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Phrasing 6 Miscellaneous

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Theory

Theory Intro

 1   Strokes

 2   Vowels

 3   Forming Outlines

 4   Circles

 5   Loops

 6   Hooks Intro

 7   Hooks R L

 8   Hooks N F V

 9   Shun Hook

10  Halving

11  Doubling

12  Hay Aspirate

13  W Forms

14  L Forms

15  R Forms

16  Imp/Imb

17  Ish

18  Prefixes

19  Suffixes General

20  Suffixes Contracted

Short Forms

SF Intro

SF List 1

SF List 2

SF List 3

SF List 4

Contractions

Contractions Intro

Contractions Main

Contractions Optional

Phrasing

1 Phrasing Intro & Contents list

2 Theory

3 Theory

4 Omission Part words

5 Omission Whole words

6 Miscellaneous

7 Miscellaneous

8 Intersections

Distinguishing Outlines

DO Intro

DO List 1 A-C

DO List 2 D-H

DO List 3 I-P

DO List 4 Q-Y

Vocabulary

Vocab Intro

Numbers

Punctuation

Word Lists

Text Lists from PDFs

 

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PAGE DATE 4 March 2017  Sounds/syllables/words omitted from a phrase are underlined

4.  Distinguishing pairs

5.  Joined vowels
(a) Diphthong for "I"
(b) Diphthong for "you"
(c) Joined vowel omitted

6.  Forms exclusive to phrasing
(a) Tick The
(b) He

4. Distinguishing Pairs


accounts counts
Pitman's New Era: by all accounts, by all counts
by all accounts, by all counts
N + -ther Pitman's New Era: another, in there/their, in other, neither
another, in there/their, in other, neither

Pitman's New Era: know there/their, any other/in them, no other/know they/know them
know there/their, any other/in them, no other/know they/know them

Distinguishing vowels are shown for reference.

"neither" This vowel is always written as it is a normal part of the outline. Given so many variations of the doubled En, it is not worth phrasing "neither" because you would need to go back and insert the vowel, thus losing any time you might gain by phrasing. The exceptions are the two common phrases shown in Phrasing 5/neither.

"no" needs the dash vowel if it is within a phrase i.e. out of its normal position.

Pitman's New Era: another time, in their time, in other times
another time, in their time, in other times
neither time
*, any other time, no other time, at no other time

Pitman's New Era: another one, in their one, in other ones
another one, in their one, in other ones
neither one, any other one, no other one, at no other one

Pitman's New Era: another of them, neither of them, any of them
another of them, neither of them, any of them

Pronunciation "neether" this version lends itself to phrasing as there is no joined vowel, although "neither" with its joined diphthong is more distinctive. It would be prudent to always insert the dot vowel in "neether", even when not phrasing. because there are so many other variations with the doubled En stroke, as listed above. Be consistent about which one you use, regardless of how the speaker pronounces the word:

Pitman's New Era: neither, neither time, neither one, neither of them
neither, neither time, neither one, neither of them


consideration instruction
Pitman's New Era: further consideration, further instruction
further consideration, further instruction
Vowels helpful
un- in- not "un-" and "in-" can remain in the phrase, but lift the pen after "not":

Pitman's New Era: it is unnecessary, it is not necessary, it is unlike, it is not like
it is unnecessary, it is not necessary, it is unlike, it is not like

Pitman's New Era: we are unable, we are not able
we are unable, we are not able

Pitman's New Era: it is unlawful, it is not lawful, it is untrue, it is not true
it is unlawful, it is not lawful, it is untrue, it is not true

Pitman's New Era: he is incapable, he is not capable, in so far as/insofar as, not so far as
he is incapable, he is not capable, in so far as/insofar as, not so far as

If a clash is unlikely, then it is safe to join the "not":

Pitman's New Era: are not found, are not present, should not be, I would not be
are not found, are not present, should not be, I would not be

Ensure the "not" remains curved, so that it doesn't look like "quite" and insert vowels if necessary.

