman's New Era: history of the world, in the history of the world
history of the world, in the history of the world

Pitman's New Era: out of the question, freedom of the press, freedom of the people, law of the land
out of the question*, freedom of the press, freedom of the people, law of the land

*Optional contraction

Pitman's New Era: at the end of the year, anything of the sort, nothing of the sort, something of the sort
at the end of the year, anything of the sort, nothing of the sort, something of the sort
*   *Vowel advised, as these might look similar to "any answer, no answer, some answer"

Pitman's New Era: sign of the times, signs of the times, ladies and gentlemen of the jury, Justice of the Peace, Chancellor of the Exchequer
sign of the times, signs of the times, ladies and gentlemen of the jury, Justice of the Peace, Chancellor of the Exchequer

Pitman's New Era: Leader of the House, President of the United States, Constitution of the United States
Leader of the House, President of the United States, Constitution of the United States

It is only safe to omit "of the" in common word groupings. For normal text you should use F/V Hook/Phrasing2 for "of" and Tick The/Phrasing6 wherever possible, otherwise write in full.

Pitman's New Era: terms of contract, terms of the contract, present state of the market, present-day market
terms of contract but terms of the contract, present state of the market compare present-day market

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or Pitman's New Era: whether or not, yes or no, more or less, word or two, once or twice
whether or not, yes or no, more or less, word or two, once or twice

Pitman's New Era: in one form or another, one way or another, of one kind or another
in one form or another, one way or another, of one kind or another

Pitman's New Era: sooner or later, right or wrong, rightly or wrongly, retiringly
sooner or later, right or wrong, rightly or wrongly
compare retiringly

For "one or two" "two or three" etc see Vocabulary Numbers/Or Pairs

nor Pitman's New Era: neither this nor that, neither more nor less
neither this nor that, neither more nor less
These are the only phrases where the joined diphthong of "neither" is omitted

See Phrasing 6/"neether" pronunciation

out of Pitman's New Era: in nine cases out of ten, nine times out of ten
in nine cases out of ten, nine times out of ten
*

*Easy to remember if you notice that the second phrase has crossed strokes, like the cross sign for "times" = X

the Pitman's New Era: in the world, what in the world, all over the world, all over the place
in the world, what in the world, all over the world, all over the place

Pitman's New Era: all the way, of the way, on the present occasion, for the present time, at the present time, at present
all the way, of the way, on the present occasion, for the present time, at the present time
but at present

Pitman's New Era: from the present time, at the present moment, at the moment, from the moment
from the present time, at the present moment, at the moment, from the moment

Pitman's New Era: for the first time, it is not the first time, in the first instance, from the first, , cross the line, in the shape of
for the first time, it is not the first time, in the first instance, from the first, cross the line, in the shape of

Pitman's New Era: on the subject, during the year, during the week but during the war, during the month, during the time
on the subject, during the year, during the week
but during the war, during the month, during the time which are clearer with the Tick The included

Pitman's New Era: in the nature of things, at the earliest opportunity, on the contrary, in the past
in the nature of things, at the earliest opportunity, on the contrary, in the past

Pitman's New Era: what is the matter, what was the matter, how the matter, about the matter
what is the matter, what was the matter, how the matter, about the matter

Pitman's New Era: under the circumstances, in the circumstances, in all circumstances, in all the circumstances
under the circumstances, in the circumstances
but in all circumstances, in all the circumstances

Pitman's New Era: what is the result, what was the result, as to the question
what is the result, what was the result, as to the question
*

*Optional contraction

Pitman's New Era: in the first place, in the second place, in the third place
in the first place
*, in the second place, in the third place*   *L Hook omitted

The phrases in the above line are common ones for introducing points in a discussion. You are much less likely to be listing winners of a race, where you can make it clear that there is no "the" omitted by writing the "in" separately:

Pitman's New Era: In first place is Smith and in second place is Jones.
In first place is Smith and in second place is Jones.

Pitman's New Era: In third place is Green and in last place is White.
In third place is Green and in last place is White.

Pitman's New Era: on the one hand, on one hand
on the one hand
but separately for on one hand

Include "the" in the following to enable a join:

Pitman's New Era: none the worse, on the other hand
none the
worse*, on the other hand

*The tick is a bit longer than usual because it has to span both the hooks

Pitman's New Era: by the way of
by the way  
"by way" should be written separately to distinguish it:

Pitman's New Era: He went by the way of the river. He went by way of the river.
He went by the way of the river. He went by way of the river.

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to

Pitman's New Era: do you mean to say, needless to say, that is to say, bound to say, I am very sorry to see that

do you mean to say, needless to say, that is to say, bound to say, I am very sorry to see that  See also Phrasing 2/Circle S/say that

Pitman's New Era: I am pleased to find, I am pleased to know, in reply to, in reply to the, in reply to your letter
I am pleased to find, I am pleased to know, in reply to, in reply to the, in reply to your letter

Pitman's New Era: it is satisfactory to know, I will be glad to know, we are glad to know
it is satisfactory to know,
I will be glad to know, we are glad to know

See also Phrasing 6/Distinguishing Pairs/know note

Pitman's New Era: it stands to reason but stand to reason, so to speak, from bad to worse
it stands to reason but stand to reason, so to speak, from bad to worse

Pitman's New Era: it appears to me, it appears to him, have been given to understand, led to believe
it appears to me, it appears to him, I have been given to understand, led to believe

Pitman's New Era: ought to have, ought to have seen, ought to have known, ought to have been, reason to suppose
ought to have, ought to have been, ought to have known, ought to have seen, reason to suppose

Pitman's New Era: door to door, generation to generation, face to face, house to house, from year to year
door to door, generation to generation, face to face, house to house, from year to year

See Phrasing 4/bigger and bigger      See year by year above

In the following, "wish to" and "shall" both make sense, so always insert the "to" after "wish", as that is the less common of the pair:
Pitman's New Era: speak to you, we shall speak to you, we wish to speak to you, write to you, write you
speak to you, we shall speak to you, we wish to speak to you, write to you
, write you

Don't omit the outline for "to" before "write" as there are two possible usages. To prevent guesswork in transcribing, get all the words in shorthand without any omission:

British usage: I will write to you.
American usage: I will write you.

British and American usages agree: I will write you a letter. I will write a letter to you.

Pitman's New Era: according to, according to the, accordingly, in addition to the
according
*/according to, according to the, accordingly, in addition to the

*Short form

to the Pitman's New Era: up to the present, up to the present time, up-to-the-minute, up to the time of writing
up to the present, up to the present time, up-to-the-minute, up to the time of writing
with Pitman's New Era: in accordance with, in accordance with the, in conformity with the
in accordance with, in accordance with the, in conformity with the

Pitman's New Era: as compared with, as compare with the, as compared with last year but as compared to the
as compared with, as compare with the, as compared with last year but as compared to the

Compare with = to consider or contrast the differences or qualities of two items: "I compared shorthand with longhand, and found out which was faster to write."

Compare to = to liken one thing to another, to draw a similarity: "The writer compared himself to Shakespeare."

These differences in meaning are not always observed.

you Pitman's New Era: if you please, yes if you please, will you please, will you
if you please, yes if you please, will you please
but will you
hand Pitman's New Era: shorthand writing, shorthand writer
shorthand writing, shorthand writer

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