Pitman's New Era: not acceptable, quite acceptable, quite
not acceptable, quite acceptable, quite
*

*As this is a short form, it has no vowel sign, but it can still be indicated if required, although this is not strict theory.


know note


may might


can could

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Top of page

Write the halved outline separately, enabling it to be written in position. Inserting the vowels shown provides additional distinction, but you should not rely on always having the time to insert the vowels:

Pitman's New Era: I know that, I note that, we know they will, we note they will
I know that, I note that, we know they will, we note they will

Pitman's New Era: I may be, I might be, he may come, he might come
I may be, I might be, he may come, he might come

Pitman's New Era: you can have, you could have, I can be, I could be
you can have, you could have, I can be, I could be

Pitman's New Era: I cannot be, I could not be
Full phrasing is possible here: I cannot be, I could not be


all two
Pitman's New Era: in all cases, in two cases
in all cases, in two cases

well low ill
Pitman's New Era: very well, very low, very ill
very well, very low, very ill

for the, in the

Pitman's New Era: for the year, in the year, over the year, after the year
for the year, in the year
* also similar: over the year, after the year

*As with "quite" above, the vowel of "in" could be inserted, if you find you have written it joined and need to ensure it is not misread, although it is not strict theory to insert vowels in short forms.


for, off
Pitman's New Era: for the record, off the record
for the record, off the record

Opposite meanings, with dire consequences if "off the record" comments should end up being typed in a report and published. Non-textbook suggestion: You could intersect the two halves of "off the/record" to be quite sure of distinction.


if, for
"If" is doubled or halved, "for" remains unchanged:

Pitman's New Era: if there is/has, if there were, for there is/has, for there were
if there is/has, if there were, for there is/has, for there were

See also Phrasing 3/for they are, if they are

Pitman's New Era: if it, if it was, for it, for it was
if it, if it was, for it, for it was


any, no, under,
in a
Pitman's New Era: anyway, no way, underway, in a way
anyway/in a way, no way, underway
but also in a way

Here you can phrase "in a way", because "anyway" would not make sense:

Pitman's New Era: I write in a way that is easy to understand.
I write in a way that is easy to understand.

Here both are used as interjections, so context cannot help, therefore "in a way" needs to be distinguished by writing separate outlines:

Pitman's New Era:
Anyway, I am glad I went. In a way, I am glad I went.

 


as is, as we
Pitman's New Era: as is expected, as we expect/expected
as is expected, as we expect/expected

This clash could occur whenever the large circle is followed by a verb.


is, has
Pitman's New Era: it is to be remembered, it has to be remembered
it is to be remembered, it has to be remembered

Breaking up the phrase allows the "has" to be written in its correct position


day, date
Pitman's New Era: today, to date, up to date/up-to-date/update
today, to date, up to date/up-to-date
*/update

up-to-date = adjective: I submitted an up-to-date report.
up to date = adverbial phrase: I brought him up to date with events at the office.

update = verb: I will update my diary with today's events.
update = noun: I will send you an update on my progress.


worry rather

 

Top of page

Pitman's New Era: worry, would rather
worry, would rather
best written separately

"I worry he gets lost. I would rather he gets lost" opposite meanings!

Essential vowels

Where the second and subsequent outlines within a phrase are written out of position, it is sometimes necessary to insert a vowel sign in one of the pair, for distinction. The less common one(s) get the vowel inserted, so that the commonest one has the fastest phrase. However insertion of vowel signs in any of the variations is always helpful:


last least most
Pitman's New Era: at last, at least, at most, by far the least, by far the most
at last, at least, at most, by far the least, by far the most

else, less
Pitman's New Era: anything else, anything less, nothing else, nothing less
anything else, anything less, nothing else, nothing less
Pitman's New Era: something else, something less
something else, something less

indeed needed
Pitman's New Era: it is indeed, it is no doubt
it is indeed, it is needed 
Prudent to insert vowels in both of these

seems most
Breaking the phrase so that "most" is written above the line ensures there can be no clash and is quicker than inserting its vowel:

Pitman's New Era: it seems important, it is most important, it seems to me

it seems important, it is most important, it seems to me

Pitman's New Era: it seems likely, it is most likely, it seems strange, it is most strange
it seems likely, it is most likely, it seems
* strange, it is most* strange

*One Circle S is doing duty for both S's, as it is not practical to write a Ses Circle here.


man men
Pitman's New Era: old man, old men, young man, young men
old man, old men, young man, young men

Pitman's New Era: old woman, old women
old woman, old women

Non-theory suggestion: as the distinguishing dots are not very far apart, a greater distinction could be obtain by placing the singular version of each phrase above the line, to accord with the "a" sound of "man", as happens with the outlines for "human" (Theory 12 Hay) and "woman" (Theory 13 W Forms) and the short forms "gentleman" "gentlemen" (Short Forms List 2)


give go
The vowel is written on "go" as that short form has no consonants omitted, you are in effect converting it back to a normal outline.

Pitman's New Era: to give, to go, I shall give, I shall go, you may give, you may go
to give, to go, I shall give, I shall go, you may give, you may go

Short forms that do not contain all the consonants of the word are not helped by the insertion of vowel signs when they are in phrases, as that only makes them more confusing they no longer look like short forms, but nor are they full outlines reducing legibility.


me him whom

Pitman's New Era: of me, of him, of whom, to me, to him, to whom
of me, of him, of whom, to me, to him, to whom

The Tick Hay of "whom" does not join to the Fr, so it is omitted and the vowel inserted. You could put a Dot Hay in as well, but the outline is clear enough without it:

Pitman's New Era: from me, from him, from whom
from me, from him, from whom


myself himself
Pitman's New Era: of myself, of himself, to myself, to himself, for myself, for himself
of myself, of himself, to myself, to himself, for myself, for himself

mine, my own
Pitman's New Era: mine, my own, his own, own
mine, my own, his own, own*   *Short form

in any no
Always vocalise the "no":

Pitman's New Era: by any means, by no means, at any time, at no time
by any means, by no means, at any time, at no time

Pitman's New Era: in any way, in no way
in any way, in no way

Pitman's New Era: for anyone, for no-one, I have any doubt, I have no doubt
for anyone, for no-one, I have any doubt, I have no doubt

Pitman's New Era: there is any doubt, there is no doubt, it is in doubt, it is no doubt, it is undoubtedly
there is any doubt, there is no doubt, it is in doubt, it is no doubt, it is undoubtedly


say see
Pitman's New Era: you will say/you also, you will see
you will say/you also, you will see  
See also Phrasing 2/say that

those this these
When they are out of position, always vocalise the two plurals "those" and "these". "This" is the most common, so it can be left unvocalised:

Pitman's New Era: for those, for this, for these, take those, take this, take these
for those, for this, for these, take those, take this, take these

If you can get them in position, then no vowel sign is needed:

Pitman's New Era: of those, of this, of these, with those, with this, with these, in those days, in these days
of those, of this, of these, with those, with this, with these, in those days, in these days


manner honour

Pitman's New Era: with the same manner, with the same honour, he has the manner, he has the honour
with the same manner, with the same honour, he has the manner, he has the honour

See also Phrasing 4/manner


know reason
Pitman's New Era: it stands to reason, it is satisfactory to know
it stands to reason, it is satisfactory to know

The two might be misread only if badly written.

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5. Joined Vowels

(a) Diphthong for "I"

Where the second half of this sign would not make a good join, only the first half is written. This is done at the beginning of a phrase, or after "and". It will not clash with the outline for "of" as they are different parts of speech:

Pitman's New Era: I prepare, I place, I brought, I believe, I trust, I tell, I draw, I consider
I prepare, I place, I brought, I believe, I trust, I tell, I draw, I consider
*  *Omits con dot

Pitman's New Era: I can, I care, I call, I give, I go, I agree, I glance
I can, I care, I call, I give, I go, I agree, I glance

Pitman's New Era: I may, I like, I write, I refer, I will, I weigh, I would
I may, I like, I write, I refer, I will, I weigh, I would

Pitman's New Era: I whistle, I yield, I sing, I seem, and I bring, and I believe, and I am
I whistle, I yield, I sing, I seem, and I bring, and I believe, and I am

In full, where there is no advantage in shortening the sign:

Pitman's New Era: I pay, I speak, I buy, I submit, I take, I do, I choose, I just
I pay, I speak, I buy, I submit, I take, I do, I choose, I just

Pitman's New Era: I face, I have, I think, I say, I was, I shall, I wish, I usually
I face, I have, I think, I say, I was, I shall, I wish, I usually

Pitman's New Era: I know, I understand, I arrange, I remain
I know, I understand, I arrange, I earned, I remain

Pitman's New Era: I weld, I wheel, I halve, I hack, I help, I hem
Can't join:
I weld, I wheel, I halve, I hack, I help, I hem

Keep the I diphthong sharp, and initial hooks well rounded:

Pitman's New Era: I pay, I pray, I pumped, I permit, I bought, I brought, I tacked/attacked, I tracked/ attract
I pay, I pray, I pumped, I permit, I bought, I brought, I tacked/attacked, I tracked/ attract

"Eye" is mostly written in full:

Pitman's New Era: I brought, eyebright, I browse, eyebrows, I mark, eyemark
I brought
but eyebright, I browse but eyebrows, I mark but eyemark

Pitman's New Era: I wash, eye-wash, I witness, eye-witness, eyelash, eyelid
I wash
but eye-wash, I witness but eye-witness Half sign is used for eyelash eyelid

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(b) Diphthong for "you"

When written in the middle or end of a phrase, "you" may be tilted or turned on its side, as convenient, but this should only be done if there is an advantage to be gained.

Always right way up at the beginning of a phrase:

Pitman's New Era: you would, you can, you give, you may, you will, you let
you would, you can, you give, you may, you will, you let

Pitman's New Era: you like, you should, you are, you refer, you were
you like, you should, you are, you refer, you were

Right way up wherever possible:

Pitman's New Era: pay you, be you, set you, tell you, do you, have you, over you
pay you, be you, set you, tell you, do you, have you, over you

Pitman's New Era: for you, if you, thank you, though you, may you, hear you, were you, from you
for you, if you, thank you, though you, may you, hear you, were you, from you

Pitman's New Era: beyond you, on you, but you, will you, while you
beyond you, on you, but you, will you, while you

Pitman's New Era: if you can, as/has you, as you can, as far as you can, as far as you know
if you can, as/has you, as you can, as far as you can*, as far as you know

*If there is nothing joined to the "as you" at the end, then write separately, otherwise it would look like S+small shun hook.

Tilted:

Pitman's New Era: which you, which you can, reach you, acknowledge you, saw you, see you, was you
which you, which you can, reach you, acknowledge you, saw you, see you, was you

Tilted the other way precludes the possibility of joining any further outlines, and, although theoretically correct, it might be better in most cases to write the "you" as the first word of the next phrase, i.e. the right way up:

Pitman's New Era: are you, whether you, where you, and you, should you
are you, whether you, where you, and you, should you

Pitman's New Era: whether you will be, where you are not, and you may, should you have been
whether you will be, where you are not, and you may, should you have been

On its side:

Pitman's New Era: can you, can you have, could you, give you, take you, contact you compare acute prosecute
can you, can you have, could you, give you, take you, contact you compare acute prosecute where the attached U sign is an integral part of the single-word outline and so pronounced before the T sound.

Pitman's New Era: we wish you, I wish you, I can assure you, I am sure you, measure you
we wish you, I wish you, I can assure you, I am sure you, measure you

Pitman's New Era: taking you, know you, beyond you, with you, when you, what you, would you, you would
taking you, know you, beyond you, with you, when you, what you, would you, you would

Pitman's New Era: will you, how will you, will you kindly, will you have, let you have
will you, how will you, will you kindly
but will you have, let you have to enable the Vee to join.

When "you" it is on its side, take care not to confuse it with the short forms "with when what would".

The similar signs for "with when what would beyond" are never turned or tilted.

"You" takes F/V hook to indicate "have", but only when it is the right way up:

Pitman's New Era: you have, you have been, you have not, if you have, if you have been, which you have
you have, you have been, you have not, if you have, if you have been, which you have

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(c) Diphthong Ow

"now" should always keep its joined diphthong, to prevent it looking like "not" or "un-", therefore it can only come at the end of a phrase:

Pitman's New Era: it is not time, it is in time, it is now time, has not been, has now been
it is not time, it is in time, it is now time, has not been, has now been

Pitman's New Era: we have not received, we have now received
we have not received, we have now received

Pitman's New Era: we are unable to, we are now able to, we are not able to
we are unable to, we are now able to, we are not able to

Inserting the vowel for "not" and "un-" may be helpful, as shown above.

(d) Joined vowel omitted

Pitman's New Era: few more, few words, for a few days, new year, in due course, it is also
few more, few words, for a few days, new year
*, in due course**

*Keep the Yay+Ray stroke long, as this is similar to the contracted phrase for "New York" (N+Yay)

** Keep the D clearly through the line, as it is similar to "in degrees", on the line, which could easily make sense in the same sentence as "in due course"

Pitman's New Era: I am/ may also, you must also, we have also, it is also, it will also be
I am/may also, you must also, we have also, it is also, it will also be

Compare the full forms:

Pitman's New Era: few new due also
few new due also

The dash sign that is the short form "all" or "al-" is not omitted in the way that vowel signs are:

Pitman's New Era: in all places, for all we know, one and all, he is almost, and although
in all places, for all we know, one and all, he is almost, and although

Pitman's New Era: altogether, all together, always, almost always, all ways
altogether, all together, always, almost always, all ways

  • Altogether = completely, totally, thoroughly = They were altogether soaked. She is altogether lovely.

  • All together = all in one place, in unison = They were all together in one room. They sang all together.

  • Always = every time, repeatedly, continuously = They are always late. The heating is always on.

  • All ways = all paths, roads, routes, methods = All ways lead home. All ways have been considered.

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6. Forms exclusive to phrasing

Tick The and the short sign for "he" are used only in the middle or end of phrases.

Pitman's New Era: the, he, if the, if he
the, he, if the, if he

Tick The is the size of a thin dash, short "he" sign is the size of a thick dash.

(a) Tick The

"Tick the" slightly falls outside the rules for phrase forming, as "the" belongs with the next word. The tick cannot start a phrase, it is only used in the middle of end of a phrase. It is written downwards wherever possible, but upwards if a sharper angle is obtained. Therefore, after plain Pee and Bee it is always down, even though the angles either way are identical:

Pitman's New Era: of the, to the, and the, should the
of the, to the, and the, should the

"on" and "but" are given a slight forward slope when tick the is added so that they do not clash with "I/eye" or "why":

Pitman's New Era: on, on the, but, but the, I/eye, why
on, on the
, but, but the compare I/eye, why

The sloped "and the" and "on the" are identical in form to the two diphone vowel signs, see Theory 2 Vowels/Diphones.

Pitman's New Era: with the, when the, what the, would the, you the/should, beyond the
with the, when the, what the, would the, you the/should, beyond the

Pitman's New Era: how the, and I, and I am, and of the
how the, and I, and I am, and of the

Pitman's New Era: pay the, be the, set the, do the, which the, arrange the, seek the, give the
pay the, be the, set the, do the, which the, arrange the, seek the, give the

Pitman's New Era: for the, have the, think the, though the, say the, was the, shall the, usually the, heal the, were the
for the, have the, think the, though the, say the, was the, shall the, usually the, heal the, were the

Pitman's New Era: may the, meet the, improve the, in the, note the, need the, seen the, sing the
may the, meet the, improve the, in the, note the, need the, seen the, sing the

Pitman's New Era: are the, support the, weigh the, wet the, hoe the, lose the, will the, while the
are the, support the, weigh the, wet the, hoe the, lay the, will the, while the

Pitman's New Era: pen the, pave the, been the, above the, contain the, contrive the, done the, drive the
pen the, pave the, been the, above the, contain the, contrive the, done the, drive the

Pitman's New Era: clean the, crave the, gain the, gave the, chain the, achieve the, join the, knowledge of the
clean the, crave the, gain the, gave the, chain the, achieve the
*, join the, knowledge of the*   *The tick here has a slightly shallower slope to produce a clearer angle

Pitman's New Era: run the, serve the, win the, weave the, hunt the, halve the
run the, serve the, win the, weave the, hunt the, halve the

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After Circle S:

Pitman's New Era: pays the, bruise the, sets the, does the, choose/chews the, enjoys the, cause/because the, gives the
pays the, bruise the, sets the, does the, choose/chews the, enjoys the, cause/because the, gives the

Pitman's New Era: face the, saves the, thinks the, soothes the, says the, eases the, shows the
face the, saves the, thinks the, soothes the, says the, eases the, shows the

Pitman's New Era: aims the, meets the, improves the, knows the, notes the, needs the, sings the
aims the, meets the, improves the, knows the, notes the, needs the, sings the

Pitman's New Era: hears the, sells the, wills the, wheels the, raise the, weighs the, he is the
hears the, sells the, wills the, wheels the, raise the, weighs the, he is the

Lone circle with tick  As the circles are all written clockwise, it is clear which word is read first:

Pitman's New Era: is the, as the, as is the, is as the, is the cause, as the cause, as is the case
*is the, as the, as is the, is as the where the circle is written first. This becomes clearer in a longer phrase: is the cause, as the cause, as is the case

*Only one of each variation shown, for simplicity

Pitman's New Era: should his, and is/his/as/has
Compare with
should his, and is/his/as/has where the straight mark is written first.

Compare also:

Pitman's New Era: is to - is to the - as of/as to/has to - as of the/as to the/has to the - who is/has - who is/has the
is to --- is to the --- as of/as to/has to* --- as of the/as to the/has to the --- who is/has --- who is/has the

*One of the few instances where "to" ends a phrase.

After hooks:

Pitman's New Era: phone the, find the, convene the, invent the, thin the, lengthened the, then the
phone the, find the, convene the, invent the, thin the, lengthened the, then the

Pitman's New Era: known the, mean the, demand the, earn the, from the, cover the, loan the
known the, mean the
*, demand the*, earn the, from the, cover the, loan the

*A downward tick would make a sharper angle, but here it is preferable to keep the writing moving forward.

Pitman's New Era: petition the, condition the, station the, action the, caution the
petition the, condition the, station the, action the, caution the

Pitman's New Era: ration the, apportion the, motion the, mention the, fashion the
ration the, apportion the
*, motion the, mention the, fashion the

*A slightly shallower slope gives the upward tick a clearer angle

Medially:

Pitman's New Era: at the end, at the same, at the time*, for the moment*, for the present, with the person
at the end, at the same, at the time
*, for the moment*, for the present, with the person

*See also Phrasing 5/for a moment & at a time

Pitman's New Era: over the years, of the case, in the case of the, of the country, take the matter
over the years, of the case, in the case of the, of the country, take the matter

Pitman's New Era: discuss the matter, out of the way, through the world, throughout the world
discuss the matter, out of the way, through the world, throughout the world

Pitman's New Era: in the east, in the sea, during the course of the, during the next month
in the east, in the sea, during the course of the, during the next month

Pitman's New Era: within the next, we have the most, in the same way, in much the same way
within the next, we have the most, in the same way, in much the same way

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Where the tick cannot be joined, use the dot:

After Loops and Ses Circle:

Pitman's New Era: pays the, poses the, post the, posting the, posts the, plaster the, suggest the
pays the but poses the, post the, posting the, posts the, plaster the, suggest the

Pitman's New Era: miss, but misses the, missed/mist the, mists the, master the, masters the
miss the
but misses the, missed/mist the, mists the, master the, masters the

Pitman's New Era: this is the/this has the/themselves the
But this is the/this has the/themselves the is acceptable due to its frequency.

After NS or NSES circle:

Pitman's New Era: pens the, prints the, trains the, taints the, dance the, dents the, chants the, chains the
pens the, prints the, trains the, taints the, dance the, dents the, chants the, chains the

Pitman's New Era: cleans the, gains the, grinds the, counts the, rinse the, rents/rends the, surrounds the
cleans the, gains the, grinds the, counts the, rinse the, rents/rends the, surrounds the

Pitman's New Era: wins the, wants the, hunts the, dances the, chances the, rinses the, enhances the
wins the, wants the, hunts the, dances the, chances the, rinses the, enhances the

After Circle inside a hook:

Pitman's New Era: paves the, contrives the, drives the, chafes the, craves the, gifts the, serves the, halves the
paves the, contrives the, drives the, chafes the, craves the, gifts the, serves the, halves the

Pitman's New Era: finds the, thins the, shuns the, earns the, loans the, means the, mentions the, positions the
finds the, thins the, shuns the, earns the, loans the, means the, mentions the, positions the

After these hooked strokes, where the angle of the tick could not be maintained and to avoid too much backward movement:

Pitman's New Era: assign the, assigned the, zone the, zoned the, shown the, shined the
assign the, assigned the, zone the, zoned the, shown the, shined the

After a lone halved straight stroke:

Pitman's New Era: pat the, bid the, taught the, did the, cut the, guide the, etched the, edged the
pat the, bid the, taught the, did the, cut the, guide the, etched the, edged the

Compare the following which have another stroke or attachment:

Pitman's New Era: output the, dubbed the, mastered the, needed the, tugged the, tacked the, fetched the
output the, dubbed the, mastered the, needed the, tugged the, tacked the, fetched the, stitched the

Pitman's New Era: applied the, brewed the, treat the, dread the, create the, guard the
applied the, brewed the, treat the, dread the, create the, guard the

Pitman's New Era: achieved the, joined the, wet the, hit the, yet the
achieved the, joined the, wet the, hit the, yet the

Downward Tick The and Tick Hay in the middle of a phrase are identical. Inserting a vowel sign might be helpful, depending on context:

Pitman's New Era: with whom, with the aim, for the men, for human
with whom, with the aim, for the men, for human

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(b) He

Alone or at the beginning of a phrase, use downward Hay:

Pitman's New Era: he is/has, he is/has not, he will be, he should be, he has been
he is/has, he is/has not, he will be, he should be, he has been

Pitman's New Era: he was, he does not, he can, he cannot, he goes
he was, he does not, he can, he cannot, he goes

Pitman's New Era: he came, he makes, he may be, he sometimes
he came, he makes, he may be, he sometimes

In the middle or end of a phrase, use the short sign wherever it joins well. This is a vertical thick dash, the same as the vowel sign. As it is always joined, it has no position of its own:

Pitman's New Era: if he, if he will, if he can, when he is/has, when he can, when he will be
for he, if he will, if he can, when he is/has, when he can, when he will be

Pitman's New Era: I think that he is/has, is he able, as he may, as he would not, because he would, because he was not
I think that he is/has, is he able, as he may, as he would not, because he would, because he was not

If the next outline does not join well, or cannot join, don't phrase it:

Pitman's New Era: if he did, when he knows, that he found, but he, should he, and he
if he did, when he knows, that he found, but he, should he, and he

In pre-New Era shorthand, i.e. Centenary and earlier, the short dash sign for "he" was the only outline for that word, and sat on the line, and you may come across this if you are reading old shorthand.

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"Whatever is true, whatever is noble, whatever is right, whatever is pure, whatever is lovely, whatever is admirable if anything is excellent or praiseworthy think about such things." (Philippians 4:8)

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